Roman Art in Late Antiquity To the glory that was Greece And the grandeur that was Rome. -- Edgar Allen Poe “To Helen” Founding of Rome: 753 B.C. Roman Republic: 509 B.C. ~31 B.C. 1. First Triumvirate: Pompei, Caesar, Carasus: 60 B.C. 2. Second Triumvirate: Antony, Lepidus, Ocavian: 43 B.C. Roman Empire : (Golden Age) 31B.C. ~ A.D. 476 (end of Western Roman Empire) The first Roman emperor: Ocavian under the name of Augustus
Helen, thy beauty is to me Like those Nicean barks of yore, That gently, o'er a perfum'd sea, The weary way-worn wanderer bore To his own native shore. On desperate seas long wont to roam, Thy hyacinth hair, thy classic face, Thy Naiad airs have brought me home To the beauty of fair Greece, And the grandeur of old Rome. Lo ! in that little window-niche How statue-like I see thee stand! The folded scroll within thy hand ? A Psyche from the regions which Are Holy land ! The agate lamp within thy hand, Ah! Psyche, from the region which Are Holy Land Edgar Allen Poe, “To Helen”
Hellenistic Period: Alexander The Great (323BC)- Roman sacked Corinth (146 B.C.)
Roman Expansion in Italy
The Roman Empire at Its Greatest Extent
I. Roman Arts 1. Etruscan Arts 2. Republican Art and architecture 3. Architecture of Early Empire 4. Augustan Sculpture 5. Late Roman Architecture and Sculpture
1. Etruscan Arts Capitoline She-Wolf, c B.C. A bronze of a She-Wolf suckling Romulus and Remus (the mythical founders of Rome) gives an idea of the great skill with which Etruscan artists worked.She-Wolf
"The Etruscans, as everyone knows, were the people who occupied the middle of Italy in early Roman days, and whom the Romans, in their usual neighborly fashion, wiped out entirely." -D.H. Lawrence, Etruscan Places
Reconstruction of an Etruscan temple. [Model of a typical Etruscan temple of the sixth century BC, as described by Vitruvius.] Reconstruction drawing of the Treasury of the Siphnians. Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi. c. 525 BC.
Sarcophagus from Cerveteri, Etruscan sculpture, c. 520 B.C. husband and wife shown in sculpted form on their tomb terra cotta
Apollo of Veii, from the roof of the Portonaccio Temple, Veii, Etruscan, c B.C. Tension of pose, sinister smile
Tomb of Hunting and Fishing in Tarquinia, 6th Century B.C. Love of nature, naturalistic observation
2. Republican Art and Architecture ( B.C.)
Republican Rome Forum Temple
Sanctuary of Fortuna Promigenia, Palestrina 聖堂
1 st Triumbirate: Pompei, Caesar, Crassus
2nd Triumvirate: Anthony, Lipidus, Octavian
3. Architecture of the Early Empire Flavian Amphitheater (The Colosseum), c A.D., Rome.
Reconstruction model of the Colosseum. Colosseum. 圓形競技場
View of the corridor of the Colosseum (Groin vaults) Vault corridor
Diagram of arch
Arch_vault barrel Arch_vault groin_1 Arch_vault groin 2 Diagrams of vault barrel and groin
Forum Model of the Forum of Augustus, late 1st c. B.C.
Basilica Reconstruction of the interior of the Basilica Ulpia.
Pantheom 萬神殿 View of the Exterior of the Pantheon. Reconstruction model of the complex of the Pantheon of Hadrian, A.D. Rome.
Giovanni Pannini, painting of the interior of the Pantheon, c Structural diagram of the Pantheon showing arches built into the walls. dome Corinthian columns
Cross section of the Pantheon.
Water Channel 排水渠道 Pont du Gard (Aqueduct), late 1 st c. B.C., near N?mes, France. Three rows of arches
Triumphant Gate 凱旋門 Arch of Titus, 81 A.D., Rome, constructed by Domitian after the death of Titus.
4. Augustan Sculpture Augustus of Primaporta, 20 B.C. or c. 14 A.D.
Ara Pacis of Augustus, 13-9 B.C. (altar of peace 息靈龕 )
Imperial Procession from the Ara Pacis, 13-9 B.C. Augustus
Details: Imperial Procession from the Ara Pacis, 13-9 B.C.
Aeneas sacrificing, from the Ara Pacis
Tellus Relief (Air, Earth, and Sea personified), from the Ara Pacis.
5. Late Roman Architecture and Sculpture Marble portrait of Constantine, c. 330 A.D.
The Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine (Basilica Nova)
II. Roman Philosophy and Law Epicureanism: moderation and prudence in the pursuit of pleasure Epicurus (341~271 B.C), founder of the Epicurean School Lucretius (99~55 B.C.), On the Nature of Things Stoicism: Becoming virtuous by controlling will and desire Seneca (8 B.C.~ A.D. 65) Epictetus (c.A.D. 50~134) Emperor Marcus Aurelius (A.D. 121~180), Meditation.
III. Roman Literature (Neo-Classicism) 1.Horace: Odes, and Ars Poetica 2.Catullus, lyrics 3.Vergil, The Aeneid (an epic), Geogics, and Eclogues 4.Ovid, Metamorphoses (mythological tales) 5. Livy, Annals of the Roman People (history) 6.Juvenal, Satires
Vergil's Aeneid Publius Vergilius Maro (70 BCE - 19 BCE) The Aeneid by book 1.Arrival in Carthage 2.Fall of Troy 3.Aeneas' wanderingsAeneas' wanderings 4.Love and death of Dido 5.Funeral Games 6.Aeneas goes to Hades 7.Arrival in Italy, war starts with Latins 8.Trip to where Rome will later be; shield 9.Nisus and Euryalus 10.Death of Lausus and Pallas 11.Death of Camilla 12.Death of Turnus
Virgil’s The Aenead
Map of Aeneas’s Journey
Aeneas, Under the Protection of Venus
Book IV Dido in love; Anna Apparent reconciliation between Juno and Venus The hunt and the cave; "Marriage" of Dido and Aeneas Jupiter sends Mercury Aeneas departs Dido's suicide Some themes to consider 1.Creative imitation: How does Vergil make use of his Greek predecessors, especially Homer? 2.Aeneas: What kind of hero is he? 3.Rome: What does Vergil say about Rome' s destiny and her history? 4.Augustus: What does Vergil have to say about Augustus and his role in Roman history? 5.Suffering: How does the suffering that occurs in the poem affect our attitude towards Rome's destiny? 6.Gods: What roles do the gods play in the poem?
Gaius Valerius Catullus ( BC) Roma BORN: c. 85 B.C.E.; Verona, Cisalpine Gaul (now in Italy) DIED: c. 54 B.C.E.; probably Rome (now in Italy) ALSO KNOWN AS: Gaius Valerius Catullus (full name) AREA OF ACHIEVEMENT: Literature
Catullus was born into a wealthy family of Celtic descent in the town of Verona in Cisalpine Gaul. His father was a friend of Julius Caesar, and sent his young son to Rome to learn the ways of the city. He was one of the most versatile of Roman poets, writing love poems, elegies, and satirical epigrams. He moved in the literary and political society of Rome and wrote lyrics describing his unhappy love affair with Clodia, probably the wife of the consul Metellus. His longer poems include two wedding-songs. His work remained virtually unknown during the Middle Ages, until a manuscript of his poems came to light at Verona in the 14th century. Many of his poems, are short verses to the young boys he loved. Some of his verses have a real feeling... A cycle of eight poems (15, 16, 21, 24, 40, 48, 81, 99) concerns a youth, Juventius, which reveals that Catullus was comfortable working within the Hellenistic tradition of poetry in praise of boys.