Roman Art in Late Antiquity To the glory that was Greece And the grandeur that was Rome. -- Edgar Allen Poe “To Helen” Founding of Rome: 753 B.C. Roman Republic: 509 B.C. ~31 B.C. 1. First Triumvirate: Pompei, Caesar, Carasus: 60 B.C. 2. Second Triumvirate: Antony, Lepidus, Ocavian: 43 B.C. Roman Empire : (Golden Age) 31B.C. ~ A.D. 476 (end of Western Roman Empire) The first Roman emperor: Ocavian under the name of Augustus
Helen, thy beauty is to me Like those Nicean barks of yore, That gently, o'er a perfum'd sea, The weary way-worn wanderer bore To his own native shore. On desperate seas long wont to roam, Thy hyacinth hair, thy classic face, Thy Naiad airs have brought me home To the beauty of fair Greece, And the grandeur of old Rome. Lo ! in that little window-niche How statue-like I see thee stand! The folded scroll within thy hand ? A Psyche from the regions which Are Holy land ! The agate lamp within thy hand, Ah! Psyche, from the region which Are Holy Land Edgar Allen Poe, “To Helen”
Hellenistic Period: Alexander The Great (323BC)- Roman sacked Corinth (146 B.C.)
I. Roman Arts 1. Etruscan Arts 2. Republican Art and architecture 3. Architecture of Early Empire 4. Augustan Sculpture 5. Late Roman Architecture and Sculpture
1. Etruscan Arts Capitoline She-Wolf, c. 500-480 B.C. A bronze of a She-Wolf suckling Romulus and Remus (the mythical founders of Rome) gives an idea of the great skill with which Etruscan artists worked.She-Wolf
"The Etruscans, as everyone knows, were the people who occupied the middle of Italy in early Roman days, and whom the Romans, in their usual neighborly fashion, wiped out entirely." -D.H. Lawrence, Etruscan Places
Reconstruction of an Etruscan temple. [Model of a typical Etruscan temple of the sixth century BC, as described by Vitruvius.] Reconstruction drawing of the Treasury of the Siphnians. Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi. c. 525 BC.
II. Roman Philosophy and Law Epicureanism: moderation and prudence in the pursuit of pleasure Epicurus (341~271 B.C), founder of the Epicurean School Lucretius (99~55 B.C.), On the Nature of Things Stoicism: Becoming virtuous by controlling will and desire Seneca (8 B.C.~ A.D. 65) Epictetus (c.A.D. 50~134) Emperor Marcus Aurelius (A.D. 121~180), Meditation.
III. Roman Literature (Neo-Classicism) 1.Horace: Odes, and Ars Poetica 2.Catullus, lyrics 3.Vergil, The Aeneid (an epic), Geogics, and Eclogues 4.Ovid, Metamorphoses (mythological tales) 5. Livy, Annals of the Roman People (history) 6.Juvenal, Satires
Vergil's Aeneid Publius Vergilius Maro (70 BCE - 19 BCE) The Aeneid by book 1.Arrival in Carthage 2.Fall of Troy 3.Aeneas' wanderingsAeneas' wanderings 4.Love and death of Dido 5.Funeral Games 6.Aeneas goes to Hades 7.Arrival in Italy, war starts with Latins 8.Trip to where Rome will later be; shield 9.Nisus and Euryalus 10.Death of Lausus and Pallas 11.Death of Camilla 12.Death of Turnus
Book IV Dido in love; Anna Apparent reconciliation between Juno and Venus The hunt and the cave; "Marriage" of Dido and Aeneas Jupiter sends Mercury Aeneas departs Dido's suicide Some themes to consider 1.Creative imitation: How does Vergil make use of his Greek predecessors, especially Homer? 2.Aeneas: What kind of hero is he? 3.Rome: What does Vergil say about Rome' s destiny and her history? 4.Augustus: What does Vergil have to say about Augustus and his role in Roman history? 5.Suffering: How does the suffering that occurs in the poem affect our attitude towards Rome's destiny? 6.Gods: What roles do the gods play in the poem?
Gaius Valerius Catullus (84 - 54 BC) Roma BORN: c. 85 B.C.E.; Verona, Cisalpine Gaul (now in Italy) DIED: c. 54 B.C.E.; probably Rome (now in Italy) ALSO KNOWN AS: Gaius Valerius Catullus (full name) AREA OF ACHIEVEMENT: Literature
Catullus was born into a wealthy family of Celtic descent in the town of Verona in Cisalpine Gaul. His father was a friend of Julius Caesar, and sent his young son to Rome to learn the ways of the city. He was one of the most versatile of Roman poets, writing love poems, elegies, and satirical epigrams. He moved in the literary and political society of Rome and wrote lyrics describing his unhappy love affair with Clodia, probably the wife of the consul Metellus. His longer poems include two wedding-songs. His work remained virtually unknown during the Middle Ages, until a manuscript of his poems came to light at Verona in the 14th century. Many of his poems, are short verses to the young boys he loved. Some of his verses have a real feeling... A cycle of eight poems (15, 16, 21, 24, 40, 48, 81, 99) concerns a youth, Juventius, which reveals that Catullus was comfortable working within the Hellenistic tradition of poetry in praise of boys.