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Pyramids on the Nile Chapter 2 Section 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Pyramids on the Nile Chapter 2 Section 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pyramids on the Nile Chapter 2 Section 2

2 Land of Egypt

3 Importance of Geography
Nile floods created plentiful harvests (predictable) Nile acted as unifying factor (N/S) Desert was a natural barrier

4 The River Nile

5 Egypt’s Historical Background I. Archaic Period
Unification of Upper & Lower Egypt in 3100 BCE by King Menes First dynasty was founded

6 Crown of upper and lower Egypt
Crown of upper Egypt Crown of upper and lower Egypt Crown of Lower Egypt

7 Hieroglyphics were introduced about 3000 BC

8 Rosetta Stone Hieroglyphics Demotic Ancient Greek
Interpreted by Jean Francois Champollion in mid-19th century (20+ years)


10 Egyptian Hieroglyphics


12 Papyrus

13 Old Kingdom BCE Time of prosperity & splendor Founded by Zoser - 3rd dynasty “Age of the Pyramids” Time when pharaoh’s power became absolute & divine

14 Step Pyramid of Zoser at Sakkara

15 Role of Pyramids Represented royal authority
Monumental architecture Tomb for mummified body of the rulers

16 The Afterlife and Ka Ka (soul of the body?) could live on after death but must be provided for with all the things necessary for life…

17 Khufu’s pyramid aka “Great Pyramid”

18 Giza


20 Pyramid comparison

21 Rooms stocked with supplies for the next life….
Pyramids Rooms stocked with supplies for the next life…. Chairs Dishes Boats Food Games Clothing Weapons Chariots

22 Howard Carter

23 Tut’s Tomb







30 Vulture collar from Tut’s tomb
Vulture Collar from the tomb of Tutankhamen

31 Collapse of the Old Kingdom
Too much investment in pyramid building Series of poor harvests Nobles usurped power

32 First Intermediate Period
Time of anarchy & chaos No central authority/feudal Desert tribes invaded 11th Dynasty restored order in 2050 BCE

33 Pharaoh ruled as a god (Theocratic government)
Head of religion, government & army… Full responsibility for prosperity Caused rain to fall, sun to rise Nile to flood , crops to grow

34 Main Gods Re - the sun god Amen - the god of Thebes
Osiris - judge of the dead Egyptians hoped for life after death

35 Osiris Judge of the Dead
Personified the growth of vegetation & life-giving force of the Nile Weighed hearts of the dead

36 Triumph of Good over Evil The Cult of Osiris * Hyperlink
Paternal qualities of Osiris appealed to emotions Promised immortality to those who led moral lives

37 Isis Wife of Osiris A popular motif was her sitting and nursing her son Horus

38 Isis Love, magic, motherhood, children, medicine and peace were her human realms

39 Anubis Jackal head God of embalming

40 Dehydrated burial site (prior to mummification of corpses)
British Museum


42 Step 1:Washing the body & anointing with oils

43 Step 2:Removal of organs

44 Step 3: drying body with salts

45 Step 4: Body cavity stuffed with linens and other fibers

46 Step 5: rewashing after 70 days

47 Body preserved for eternity
People of all classes planned for their burials Tombs filled with all that would be needed in afterlife British Museum


49 Represented the four sons of Horus
Canopic jars Represented the four sons of Horus Vital organs were put inside


51 Chest holding canopic jars

52 Brain Probe The brain was thought to be useless, a producer of mucus. It was liquefied and removed through the nostrils. Probe from The British Museum





57 Mummified Remains of King Tut’s Granny…
Queen Tiy, wife of Amenhotep III

58 Cat Mummy

59 The Middle Kingdom 2050-1652 BC More socially responsible
Swamps drained Canals dug Pharaoh allied with middle classes Classical or Golden Age

60 Middle Kingdom…continued
Expansion into Palestine & Syria…followed by weak rulers Religion democratized Cult of Osiris gains momentum Idea of personal salvation Cult of Osiris lent the idea of personal salvation to everyone…not just pharaoh and the royal family.

61 Second Intermediate Period ends the Middle Kingdom, 1640 BC
Takeover by Hyksos, nomads from Western Asia Secret weapons: the chariot & bronze Adopted by Egyptians

62 Hyksos driven out after 70 years!
Warlike rulers restored Egypt’s power & built an empire Queen Ahhotep Pharaoh Kamose

63 The New Kingdom 1560-1075 BC “Third Period of Glory”
Mighty military machine was source of pharaoh’s power Professional army Power of nobles reduced

64 Map of Egypt

65 New Kingdom Ruled by the 18th, 19th and 20th Dynasties
Thebes (in the south) was capital

66 New Kingdom pursued aggressive imperial policies in the Fertile Crescent

67 New Kingdom VIPs Hatshepsut – first woman ruler
Thutmose III - expansionist Amenhotep IV - monotheist Tutankhamun – boy king Ramses II “The Great” – builder, peace-maker, Moses, 19th dynasty

68 Hatshepsut 1472-1458 BC From Deir el-Bahri, western Thebes
Indurated limestone; H. 76 3/4 in. (195 cm) Rogers Fund, 1929 (29.3.2) Metropolitan Museum NY

69 Hatshepsut Declared herself pharaoh ~1472 BC Encouraged trade not war

70 Hatshepsut’s tomb* *Queen Hatshepsut may have been killed by her stepson Thutmose III. He was very war-like and took over Palestine & Syria and even south to Nubia. Thutmose III defaced nearly all of his stepmother’s monuments in an attempt to eliminate all traces of her reign.

71 Amenotep IV aka Akhenaten sandstone bust 1375 BC Musee du Louvre, Paris

72 Akhenaten: religious revolution & monotheism
Elevated the cult of the sun disc, Aten Monotheism opposed by priest/people Moved capital to Akhenaten in middle Egypt The cult of the Aten     The tenth king of the 18th Dynasty was perhaps the most controversial because of his break with traditional religion. Some say that he was the most remarkable king to sit upon Egypt’s throne.  There can be little doubt that the new king was far more of a thinker and philosopher than his forebears.  Akhenaten was traditionally raised by his parents, Amenhotep III and Queen Tiy ( B.C.) by worshipping Amen. Akhenaten, however, preferred Aten, the sun god that was worshipped in earlier times.  Amenhotep III had recognized the growing power of the priesthood of Amun and had sought to curb it; his son was to take the matter a lot further by introducing a new monotheistic cult of sun-worship that was incarnate in the sun's disc, the Aten.  When early in his reign he changed his name to Akhenaten, meaning “He Who is of Service to Aten”, he also renamed his queen to Nefer-Nefru-Aten, which is “Beautiful is the Beauty of Aten.” 

73 Nefertiti wife of Akhenaten Daughter of the vizier State Museum, Berlin

74 Akhenaten & Family Akhenaten & Family

75 Akhenaten

76 New Kingdom: King Tut’s solid gold inner coffin

77 King Tutankhamen Probably the son of Akhenaten
Died at age 18 Succeeded by Nefertiti’s father, Ay Restored the old gods / capital

78 Temple reconstruction from the New Kingdom

79 Temple at Luxor near Thebes: Testament to great builders

80 Ramses II ruler of Egypt r.(1290-1224 BC) First Ruler of 19th Dynasty
(Houston Museum of Fine Arts)

81 Ramses II with war captives
Last great pharaoh

82 Egyptian QUEEN: One of Ramses II’s 200 wives & concubines

83 Temple of Ramses II at Abu Simbel
Died aged 99 150 children



86 Ramses Abu Simbel

87 Moving Ramses’ face during construction of the Aswan Dam on the Nile
National Geographic Society

88 Egyptian Economy Agriculture mainly… Wheat, barley, flax
Raised sheep & cattle Glassware & metalworking Weaving & Pottery Luxury goods for the wealthy

89 Plowing (ceramic from tombs)

90 Egyptian flat bread found in tomb

91 Egyptian Pottery

92 Painted Pottery flask from 1500 BCE (ibex)

93 Egyptian Glass: cosmetics container
For kohl (eyeliner) Example of a luxury item The Egyptians were the first to produce glass

94 Henna Used for Mehandi and as hair dye

95 Razor Shaved heads were common for males & females

96 Empire Fades After 1200 BCE People of the Sea caused destruction
Palestine rebelled Libyans invaded Ruled BCE

97 Piankhi of Kush took control in 751 BCE
Unified Nile from Napata to the delta Established 25th dynasty Reigns for 80 years Overthrown by Assyrians Royalty flees to Meroe

98 Meroe, 670 BC – AD 350 Center of culture Trade links w/ India & Arabia
Golden age for Kushites Trade links w/ India & Arabia Overthrown by Kingdom of Aksum

99 Greek Rule begins 330 BC 323 BC to 30BC ruled by Ptolemy family Egypt’s authority, wealth & independence remained intact Cleopatra VII was the last ruler before takeover by Rome

100 Elizabeth Taylor as Cleopatra VII

101 Contributions to Civilization
Architecture & Engineering Art Hieroglyphics Solar calendar based on 365 days per year introduced in 4200 BCE

102 The End

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