59The Middle Kingdom 2050-1652 BC More socially responsible Swamps drainedCanals dugPharaoh allied with middle classesClassical or Golden Age
60Middle Kingdom…continued Expansion into Palestine & Syria…followed by weak rulersReligion democratizedCult of Osiris gains momentumIdea of personal salvationCult of Osiris lent the idea of personal salvation to everyone…not just pharaoh and the royal family.
61Second Intermediate Period ends the Middle Kingdom, 1640 BC Takeover by Hyksos, nomads from Western AsiaSecret weapons: the chariot & bronzeAdopted by Egyptians
62Hyksos driven out after 70 years! Warlike rulers restored Egypt’s power & built an empireQueen AhhotepPharaoh Kamose
63The New Kingdom 1560-1075 BC “Third Period of Glory” Mighty military machine was source of pharaoh’s powerProfessional armyPower of nobles reduced
65New Kingdom Ruled by the 18th, 19th and 20th Dynasties Thebes (in the south) was capital
66New Kingdom pursued aggressive imperial policies in the Fertile Crescent
67New Kingdom VIPs Hatshepsut – first woman ruler Thutmose III - expansionistAmenhotep IV - monotheistTutankhamun – boy kingRamses II “The Great” – builder, peace-maker, Moses, 19th dynasty
68Hatshepsut 1472-1458 BC From Deir el-Bahri, western Thebes Indurated limestone; H. 76 3/4 in. (195 cm)Rogers Fund, 1929 (29.3.2)Metropolitan Museum NY
69HatshepsutDeclared herself pharaoh ~1472 BCEncouraged trade not war
70Hatshepsut’s tomb**Queen Hatshepsut may have been killed by her stepson Thutmose III. He was very war-like and took over Palestine & Syria and even south to Nubia. Thutmose III defaced nearly all of his stepmother’s monuments in an attempt to eliminate all traces of her reign.
71Amenotep IV aka Akhenaten sandstone bust 1375 BC Musee du Louvre, Paris
72Akhenaten: religious revolution & monotheism Elevated the cult of the sun disc, AtenMonotheism opposed by priest/peopleMoved capital to Akhenaten in middle EgyptThe cult of the Aten The tenth king of the 18th Dynasty was perhaps the most controversial because of his break with traditional religion. Some say that he was the most remarkable king to sit upon Egypt’s throne. There can be little doubt that the new king was far more of a thinker and philosopher than his forebears. Akhenaten was traditionally raised by his parents, Amenhotep III and Queen Tiy ( B.C.) by worshipping Amen. Akhenaten, however, preferred Aten, the sun god that was worshipped in earlier times. Amenhotep III had recognized the growing power of the priesthood of Amun and had sought to curb it; his son was to take the matter a lot further by introducing a new monotheistic cult of sun-worship that was incarnate in the sun's disc, the Aten. When early in his reign he changed his name to Akhenaten, meaning “He Who is of Service to Aten”, he also renamed his queen to Nefer-Nefru-Aten, which is “Beautiful is the Beauty of Aten.”
73Nefertiti wife of Akhenaten Daughter of the vizier State Museum, Berlin