Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Section 4 The Unification of China Zhou Dynasty lasted from 1027 to 256 B.C. Ended because the lords of dependent territories thought of themselves."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 4 Section 4 The Unification of China Zhou Dynasty lasted from 1027 to 256 B.C. Ended because the lords of dependent territories thought of themselves as independent kings Continuous fighting lead to the “warring states period” Xia (shyah) Dynasty 2000 b.c. Shang (shawng) Dynasty 1700 – 1027 b.c.
Confucius and the Social Order Scholars and Philosophers tried to restore the lost values: social order, harmony and respect for authority.
Confucius Urges Harmony 551 B.C. Wanted to restore order to the chaos that China had become Order could be restored if society was based around five basic relationships 1. Ruler and subject 2. Father and son 3. Husband and wife 4. Older brother and younger brother 5. Friend and friend
Confucius Urges Harmony Cont. Children should practice filial piety, respect for parents and ancestors Confucius wanted to show rulers how to govern wisely. Duke of Lu appointed him minister of justice. He will later resign and teach Read page 105 The Analects were written. This is a collection of his words.
Confucian Ideas about Government Education could transform a humbly born person into a gentleman. This belief led to the beginning of bureaucracy. Trained civil service, or those who run the government. Education was important to advance in bureaucracy.
Confucian Ideas about Government Cont.d’ Confucianism was never a religion but an ethical system of what is right or wrong. Foundation of Chinese government and social order
Other Ethical Systems Different philosophies Importance of Nature Power of Government Daoists Seek Harmony Laozi (low dzuh) Natural order (relations between all living things) is what is important Believed Dao, “the Way”, guides all things A stone sculpture of Laozi, located north of Quanzhou at the foot of Mount Qingyuan
Daoists Seek Harmony Cont.d’ Only humans fail to follow the Dao Read pg 106 Laozi’s philosophy became known as Daoism Daoists science contributions: alchemy, astronomy, and medicine.
Legalists Urge Harsh Rule Legalists are practical political thinkers Believed restoring order needed an efficient and powerful government Government was key to restoring order Hanfeizi and Li Si were two of the founders Rulers should reward people who do well, disobedient punished harshly Control ideas and actions. Burn anything that might encourage people to criticize government
I Ching and Yin and Yang People who didn’t follow philosophy looked elsewhere for life’s answers Some used a book called I Ching to solve ethical or practical problems Threw a set of coins, interpreted the results, read the appropriate oracle (prediction)
I Ching and Yin and Yang Continued Others used the concept of yin and yang Two powers that together represented the natural rhythm of life Both helped people see how they fit into the world
The Qin (chinh) Dynasty Unifies China Qin replaces Zhou Used Legalist ideas
A New Emperor takes Control Shi Huangdi “First Emperor” Stopped internal battles Defeated invaders Doubled China’s size Determined to unify China
A New Emperor takes Control Cont.d’ Crushed political opposition at home A new policy called “strengthening the trunk and weakening the branches” enacted What was this?
A New Emperor takes Control Cont.d’ Murdered Confucius scholars to prevent criticism, burned “useless” books Autocracy established Government that has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary manner
A Program of Centralization Built highway networks Set standards for writing, law, currency, weights and measures, cart axles Irrigation increased farm production Trade grew, merchants became prominent Harsh taxes and repressive government made Qin regime unpopular
Great Wall of China
Scholars hated Shi Huangdi for burning books Poor people hated him for forced labor: work on the wall or die
Great Wall of China Cont.d’ Were they in danger from invaders? Some scholars believe China was not in danger. They suggest that Shi Huangdi knew that without employment the soldiers in his large army might cause trouble. Building the Great Wall kept them busy. It prevented foreign invasions until Genghis Kahn punched his way through 14 centuries later.
Do Not Write Shi Huangdi’s Quest for Immorality After barely escaping three attempts on his life, the First Emperor launched a quest for immortality. He summoned magicians to his palace, hoping they could give him an elixir. He scoured the land for the eight immortals who were said to know the secret of eternal life. He avoided the public and moved secretly through tunnels connecting his palaces. Finally, he had several thousand life-sized terra-cotta soldiers and horses built and buried to protect him after death.
The Shaanxi province gained worldwide attention in March 1974, when local farmers uncovered what would become one of the great archaeological finds of the 20th century while drilling for a water well. 8,099 life-size terracotta figures of warriors and horses were buried in a tomb that was built over two thousand years ago to protect its occupant, Qin Shi Huangdi, Emperor of Qin. In addition to the warriors, an entire man-made necropolis (cemetery) was excavated by hand for the emperor. Construction of this mausoleum began in 246 BC and is believed to have taken 700,000 workers and craftsmen 38 years to complete. The emperor was buried near the 350 square meter earthen pyramid seen behind the warriors. But Qin Shi Huangdi's tomb has remained unopened until this day. Excavators are still searching for a way to completely seal off the area around the tomb to prevent corrosion from exposure to the outside air.
The first emperor of imperial China was Shihuangdi [ BC], known the world round for his lavish necropolis containing an army made of 7,000 soldiers modeled of terracotta clay. Under excavation since 1974, the site of Shihuangdi's tomb holds three pits containing life-sized models of individuals including infantry to commanders, charioteers and horses and chariots. The following photographs were taken during the summer of 2005 by Amy Hirst, who has given her permission to post them here. Emperor Qin's Terra Cotta Army, in a storage facility awaiting conservation, and looking like businessmen at an airport
Each of the pits discovered at Shihuangdi's tomb were excavated by the emperor's workers, who first placed a brick floor, and then built a sequence of rammed earth partitions and tunnels. The floors of the tunnels were covered with mats, the life-sized statuary was placed erect on the mats and the tunnels were covered with logs. Finally each pit was buried. In the largest pit (14,000 square meters), the infantry was placed in rows four deep. An overview of the excavated portion of Emperor Shi Huangdi's tomb, Qin Dynasty, China; the soldiers have been repaired and set in their original positions
The U-shaped Pit 2 was constructed in a similar fashion to Pit 1, with rammed earth partitions and brick floor tunnels. It was far smaller than Pit 1 (only 6000 square meters), and contains an array of chariots, cavalry and horses. Note the brick floor apparent in this display of soldiers. Arrayed soldiers, Pit 2 of Emperor Qin's terracotta army
The terracotta statues of the infantry soldiers range between 5 foot 8 inches and 6 foot 2 inches; the commanders are all approximately 6 and half feet tall. The lower half of the kiln-fired ceramic bodies were made of solid terracotta clay, the upper half were hollow. In this close up of a group of infantry, you can see the remnants of the vivid paint called Chinese Purple that once decorated each statue. Pit 1, Emperor Qin's Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum
Each of the soldier's faces is that of an individual. This seasoned warrior's face is slightly turned to the left, with a cool confident demeanor, a square jaw and a topknot or cockade Close up of soldier in Emperor Qin's terra cotta army, Qin Dynasty, China
Excavators estimate that Emperor Shihuangdi's tomb held 130 wooden chariots, although remnants of only 21 have been found to date. The chariot for this charioteer and his horses has rotted away. Life sized terra cotta chariot driver and horse, Qin dynasty, China
Despite over 40 years of archaeological investigations, much of Emperor Shihuangdi’s terracotta army remains unexcavated. Over 1,000 soldiers have been brought to light to date; archaeologists estimate there are over 7,000 total. An unexcavated portion of Emperor Qin's terracotta army.
In this last photograph, you can see parts of the rotten wood log covering over the tunnels which still contain more of the Emperor Qin's terracotta army. Unexcavated portion of the Emperor Shihuangdi's terracotta army; the form of the logs covering the tunnels is visible in this photograph
The Fall of the Qin Dynasty lasted a short time By 202 B.C. Han dynasty takes over