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The Tomb of the Unknowns (also known as the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, although it has never been officially named) is a monument dedicated.

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Presentation on theme: "The Tomb of the Unknowns (also known as the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, although it has never been officially named) is a monument dedicated."— Presentation transcript:

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7 The Tomb of the Unknowns (also known as the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, although it has never been officially named) is a monument dedicated to American service members who have died without their remains being identified. It is located in Arlington National Cemetery in the United States. The World War I Unknown is below the marble sarcophagus. Other Unknowns are beneath the white slabs on the ground (World War II, right; Korean War, left). A Vietnam War Unknown was under the middle slab until 1998, when he was identified. His remains were positively identified in 1998 through DNA testing as First Lieutenant Michael Blassie, United States Air Force and were removed. Inscribed on the western panel of the Tomb are the words: HERE RESTS IN HONORED GLORY AN AMERICAN SOLDIER KNOWN BUT TO GOD

8 The Changing of the Guard The Changing of the Guard

9 Arlington National Cemetery Arlington National Cemetery Arlington National Cemetery is a military cemetery established during the American Civil War on the grounds of Arlington House, formerly the estate of the family of Confederate general Robert E. Lee's wife Mary Anna (Custis). The cemetery is situated directly across the Potomac River from the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C..

10 In an area of 624 acres, veterans and military casualties from each of the nation's wars are interred in the cemetery, ranging from the American Civil War through to the military actions in Afghanistan and Iraq. Pre-Civil War dead were reinterred after 1900.

11 Eternal flame and marker at the grave of John F. Kennedy, 35th president of the United States, as it appeared prior to the parallel interment of his widow, Jacqueline Kennedy, upon her death. Arlington House

12 The Arc de Triomphe, one of the major landmarks in Paris, was inspired by the Arch of Constantine in Rome. It is the national war memorial of France.

13 Commissioned in 1806 by Napoleon, shortly after his victory at Austerlitz, the Arc de Triomphe was not finished until 1836. Napoléon, the French emperor who conquered most of Europe at the beginning of the 19th century, admired the Roman people. In 1806, following their example, he decided to build a very big arch of triumph which stands at the top of the Champs Elysées.

14 There are twelve avenues radiating from the Arc de Triomphe. Napoleon’s victorious troops would march on through the arch cheered by the population of Paris. This never happened thanks to General Wellington who defeated Napoléon at Waterloo in 1815.

15 Beneath the Arch is the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, and eternal flame commemorating the dead of the two world wars. Here every Armistice Day (11 November) the President of the Republic lays a wreath. On 14 July - the French National Day (refered to as Bastille Day everywhere except in France) - a military parade down the Champs Elysées begins here.

16 For important occasions of state, and national holidays, a huge French tricolor is unfurled and hung from the vaulted ceiling inside of the Arch.

17 La Marseillaise by François Rude; One of four reliefs on the pillars of the Arch. The day the Battle of Verdun started in 1916, the sword carried by the figure representing the Republic broke off. The relief was immediately hidden to conceal the accident and avoid any undesired associations or interpretations as a bad omen. La Marseillaise is more commonly known as the French national anthem.

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19 TOWER BASICS Years Built: 1887-1889 for 1889 Universal Exhibition and Centennial of the French Revolution Architect : Stephen Sauvestre Contractor : Gustave Eiffel Number of Steel Workers: 300 Number of Workers Killed during Construction: 1

20 Height: 300.51 meters (986 feet) (+/- 15 cm depending on temperature) Height including television antenna: 320.755 meters (1052 feet) Weight: 7,000 tons (1,000 tons removed during 1990's renovation) Base: 412 feet square, although also noted as about 2.5 acres) Paint: 50 tons every 7 years Paint Color: Dark Brown

21 Steps walkable by visitors (Ground to 2nd floor): 704 Year lighting added contributing to Paris' reputation as "City of Lights": Maximum sway in wind: 12 cm Tallest Structure in the World: 1889-1930 (until Chrysler Building) 2nd Tallest Structure in the World: 1930-1932 (Until Empire State Bldg) Visibility on a clear day: 67 kilometers (42 miles)

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23 Started in 1173, the Leaning Tower of Pisa in Pisa, Italy, is an example of Romanesque architecture. The leaning structure is actually the campanile (Italian for “belfry” or “belltower”) of the cathedral of Pisa.

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25 The tiers of open colonnades (series of columns) throughout the group are characteristic of the Romanesque style of architecture, which preceded the Gothic style in western Europe. The campanile began leaning during construction due to the settling of the foundation. This group of buildings, built from 1053 to 1272 at Pisa, in Italy, includes the Leaning Tower; a cathedral; and a baptistery.

26 Italian physicist Galileo conducted his famous experiments with gravity and the relative speed of falling objects from the top story of the tower.

27 The Taj Mahal, a mausoleum in Agra, India, regarded as one of the most beautiful buildings in the world. The Mughal emperor Shah Jahan had it built in memory of his wife

28 On a hill overlooking Granada, Spain, the Alhambra—a sprawling palace-citadel that comprised royal residential quarters, court complexes flanked by official chambers, a bath, and a mosque—was begun in the thirteenth century and was continued by his successors in the fourteenth century. Its most celebrated portions—a series of courtyards surrounded by rooms—present a varied repertoire of Moorish arched, columnar, and domical forms.

29 The romantic imagination of centuries of visitors has been captivated by the special combination of the slender columnar arcades, fountains, and light- reflecting water basins found in those courtyards—the Lion Court in particular; this combination is understood from inscriptions to be a physical realization of descriptions of Paradise in Islamic poetry.

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35 St. Basil’s Cathedral in Moscow, Russia was built by Ivan the Terrible between 1555 and 1561. According to legends, the builder of this Cathedral was blinded so that such a beautiful structure could never be built again. It is vividly colorful and contains redbrick towers that add to its beauty. It’s design consists of nine chapels, each mounted with its individual dome. The Cathedral provides a strong religious symbolism and is based on architectural designs found in New Jerusalem.

36 http://famouswonders.com/ Eight of the domes make a circular form around the ninth dome, forming a star. The number eight is considered an auspicious number according to Jewish calendar. There is a deep contrast between the interior and the exterior of the Cathedral. The interior contains modest decorations and is not that spectacular. The corridors inside are narrow and don’t have adequate space for worshippers seating.

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38 The Sydney Opera House is a multi-venue performing arts centre in the Australian city of Sydney. It was conceived and largely built by Danish architect Jørn Utzon, who received the Pritzker Prize, architecture's highest honour, in 2003. According to legend, the Utzon design was rescued from a final cut of 30 "rejects" by the noted Finnish architect Eero Saarinen (Gateway Arch).

39 The building got under way in 1954, but Utzon resigned in 1966 because of controversy regarding cost and disagreements over interior design. The Opera House was formally opened by Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, on 20 October 1973. The architect, Jørn Utzon, was not invited to the ceremony, nor was his name mentioned. The opening was televised and included fireworks and a performance of Beethoven's Symphony No. 9. Beginning in the late 1990s, the Sydney Opera House Trust began to communicate with Jørn Utzon in an attempt to effect a reconciliation and to secure his involvement in future changes to the building. In 1999, he was appointed as a design consultant for future work. In 2004, the first interior space was opened, and renamed "The Utzon Room" in his honor. Utzon died on 29 November 2008.

40 His best-known work is Liberty Enlightening the World erected on Bedloe's Island, New York Bay, and dedicated in 1886. Gustave Eiffel engineered the internal structure.

41 Liberty Island, c.10 acres, formerly Bedloe's Island (renamed in 1956), was the former site of a quarantine station and harbor fortifications. The statue was proposed in 1865 to commemorate the alliance of France with the American colonies during the American Revolution. The statue was designed by the French sculptor F. A. Bartholdi in the form of a woman with an uplifted arm holding a torch.

42 The statue, 152 ft (46 m) high, was constructed of copper sheets, using Bartholdi's 9-ft (2.7-m) model. It was shipped to New York City in 1885, assembled, and dedicated in 1886. The base of the statue is an 11-pointed star, part of old Fort Wood; a 150-ft (45-m) pedestal is made of concrete faced with granite. On it is inscribed "The New Colossus,” the famous sonnet of Emma Lazarus, welcoming immigrants to the United States. An elevator runs to the top of the pedestal, and steps within the statue lead to the crown. These were refurbished along with the rest of the statute for its centennial celebration in 1986. The Statue of Liberty became a national monument in 1924. In 1965, Ellis Island, the entrance point of millions of immigrants to the United States, was added to the monument.

43 The Gateway Arch, or Gateway to the West, is an arch that is the center- piece of the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial in St. Louis, Missouri. It was built as a monument to the westward expansion of the United States. At 630 feet, it is the tallest man-made monument in the United States. Located on the west bank of the Mississippi River where the city of St. Louis was founded, the arch was designed by Finnish American architect Eero Saarinen.

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45 Mount Rushmore National Memorial is a sculpture carved into the granite face of Mount Rushmore near Keystone, South Dakota, in the United States. Sculpted by Gutzon Borglum and later by his son Lincoln Borglum, Mount Rushmore features 60-foot sculptures of the heads of former United States presidents (in order from left to right) George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt and Abraham Lincoln.

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47 The Vietnam Veterans Memorial is a national memorial in Washington, D.C. It honors U.S. service members of the U.S. armed forces who fought in the Vietnam War, service members who died in service in Vietnam/South East Asia, and those service members who were unaccounted for (Missing In Action) during the War. Its construction and related issues have been the source of controversies, some of which have resulted in additions to the memorial complex. The memorial currently consists of three separate parts: the Three Soldiers statue, the Vietnam Women's Memorial, and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall, which is the best-known part of the memorial. It was designed by U.S. architect Maya Lin and receives around 3 million visitors each year.

48 The statue depicts three soldiers, purposefully identifiable as White American, African American, and Hispanic American. The statue and the Wall appear to interact with each other, with the soldiers looking on in solemn tribute at the names of their fallen comrades. It was dedicated to the women of the United States who served in the Vietnam War, most of whom were nurses. The woman looking up is named Hope, the woman praying is named Faith, and the woman tending to a wounded soldier is named Charity.

49 The Memorial Wall, designed by Maya Lin, is made up of two walls 246 feet 9 inches long. The walls are sunk into the ground, with the earth behind them. At the highest tip (the apex where they meet), they are 10.1 feet high, and they taper to a height of eight inches at their extremities. Stone for the wall came was deliberately chosen because of its reflective quality. When a visitor looks upon the wall, his or her reflection can be seen simultaneously with the engraved names, which is meant to symbolically bring the past and present together. Each wall has 72 panels, 70 listing names and 2 very small blank panels at the extremities. As of June 2010, there are 58,267 names. There is a pathway along the base of the Wall, where visitors may walk, read the names, make a pencil rubbing of a particular name, or pray.

50 The Louvre Pyramid is a large glass and metal pyramid, surrounded by three smaller pyramids, in the main courtyard of the Louvre Palace in Paris designed by Chinese American architect I. M. Pei. The large pyramid serves as the main entrance to the Louvre Museum. Completed in 1989, it has become a landmark of the city of Paris.

51 The pyramid and the underground lobby beneath it were created because of a series of problems with the Louvre's original main entrance, which could no longer handle an enormous number of visitors on an everyday basis. Visitors entering through the pyramid descend into the spacious lobby then re-ascend into the main Louvre buildings. Several other museums have since duplicated this concept. I. M. Pei, is a Chinese American architect, often called a master of modern architecture.


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