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CHINA and ROME Empires of the East and the West. Imperial Rome and Han China.

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Presentation on theme: "CHINA and ROME Empires of the East and the West. Imperial Rome and Han China."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHINA and ROME Empires of the East and the West

2 Imperial Rome and Han China

3 Pre- Empire States j CHINA  Shang Dynasty c.1750 bce-1100 bce  introduction of writing  Zhou Dynasty c.1100 bce- 221 bce  establishment of Confucianism and Taoism  Qin (Chin) Dynasty 221 bce-206 bce  first unified Chinese states  origin of name of China E ROME Etruscan Civilization c.700 bce-509 bce Legendary Roman kings 753 bce-509 bce patricians: aristocrats and professionals plebians: farmers, craftsmen, laborers patronage system Roman Republic 509 bce -27 bce

4 Qin (Chin) Dynasty 221 bce -206 bce  First unified the country by subjugating the Warring States  Established central bureaucracy  Legalism supplanted Confucianism: scholars persecuted and books burned  Standardized writing, currency, weights and measures Qin Shihuangdi

5 Qin Building Projects  Used forced labor of convicts  Roads and canals  Palaces  Connected fortification walls to build 5000 kilometer Great Wall

6 Mausoleum of Qin Emperor ShiHuangdi (First Emperor)  Qin ShiHuangdi’s Mausoleum was discovered in 1974 by farmers digging a well.  The 13 year-old emperor had ordered 800,000 workers to build his tomb.  Terra Cotta Army  Rebellions broke out after Emperor’s death in 210 bce: dynasty overthrown after only 15 years of rule

7 Pre- Empire States j CHINA  Shang Dynasty c.1750 bce-1100 bce  introduction of writing  Zhou Dynasty c.1100 bce- 221 bce  establishment of Confucianism and Taoism  Qin (Chin) Dynasty 221 bce-206 bce  first unified Chinese states  origin of name of China E ROME Etruscan Civilization c.700 bce-509 bce Etruscan Civilization c.700 bce-509 bce Legendary Roman kings 753 bce-509 bce Legendary Roman kings 753 bce-509 bce patricians: aristocrats and professionals patricians: aristocrats and professionals plebians: farmers, craftsmen, laborers plebians: farmers, craftsmen, laborers patronage system patronage system Roman Republic 509 bce -27 bce Roman Republic 509 bce -27 bce

8 The Italian Peninsula Pre- Roman Domination 800-600 bce

9 Italy: Ethno-Linguistic Distribution 6 th c. bce

10 Etruscan Civilization, 8th-5th c. bce  Etruscans may have migrated to Italy from Anatolia (Turkey)  Thriving cities with paved streets, defensive walls and large temples  Skillful bronze, iron and gold work  Challenged by Greeks from sea and by Celts from Gaul (France)

11 Etruscan Chimera

12 Etruscan Divination Early divination equipment: a guide to reading the liver

13  Family tombs with stone vaults covered by earth  Murals with scenes from everyday life: hunting, fishing, feasting, dancing, religious ceremonies  Joyful scenes in early tombs give way to gloomy violent scenes as Etruscans lost power to the Romans (4th-2nd Century bce) Etruscan Necropolis

14 Etruscan joie de vivre

15 From the tomb of the Lionesses, Tarquinia. From the tomb of the Triclinium, Tarquinia


17 Liberated Etruscan Women  “Etruscan women take particular care of their bodies and exercise often, sometimes along with the men, and sometimes by themselves. It is not a disgrace for them to be seen naked. They do not share their couches with their husbands but with the other men who happen to be present, and they propose toasts to anyone they choose. They are expert drinkers and very attractive. The Etruscans raise all the children that are born, without knowing who their fathers are.” Theopompus of Chios, 4th cent. BCE

18 "Sarcophagus of the Spouses" Cerveteri (Banditaccia necropolis) Circa 520-510 bce Polychrome terra cotta: The Louvre "Sarcophagus of the Spouses" Cerveteri (Banditaccia necropolis) Circa 520-510 bce Polychrome terra cotta: the Villa Giulia museum in Rome.

19 "Canopus" Second half of the 6th century bce Terra cotta: The Louvre

20 Roman Kingdom: Regnum Romanum 753-510 bce  In Roman legend, the Trojan hero Aeneas sailed across the Mediterranean Sea to Italy and founded Lavinium.  His son Iulus went on to found the city of Alba Longa.  From Alba Longa's royal family came the twins Romulus and Remus, who went on to found the city of Rome in 753 BCE.  The kingdom ended with the expulsion of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus in 510 BCE and the establishment of the Roman Republic.

21 Legendary Kings: Rex Romulus and Remus Foundation legend

22 Kings of Rome were elected by the Senate KingTraditional Reign Romulus753 BC753 BC–716 BC716 BC Numa Pompilius715 BC715 BC–674 BC674 BC Tullus Hostilius673 BC673 BC–642 BC642 BC Ancus Marcius642 BC642 BC–617 BC617 BC Lucius Tarquinius Priscus616 BC616 BC–579 BC579 BC Servius Tullius578 BC578 BC–535 BC535 BC Lucius Tarquinius Superbus535 BC535 BC–510 BC/509 BC510 BC509 BC Legendary Kings The Gauls destroyed all of Rome's historical records when they sacked the city 390 BC, so no contemporary records of the kingdom exist, and all accounts of the kings must be highly questioned. Archaeological evidence does, however, support that a settlement was founded in Rome around the middle of the 8th century BC.

23 Accomplishments of the Roman Kings  Settlement and continual expansion of the city of Rome (aided by rape of the Sabine women)  Establishment of Senate to serve as king’s council  Establishment of Roman legions  Establishment of the Vestal Virgins  Reform of the calendar to 360 days, adding the months of January and February  Introduction of coinage  Establishment of a census dividing the population into classes according to wealth

24 The Rape of Lucretia  The son of the last king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (535 BC to 510 BC), raped a Roman noblewoman named Lucretia.  Lucretia compelled her family to take action by gathering the men, telling them what happened, and killing herself.  Lucius Junius Brutus incited the people of Rome against the royal family by displaying her body and led an uprising that drove the Tarquins out of Rome  The monarchy was replaced with the new Roman Republic. Botticelli, The Death of Lucretia, c. 1500

25 The Roman Republic 509 bce - 27 bce Senatus populisque Romanorum (The Senate and People of Rome) Senate: patricians People: Consilium plebis -- tribunes elected by plebians

26 The Roman Senate Cicero Denounces Catiline: Fresco by Cesare Maccari (1840-1919)

27 The Roman Republic 509 bce - 27 bce Military Campaigns  Italian peninsula  Punic Wars: 264-146 bce  Carthage  Hannibal  Invasion of Macedonia and Greece 145 bce  Gaul 58 - 50 bce  Egypt 31 bce  Emergence of equites class: soldiers and merchants


29 Civil Wars 50 bce-27 bce  First Triumvirate: Pompey, Crassus and Julius Caesar  46 bce Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon: established dictatorship – populist reforms  44 bce assassination of Caesar by Senate under leadership of Marcus Junius Brutus  Second Triumvirate: Octavian, Lepidus and Marc Antony  31 bce Battle of Actium: death of Antony and Cleopatra  27 bce Octavian declared Caesar Augustus Octavian

30 CHINA: The Han Empire

31 The Han Dynasty 206 bce-220 ce  Liu Bang restored order after the death of the Qin Emperor  Established Han Dynasty – the longest and most influential in Chinese history  Centralized Imperial rule Liu Bang

32 Confucianism Restored  State philosophy  Honored and employed scholars in government  Instituted civil service exam system

33 Han Science and Technology  Inventions  Paper  Porcelain  Compass  Seismograph  Manufacture of Steel Statue of Zhangheng, inventor of seismograph

34 Sima Qian (145-87 bce)  China’s most famous historian  Shiji ( 史記, "history record"), an overview of the history of China covering more than 2000 years from the earliest times to his own day  Historians regard Sima Qian’s work as their model, which stands as the "official format" of the history of China.  In writing Shiji, Sima Qian initiated a new writing style by presenting history in a series of biographies

35 Emperor Han Wudi “the Martial Emperor” 141-87 bce  Military Prowess  Extended cultural influence over Korea, Vietnam, Central Asia, Mongolia  Built enormous bureaucracy relying upon Legalist principles of government  Established Imperial University 124 bce to educate bureaucrats with Confucianism as the curricular basis  Established long-distance trade along the Silk Road as a result of information brought back by the envoy Zhang Qian


37 Zhang Qian leaving emperor Han Wudi, for his expedition to Central Asia from 138 to 126 BC, Mogao Caves mural, Dunhuang, 618–712.

38 The Silk Road

39 jChina to India, across Central Asia to Antioch, Baghdad, Alexandria and Rome jTrade jEast to West: silk and spices jWest to East: manufactured goods (glassware, jewelry, perfumes) and commodities such as olive oil jReligious movements jBuddhism to Central Asia, Southeast Asia and China jHinduism to Southeast Asia jChristianity to Persia, India and China jEpidemics j2nd and 3rd c. ce Han and Roman Empires suffered large- scale epidemics: small pox, measles, bubonic plague jPopulation decline led to economic and social change

40 ROME: The Empire

41 The expansion of the Roman Empire

42 Pax Romana 27 bce - 180 ce v Caesar Augustus’ reign (27 bce-14 ce) is considered the Golden Age of Rome vEstablishment of law and civil order throughout Empire v Rome became an international city v Public works: aqueducts, public baths, theatres, marketplaces, roads, libraries v Economy rested on slavery: slaves ranged from field laborers to secretaries, teachers, and artists -- often earned enough to buy freedom

43 Roman Culture: Poetry  Virgil (70-19 bce)  The Aeneid  Epic poem – provided foundation myth for Roman Empire  Consciously emulated Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey  Embodied Roman ideals  Pater familias  Pius Aeneas  Divine intervention in founding of Rome  Favorite of Caesar Augustus Aeneas carrying Father, Laertes, and leading Son, Ascanius, from Troy

44 Roman Culture: Poetry  Ovid (43 bce-17 ce)  Ars Amatoria: The Art of Love Ars Remedia: The Remedy for Love  Metamorphoses  Collection of classical myths from the Mediterranean rendered in poetic form  Emphasized the continual nature of change  Exiled from Rome by Caesar Augustus

45 Roman Culture: Philosophy  Stoicism  Held that emotions like fear or envy either were, or arose from, false judgements  The sage--a person who had attained moral and intellectual perfection--would not undergo emotions: the sage is utterly immune to misfortune and virtue is sufficient for happiness.  Seneca: On Tranqulity of Mind  Emperor Marcus Aurelius (r. 161-180)

46 Roman Culture: Philosophy  Epicureanism  Based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c. 340–c. 270 BC),  A general attack on superstition and divine intervention  The greatest good was to seek modest pleasures to attain a state of tranquility and freedom from fear as well as absence of bodily pain through knowledge of the workings of the world and the limits of desires.  Neo-Platonism  School of philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century ce, based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists  Human perfection and happiness were attainable in this world, without awaiting an afterlife. Perfection and happiness could be achieved through philosophical contemplation

47 Roman Culture: Theatre  Drama flourished under the Republic but declined into variety entertainment under the Empire  Roman festivals: Held in honor of the gods, but much less religious than in Greece  Entertainment tended to be grandiose, sentimental, diversionary  Actors / performers were called histriones

48 ROMAN COMEDY  Chorus was abandoned  No act or scene divisions  Songs  Everyday domestic affairs: Boy meets girl, complications, boy gets girl: marriage  Action placed in the street  Bawdy  Stock characters  Only two playwrights' material survives:  Titus Maccius Plautus (c. 254-184 bce)  Publius Terenius Afer [Terence] (195 or 185-159 bce)

49 PLAUTUS (c. 254-184 B.C.E.)  21 extant plays including Pot of Gold, The Menaechmi, Braggart Warrior -- probably between 205-184 B.C.  All based on Greek New Comedies  Added Roman allusions, Latin dialog, varied poetic meters, witty jokes  Some techniques:  Stychomythia – dialog with short lines, like a tennis match  Slapstick  Songs

50 TERENCE Publius Terenius Afer (195 or 185-159 B.C.E.)  Born in Carthage, came to Rome as a boy slave, educated and freed  The Afer in his name may indicate that he was an African, and therefore he may have been the first major black playwright in western theater.  Six plays, all of which survive including The Brothers, Mother-in- Law, etc.  More complex plots – combined stories from Greek originals.  Character and double-plots were his forte – contrasts in human behavior  Less boisterous than Plautus, less episodic, more elegant language.  Less popular than Plautus.

51 Roman Tragedy   None survive from the early period, and only one playwright from the later period: Seneca   5 act structure – later adopted by Elizabethans   Elaborate speeches -- rhetorical influence   Interest in morality – expressed in sententiae (short pithy generalizations about the human condition) Medea, Herculaneum c. 70 bce

52 SENECA  Roman philosopher, orator, dramatist and statesman  Nine extant tragedies, five adapted from Euripides:The Trojan Women, Medea, Oedipus, Agamemnon  Suicide in 65 A.D.– at the orders of Nero  Seneca had a strong effect on later dramatists: Elizabethans and French  Uncertain whether Seneca's plays were actually performed or simply intended for recitation before a small private audience: closet dramas Lucius Annaeus Seneca (5 or 4 B.C.E.– 65 C.E.)

53 Roman Culture: Spectacle  Gladiatorial combats  Chariot races  Naumachia: Naval battles in a flooded Coliseum  “Real-life” theatricals  Decadent, violent and immoral  All theatrical events banned by Church when Rome became Christianized

54 Imperial Rome and Han China

55 Comparisons E Imperial Rome  Well organized bureaucracy founded on Roman law and classical philosophy  Emphasis on family: pater familias  Reliance on patricians: women gained power and property rights within families  Engineering: roads, aqueducts, amphitheatres, domes, sewage systems, central heating  Inventions: concrete, the arch (probably Etruscan), insulae (apartment buildings)  Religion: Emperor as god, paganism, mystery religions, introduction of Christianity j Han China jWell organized bureaucracy founded on Confucian ideals and education, supported by Legalism jEmphasis on family, ancestors: patriarchal jReliance on gentry as support: good marriages afforded women more rights jEngineering: roads, canals, the Great Wall jInventions: wheelbarrow, gunpowder, printing press, compass, paper, paper currency (all before 1000 ad) jReligion: Confucianism, Taoism, native gods, introduction of Buddhism

56 Empires in Decline  Imperial Rome  Internal opposition:” barracks emperors”  Inequitable distribution of land – great estates supported by slave labor; soldiers returning from campaigns had no means of support  Difficulties in administering vast empire lead to division of authority and rivalry  Eastern and Western Empire: 330 ce: Constantine moved capitol of Empire from Rome to Constantinople (Istanbul)  Germanic invasions by Vandals, Ostrogoths, and Visigoths  410 ce Visigoths sacked Rome  476 ce Odawacer deposed the last Western Roman Emperor j Han China j Infighting among ruling elites j Inequitable distribution of land - - tax burden fell on peasants rather than on large landowners j Series of peasant rebellions j Usurpation of political authority by generals -- allied themselves with landlords and became warlords j 220 ce: generals divided empire into 3 kingdoms j Emigration of nomadic peoples into N. China kept the country disunited


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