4Ancient Egypt: Why so stable? Ancient Egypt lasted for 3500 years due to factors in:GeographyPoliticsSocial structureEducationEconomyReligionStability was goal and change slow and cautious
5What was the “SOUL” of Ancient Egypt? THE NILE was considered the SOUL as it was the source of life and path to immortalityEgyptians lived on Eastern side but were buried on Western sideRiver was symbol of passage of one life to next (eternity)Creation story began in swirling waters of the Nile when god Horus gave power to Pharaohs
12The Nile River Flooded every year Provided fertile soil for crops Was the “Lifeline” for EgyptTransportation RouteUsed for IrrigationFlows south to northMouth = “Delta”
13Perfect LocationDeserts provided protection and shelter from outside influencesAccess to Mediterranean Sea allowed for tradingDeserts were an important source of minerals and building supplies (copper, tin, gold and natron)Video
14What determined Egypt’s economic prosperity? WealthAgriculture made up most of Egypt’s wealth – grain, vegetables, fruit, cattle, goats, pigs, and fowlEconomySimple economy based on agriculture and minerals from desertTrading was done by bartering goods (grain, oil, wheat)Extensive trading made Egypt a powerful influence on culture, art, ideas and technologyTrade eventually grew and expanded, bringing new ideas and goods into Egyptian society
16Menes: Unifier of Upper & Lower Egypt c B. C. E. ?UNIFICATION OF EGYPT: King Menes unites Upper and Lower Egypt and wears double crown in 3100 BCE. Following Menes came 31 dynasties over 3000 years. Video
17A mural of Narmer or Menes conquering Lower Egypt (c.a. 3100 B.C.)
18The first pyramid built for King Zoser, which exists even today, in Sakkarah, the necropolis of Memphis.Built in the year 2650 BC by the architect Imhotep,It is the oldest monumental work in stone known to man.Exterior walls of white limestone.The wall has 14 doors, 13 of them false.
24The burial of the king, as well as his passage from this world to the next, was of great importance to everyone.The ritual cycle by which the living pharaoh, the god Horus, became Osiris, Lord of the Underworld, guaranteed the survival of Egypt itself.By building the pyramids all Egyptians believed in a single religion of ancestor worship in which the pyramids served as reminders.Video about PyramidsVideo- JournalsThrough History
25End of the Old KingdomWith a lot of resources being given to build the pyramids, many of the Upper Egyptians were upset.They set up a new King in Thebes and the country became divided.This along with a severe famine brought an end to the Old Kingdom.
26The End of the Old Kingdom Relief showing men, women, and children suffering from the effects of severe famineThe End of the Old KingdomProfessor Fekri Hassan examining ancient hieroglyphs which tell of appalling suffering. A third of the population died and the most ordered of empires was brought to chaos. This marked the end of the Old Kingdom.
27EducationAll children, regardless of social class, received some educationGoal for education was to ensure youth exhibited self control and good mannersAt 14, young boys followed fathers in jobs, and girls learned from mothers in the householdChildren of priests were schooled more formallyLiteracy was stressed for government jobsEducation respected for creating a well rounded individual
31History of Writing: 1) pictograms (sun= sun) 2) ideograms (sun = sun, daylight, warmth, light) 3) phonograms: symbols that suggest a particular sound; related ideas and also sound (Sun = sun, son, Sunday)Each hieroglyph found in pyramids and tombs often symbolized more than one consonant. Not only that, but actual Egyptian hieroglyphs were a combination of sound-signs, pictograms, and ideograms. No wonder it was so hard to decode them!Hmmm. Some birds, a half moon, a feather, and a oval. Or maybe that half moon is a stone sticking out of the ground. And maybe the oval is really a hole in the ground. Maybe what it means is that two birds standing by a rock have a hole to jump in if trouble happens by. That might make sense, but it's not quite right. The pictures simply mean "water." Say what? How could that possibly mean water, you ask? Good question. Want to know more? Look at more hieroglyphs and see if you can crack the code.
33Eventually scribes adapted hieroglyphic symbols By 700 BCE, script was used for secular matters such as letters, accounts and record keepingVideo
34Rosetta StoneA stone with writing on it in Egyptian and Greek. It was carved in 196 BC.Written in three scripts (hieroglyphs for religious documents; demotic- common script of Egypt; Greek- language of the rulers of Egypt at that time)Written so that the priests, government officials and rulers of Egypt could read what it said.Found in 1799Written by a group of priests in Egypt to honor the Egyptian pharaoh. It lists all of the things that the pharaoh had done that were good for the priests and the people of Egypt.
35Egyptian Math110100100010,000100,0001,000,000What number is this?
36PHARAOHS CROWNED WITH SHEPHERD’S CROOK AND FLAIL The Middle Kingdom ( B.C.) was characterized by a new concern of the pharaohs for the people. In the Old Kingdom, the pharaoh had been viewed as an inaccessible god-king. Now he was portrayed as the shepherd of his people.
37The Hyksos were a neighboring group that had new horse-drawn war-chariots. This invention, never seen before in Egypt, allowed the Hyksos to control this region.They utilized superior bronze weapons and chariots to help them take control of Egypt.Within 50 years, they had also managed to take control of the important Egyptian city of Memphis. This was the end of the Middle Kingdom.
38Ahmose and his army driving out the Hyksos. Starting in 1567 B.C., the pharaoh Ahmose I eventually managed to defeat and expel the Hyksos from Egypt, reuniting Egypt and establishing the New Kingdom (c B.C.). The New Kingdom was characterized by a new militaristic and imperialistic path. A more professional army was developed.Ahmose and his army driving out the Hyksos.
39Queen Hatshepsut Ruled from 1503-1482 B.C. Married to Thutmose II After her husband died, Hatshepsut dressed like a man and ruled as a pharaoh.She became the first female pharaoh in Egyptian history.
40Hatshepsut’s Accomplishments Worked hard to increase Egyptian trade through trade routes.As a result:trade expandedIncrease of wealth in the economy
41Results of Hatshepsut’s Accomplishments She used the money that was gained from trade to support the arts as well as architecture.A temple near Thebes was built to honor Queen Hatshepsut for the many great temples and monuments that were built during her reign.
42Honoring Queen Hatshepsut Queen Hatshepsut died after ruling for 15 years.After her death, Queen Hatshepsut’s step-son, Thutmose III, took the throne.
43The Valley of the Queens Temple of Queen Hatshepsut B. C.
44Ramses II1297 BCE - Reign of Ramses II. He had over 200 wives and girlfriends, approximately 90 sons and 60 daughters and reigned over 67 years!His reign saw massive building projects in Egypt. The Exodus of Jews from Egypt also may have occurred during his reign.Ramses II B. C.
45King Ramses’ Accomplishments Although known for being one of Egypt’s greatest warriors, he was also known as a peace-maker, by being the first king in history to ever sign a peace treaty with his enemies, the Hittites.
46King Ramses’ Death King Ramses died in the early 1200’s BC. His mummy is known to be one of the best preserved.
48Akhenaton: First Monotheist? Amenhotep IV (c B.C.) introduced the worship of Aton, god of the sun disk, as the chief god and pursued his worship with enthusiasm.Changing his own name to Akhenaton (“It is well with Aton”), the pharaoh closed the temples of other gods.B. C.
50Queen NefertitiNefertiti (ca BC – ca BC) was the Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten. Nefertiti and her husband were known for the worship of only one god.
51Invasion of the “Sea Peoples” around 1200 B.C. The days of Egyptian empire were ended, and the New Kingdom expired in 1085 B.C. For the next thousand years, despite periodic revivals of strength, Egypt was dominated by Libyans, Nubians, Persians, and Macedonians.Egyptian Drawings of Two Different Tribes of Sea People
52Egyptian Social Pyramid Egyptian Social Classes were based on wealth, job and education
53Social RolesRole of MenHead of the familyMen could have numerous wives but economically men had only 1 wifeLaborers, craftsmenJobs were hereditaryJobsLabor required for construction projects and was mostly filled by poor serfsStability of Egypt thrived as skilled trades were passed from father to sonChildren always learned the trade from parents; seldom could choose occupationRole of WomenWell treated and had considerable legal rights compared to other civilizationsSame legal rights as men (land, property, divorce)Left women to be economically independentPrimary role was in domestic lifeBear and raise children
60Egyptian ScribeScribes kept records of everything. Armed with the knowledge of writing and reading, they were highly regarded and considered themselves a superior class of men. Their high standard of living reflected their exalted status.
61Egypt was divided up into provinces, or nomes. A governor, or nomarch, was at the head of each nome and was responsible to the pharaoh.These governors tended to amass large holding of land and power within their nomes, creating a potential rivalry with the pharaohs.
64Pharaohs Egyptians were led by Pharaohs. They were priest-kings There were at least four female kings. (Hatsheput is pictured)Pharaohs ruled for over 3500 years in Egypt.31 dynasties in all
65Politics How did Pharaoh's rule? Absolute rulers of the land Believed to be the earthly embodiment of the god Horus. Therefore they had the divine right to rule. People followed their orders because they believed they were from godNo one would challenge the King’s authority and he could rule in peacePharaohs owned all the landPolitics
66The Valley of the KingsThe Valley of the Kings is a place where many pharaohs were buried.
67Archaeologist, Howard Carter (1922) Howard Carter is the archaeologist who finally discovered King Tut’s tomb. It is so famous because it was untouched by grave robbers.
69Death MaskUsing computers, this image was reconstructed using his remainsB. C.
70King TutankhamenTutankhamen was the son of Akhenaten. He ascended to the throne in 1333 BC, at the age of nine or ten, taking the reign name of Tutankhamen.What caused Tutankhamen 's death has been the subject of considerable debate.
74End of the PharaohsDarius III was the last Egyptian pharaoh. Egypt was then taken over by Alexander the Great.After this, Egypt was ruled as a province of the Roman Empire.
75Life and Death Death viewed as a new beginning MA’AT Afterlife common to all, regardless of social status2 Common Principles: 1) body preservation in a lifelike form 2) the deceased must have items necessary for life in the afterworldPersonal belongings were usually placed in the tomb to assist the dead in their journey into the afterlife.Text was read from the 'Book of the Dead' which was a collection of spells, charms, passwords, numbers and magical formulas for the use of the deceased in the afterlife.MA’ATKa (one’s own spiritual duplicate; stored in heart and at death was separated from body. The ka would inhabit the tomb to be near the body)Ba (non physical element unique to each person such as one’s personality)Akh (form that the mummy takes to exist in afterworld)Ma’at (truth, order and justice- essential to achieve harmony with gods and entry to the aftelife)Book of Dead was intended to guide the dead through the various trials that they would encounter before reaching the underworld. Knowledge of the appropriate spells was considered essential to achieving happiness after death
77Weighing of the heart vs Ma’at Judgment of scale record of the outcome This scene depicts what occurs after a person has died, according to the ancient Egyptians.panel of 14 judgesKa (soul /spiritual duplicate), ba (personality) ankh (form mummy took in afterlife / the key of life)Weighing of the heart vs Ma’atJudgment of scalerecord of the outcomeThis scene depicts what occurs after a person has died, according to the ancient Egyptians.Beginning with the upper left-hand corner, the deceased appears before a panel of 14 judges to make an accounting for his deeds during life. The ankh, the key of life, appears in the hands of some of the judges.Next, below, the jackal god Anubis who represents the underworld and mummification leads the deceased before the scale. In his hand, Anubis holds the ankh.Anubis then weighs the heart of the deceased (left tray) against the feather of Ma'at, goddess of truth and justice (right tray). In some drawings, the full goddess Ma'at, not just her feather, is shown seated on the tray. Note that Ma'at's head, crowned by the feather, also appears atop the fulcrum of the scale. If the heart of the deceased outweighs the feather, then the deceased has a heart which has been made heavy with evil deeds. In that event, Ammit the god with the crocodile head and hippopotamus legs will devour the heart, condemning the deceased to oblivion for eternity. But if the feather outweighs the heart, and then the deceased has led a righteous life and may be presented before Osiris to join the afterlife. Thoth, the ibis-headed god of wisdom stands at the ready to record the outcome.Horus, the god with the falcon head, then leads the deceased to Osiris. Note the ankh in Horus' hand. Horus represents the personification of the Pharaoh during life, and his father Osiris represents the personification of the Pharaoh after death.Osiris, lord of the underworld, sits on his throne, represented as a mummy. On his head is the white crown of Lower Egypt (the north). He holds the symbols of Egyptian kingship in his hands: the shepherd's crook to symbolize his role as shepherd of mankind, and the flail, to represent his ability to separate the wheat from the chaff. Behind him stand his wife Isis and her sister Nephthys. Isis is the one in red, and Nephthys is the one in green. Together, Osiris, Isis, and Nephthys welcome the deceased to the underworld.The tomb-owner would continue after death the occupations of this life and so everything required was packed in the tomb along with the body. Writing materials were often supplied along with clothing, wigs, and hairdressing supplies and assorted tools, depending on the occupation of the deceased.Often model tools rather than full size ones would be placed in the tomb; models were cheaper and took up less space and in the after-life would be magically transformed into the real thing.Things might include a headrest, glass vessels which may have contained perfume and a slate palette for grinding make-up.Food was provided for the deceased and should the expected regular offerings of the descendants cease, food depicted on the walls of the tomb would be magically transformed to supply the needs of the dead.Images on tombs might include a triangular shaped piece of bread (part of the food offerings from a tomb). Other images might represent food items that the tomb owner would have eaten in his lifetime and hoped to eat in the after-life.Life was dominated by Ma'at, or the concept of justice and order. Egyptians believed there were different levels of goodness and evil. Egyptians believed that part of the personality, called the Ka, remained in the tomb. Thus elaborate and complex burial practices developed.The removed internal organs were separately treated and, during much of Egyptian history, placed in jars of clay or stone. These so-called Canopic Jars were closed with stoppers fashioned in the shape of four heads -- human, baboon, falcon, and jackal - representing the four protective spirits called the Four Sons of Horus.
78MummificationEgyptians who could afford to do so would have themselves mummified.They believed in a better afterlife if their body was preserved.Afterlife would be spent enjoying best of life experiencesBody wrapped in linen coated with resins and oilsMiddle Kingdom became customary to place a mask over the face
79Mummification Process Took out internal organs (lungs, stomach, intestines, liver), except the heart.Removed organs were put in canopic jars, that were put in the tomb with the mummy.Jars were closed with stoppers in the shape of a human, baboon, falcon, and jackal - representing the four protective spirits called the Four Sons of Horus.
80Mummification Process Did not take out the heart because it was believed to be the intelligence and emotion of the person.Thought the brain was worthless, so they took it out through the nose and threw it away.The body was packed and covered with natron (a salty drying agent). After this the body was left for days.
81Materials Used in Mummification 1. Linen Natron 2. Sawdust Onion 3. Lichen Nile Mud 4. Beeswax Linen Pads 5. Resin Frankinsense
83Queen Tiye, wife of Amenhotep II 1210-1200 B. C. E. Egyptian MummiesSeti I B. C. E.Ramses II B. C. E.Queen Tiye, wife of Amenhotep II B. C. E.
84Preparations for the Underworld ANUBIS weighs the dead person’s heart against a feather.Priests protected your KA, or soul-spirit
85Journey to the Underworld The dead travel on the “Solar Bark.”A boat for the journey is provided for a dead pharaoh in his tomb.
86Gods and Goddesses Creation Story GEB NUT TEFNUT ATUM NUT MA’AT HORUS SHUANUBISWebsite: Gods and GoddessesClick here for Creation StoryISISATUM
87Religion: How did it contribute to stability? AtumReligion: How did it contribute to stability?Deeply religious peopleReligious roots were in the worship of nature deities – their first gods were in animal formsThose responsible for creation were the most important gods (Atum is the creator God)They later developed national gods around the Middle Kingdom (Amon- local god of Thebes; gods of Dead: Osiris, Anubis, Horus and Thoth)Religion was instrumental to stability of Egypt (life, social structure, education, laws, rule of Pharaoh, economy, death, afterlife)
88What were the legal traditions? Law was governed by religious principle of Ma’atLaws were applied equally to all classes specifically protected the family (children and wives)Punishments could be quite severe- (Examples: minor crimes had 100 lashes; corrupt officials had their hands amputated; crimes resulted in a death sentence could choose: devoured by a crocodile, suicide, burning alive)
89Egyptian Inventions Glass and Linen Paper and ink Calendar- 365 day calendarWaterclockJewelry and metalwork
90Egyptian Contributions Medicine- including casts, amputation, stitchesArchitecture- fluted columns, obeliskMathematics-geometry, algebra, calculations, fractionsWriting- symbols to represent sounds and wordsVideo- Journals through History