Presentation on theme: "Dr. Zahi Hawass."— Presentation transcript:
Dr. Zahi Hawass
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E GYPTIAN P ROVERBS True sages are those who give what they have, without meanness and without secret! Popular beliefs on essential matters must be examined in order to discover the original thought! The only thing that is humiliating is helplessness!
Middle Kingdom ( BC) Weaker form of govt Authority to monarchs, nobles (lesser ranks) Final Reunification of Egypt Achieved under Mentohotep II (11 th Dynasty) New Thebes (Luxor)
Middle Kingdom Mentohotep II builds tomb in Valley of the Kings & Queens Opens up trade relations with Syria & Palestine Started irrigation projects along the Nile Adds thousands of cultivated acreage
Valley Of Kings 500 Years of History 16 th – 11 th c. B.C. 18 th – 21 st Dynasties Archaeological Dig since 18 th c. 60 Tombs, more believed to be there 4-5 thousand tourists a day (16 tombs open) Entrance to Royal Tomb, 1821
The Valley of the Kings With an early start to try and beat some of the heat, we head off for the Valley of the Kings, on the west side of the Nile outside Luxor. It's a beautiful drive—green waves of crops (sugarcane, mostly) and palm trees line the road, and farmers are at work in their fields. Houses here are still built of mud brick, just as in ancient times. The West Bank, our guide says, is one of the most virgin archaeological sites in the world. Almost all the New Kingdom (circa 1539 to 1078 B.C.) pharaohs built their burial places in the Valley of the Kings, cutting concealed tombs in the rock. Pyramids, they had learned, were too visible—and accessible—to thieves. Still, robbers looted most of the tombs here, stealing the treasures buried with each king. The first tomb we enter is KV 5, built for the sons of Ramses II. Rediscovered in 1989, it's still being studied. The job will take a while—there are at least 110 chambers here. After KV 5 the famous tomb of Tutankhamun seems very small. It was hastily prepared for the king, who died around age 20 after a brief reign (circa 1333 to 1323 B.C.). Tut would have been just a footnote in Egyptian history had it not been for the 1922 find of his intact tomb, undiscovered by robbers and still stuffed with treasures. Nothing is left here now except Tut's mummy and coffin. (The rest is in the Egyptian Museum.) Only a few tourists are allowed in at a time, and everyone stays quiet, peering over at the coffin and wall paintings that detail funerary rituals. Next we head back out into the sun and then down again, this time into the tomb of Seti I (circa 1290 to 1279 B.C.), father of Ramses II—one of the valley's deepest, most decorated tombs. Every surface is covered with paintings, drawings, and hieroglyphs, even the ceiling. Vivid reds, yellows, and blues— they look like they were just painted yesterday. I want to touch everything.
In 1997, 58 tourists and 4 Egyptians were massacred at nearby Deir el-Bahri by Islamist militants from Al-Gama'a al- Islamiyya. This led to an overall drop in tourism in the area.
Pillar in Seti’s Tomb Brilliantly colored paintings cover the walls of Tutankhamun's small burial chamber in the Valley of the Kings near Luxor. Since the young king was only about 20 when he died, there was no tomb ready for him, and this one was hastily prepared. Between 1539 and 1078 B.C. nearly all pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings. More than 60 tombs have been found, and archaeologists believe there are more to be discovered.
Tomb KV8, located in the Valley of the Kings, was used for the burial of Pharaoh Merenptah of Ancient Egypt's Nineteenth Dynasty. Merenptah
Pharaoh Seti I (who reigned circa 1290 to 1279 B.C.) was buried after an 11-year reign in an elaborate tomb in the Valley of the Kings—one of the longest, deepest, and finest of all the tombs there. The tomb's ceiling (pictured) depicts the heavens, including constellations; astronomical texts; and a row of deities.
After the internal organs of Pharaoh Tutankhamun were removed and treated with a preservative, they were stored in an alabaster chest and entombed in a gilded wooden shrine protected by a quartet of goddesses. The shrine, along with most of the treasures found in Tut's tomb, is now in Cairo's Egyptian Museum.
Two 65-foot-high (20-meter-high) sandstone statues of Pharaoh Amenhotep III—known, incorrectly, as the Colossi of Memnon—are all that's left of his mortuary temple on the west bank of the Nile, across from Luxor Temple. The annual flooding of the river eventually destroyed the once stupendous building.
Middle Kingdom Beginning of 12 th Dynasty Amenemhet I established Egypt enjoyed one of the most stable and prosperous periods in history! Initiates new Policy - Appointing a co-ruler while in power Son Sesostris rules w/ him for 10 yrs Policy of Co-Regency later adopted by the pharaohs of the New Kingdom
E g y p t i a n P r o v e r b s Listen to your conviction, even if they seem absurd to your reason. Our senses serve to affirm, not to know. No discussion can throw light, if it wanders from the real point.
Middle Kingdom 12 th Dynasty Undertakings Built ocean-going ships (cedar of Lebanon) Built a Canal (Wadi Tumilat) –Allow boats to pass from Red Sea to Mediterranean Developed a canal into the 1 st Cataract of Nile to proceed past the falls into Nubia Monumental city Heliopolis built
Internal Chaos & Invasion ( BC) Prosperity of 12 th dynasty attracts trouble Asiatic people (Hyksos) They Bring It!
Come with Bronze Weapons Horse Drawn Chariots Considered Hyksos Rule for ~200 yrs
Didn’t interfere w/ religion or customs Assimilated into Egyptian society Quarrels erupt causing pharaoh Kamose to react Launched a surprise attack against Hyksos Victories once again Younger brother Ahmose expels or enslaves last of Hyksos Founded 18 th Dynasty (new kingdom) Internal Chaos & Invasion ( BC)