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IC and Triggers in SQL. Find age of the youngest sailor with age <=18, for each rating with at least 2 such sailors SELECT S.rating, MIN (S.age) AS minage.

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Presentation on theme: "IC and Triggers in SQL. Find age of the youngest sailor with age <=18, for each rating with at least 2 such sailors SELECT S.rating, MIN (S.age) AS minage."— Presentation transcript:

1 IC and Triggers in SQL

2 Find age of the youngest sailor with age <=18, for each rating with at least 2 such sailors SELECT S.rating, MIN (S.age) AS minage FROM Sailors S WHERE S.age >= 18 GROUP BY S.rating HAVING COUNT (*) > 1 Answer relation: Sailors instance: HAVING Clause

3 Integrity Constraints (Review) An IC describes conditions that every legal instance of a relation must satisfy To disallow inserts/deletes/updates that violate IC’s Types of IC’s: Domain constraints, primary key constraints, foreign key constraints, non-null, general constraints

4 An Example via CHECK Clause CREATE TABLE Stu ( sid INTEGER, sname CHAR(10), rating INTEGER, age REAL, PRIMARY KEY (sid), CHECK (rating >= 1 AND rating <= 10 ) )

5 CHECK Example CREATE TABLE Stu ( sid INTEGER, sname CHAR(10), rating INTEGER, age REAL, PRIMARY KEY (sid), CONSTRAINT checkRating CHECK (rating >= 1 AND rating <= 10 ) )

6 ASSERTION Example Constraints Over Multiple Relations Consider a very small school: the count of students and professors should be less than 500 The following is a poor integrity test as it is associated with one relation (the Stu table could be empty and thus the integrity rule is never checked! Disassociate from the Stu table CREATE TABLE Stu ( sid INTEGER, sname CHAR(10), rating INTEGER, age REAL, PRIMARY KEY (sid), CHECK ( (SELECT COUNT (S.sid) FROM Stu S) + (SELECT COUNT (P.pid) FROM Prof P) < 500 ) )

7 ASSERTION Example Constraints Over Multiple Relations CREATE ASSERTION smallSchool CHECK ( (SELECT COUNT (S.sid) FROM Stu S) + (SELECT COUNT (P.pid) FROM Prof P) < 500 )

8 ASSERTION Example The KEY Constraint CREATE ASSERTION Key CHECK ( (SELECT COUNT (DISTINCT sid) FROM Stu) = (SELECT COUNT (*) FROM Stu) ); Note: ASSERTION is in standard SQL but not implemented

9 Triggers Event-Condition-Action rules: procedures that start automatically if a change occurs to the DBMS When event occurs, check condition; if true do action Why: to move monitoring logic from applications into the DBMS (more modular, consistency among applications, no duplications) Allow automatic repair Database stores triggers just as regular data so they are persistent and accessible to all database operations Useful for security purposes Triggers make a passive database “active”

10 Advantages To move application logic and business rules into database Allows more functionality for DBAs to establish vital constraints/rules of applications Rules managed in some central “place” Rules automatically enforced by DBMS, no matter which applications later come on line

11 The Event-Condition-Action Model Actions may apply before or after the triggering event is executed An SQL statement may change several rows – Apply action once per SQL statement – Apply action for each row changed by SQL statement

12 The Company Database 1.Limit all salary increases to 50%. 2.Enforce policy that salaries may never decrease. 3.Maintain TotalSalary in DEPARTMENT relation as employees and their salaries change. (EN, Fig (a)) 4.Inform a supervisor whenever a supervisee’s salary becomes larger than the supervisor’s. (EN, Fig (b)) 5.All new hires for a given job code get the same starting salary, which is available in the STARTING_PAY table. EMPLOYEE(Name, SSN, Salary, DNO, SupervisorSSN, JobCode) DEPARTMENT(DNO, TotalSalary, ManagerSSN) STARTING_PAY(JobCode, StartPay)

13 Limit all salary increases to 50% create trigger emp_salary_limit before update of EMPLOYEE for each row when (new.Salary > 1.5 * old.Salary) set new.Salary = 1.5 * old.Salary; “new” refers to the new tuple. “old” refers to the old tuple.

14 Enforce policy that salaries may never decrease create trigger emp_salary_no_decrease before update of EMPLOYEE for each row when (new.Salary < old.Salary) begin log the event; signal error condition; end Method depends on DBMS.

15 All new hires for a given job code get the same starting salary create trigger emp_start_pay before insert on EMPLOYEE for each row set Salary = (select StartPay fromSTARTING_PAY whereJobCode = new.JobCode) EMPLOYEE(Name, SSN, Salary, DNO, SupervisorSSN, JobCode) STARTING_PAY(JobCode, StartPay)

16 Trigger Syntax CREATE [OR REPLACE ] TRIGGER trigger_name {BEFORE | AFTER | INSTEAD OF } {INSERT [OR] | UPDATE [OR] | DELETE} [OF col_name] ON table_name [REFERENCING OLD AS o NEW AS n] [FOR EACH ROW] WHEN (condition) BEGIN --- sql statements END;


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