Presentation on theme: "Land Markets and Land Rights"— Presentation transcript:
1 Land Markets and Land Rights in support of the Global AgendaProf. Stig EnemarkPresidentAalborg University, DenmarkNETWORKING EVENT – WORLD URBAN FORUM 5RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL MARCH 2010
2 Outline of presentation The global agendaFacing the Millennium Development GoalsLand Markets and the MDGsFormal and Informal Land MarketsInformal structuresInformal Settlements; Informal DevelopmentThe way forwardBuilding sustainable Land Administration Systems
3 The UN Millennium Development Goals Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hungerGoal 2: Achieve universal primary educationGoal 3: Promote gender equality and empower womenGoal 4: Reduce child mortalityGoal 5: Improve maternal healthGoal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseasesGoal 7: Ensure environmental sustainabilityGoal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for DevelopmentThe framework includes 18 targets and48 indicators enabling the ongoingmonitoring of annual progress
9 It is all about:People, human rights, engagement and dignity Politics, land policies and good governance Places, shelter, land rights, and natural resources Power, decentralisation and empowermentand
10 Outline of presentation The global agendaFacing the Millennium Development GoalsLand Markets and the MDGsFormal and Informal Land MarketsInformal structuresInformal Settlements; Informal DevelopmentThe way forwardBuilding sustainable Land Administration Systems
11 Formal and informal land markets Formal public processesPublic accessPublic registrationSecurity of tenureValuation and taxationInstitutional creditComplex commoditiesBuilding and land use controlsInformal land marketsNo rules apparent or local rules applyInformal processes – no transparency for strangersTenure security normally do not applyNo official valuation but values may be highNo land use controlFormal land markets generate economic wealthInformal land markets fail to generate sufficient national wealth to fund governmentLand administration systems supports formalisation of land markets
12 LAS provide the infrastructure for implementation of land polices and land management strategies in support of sustainable development.Land Tenure: the allocation and security of rights in lands; the legal surveys of boundaries; the transfer of property through sale or lease; and the management; adjudication of disputes regarding rights and boundaries.Land Value: the assessment of the value of land and properties; the gathering of revenues through taxation; and the management and adjudication of land valuation and taxation disputes.Land-Use: the control of land-use through adoption of planning policies and land-use regulations at various levels; the enforcement of land-use regulations; and the management and adjudication of land-use conflicts.Land Development: the building of new infrastructure; the implementation of construction planning; and the change of land-use through planning permission and granting of permits.
13 Building land marketsLand administration systems supports formalisation of land markets byBuilding processes and institutions that reflect five stages of land market development“Passporting” commodities in each stage
15 Building land markets Successful countries provide comprehensive land administration systems:Laws and policiesRegistersCadastresSDIs on the natural and built environmentThe countries encourage people to invent new commoditiesPrimary commodities of land and buildingsSecondary and derivative complex commodities
16 Building complex commodities VietnamSource: Jude Wallace, 2009
17 Outline of presentation The global agendaFacing the Millennium Development GoalsLand Markets and the MDGsFormal and Informal Land MarketsInformal structuresInformal Settlements; Informal DevelopmentThe way forwardBuilding sustainable Land Administration Systems
18 Informal developmentUnplanned settlements and areas where housing is not in compliance with current planning and building regulations (unauthorized housing).In Albania the illegal developments contain up to 25% of the population and 40% of the built-up area of major cities in which they are located.Inadequate planning & building control systems.Implications of social and economic institutions in society.Bad governance
19 Informal SettlementsAreas where groups of housing units have been constructed on land that the occupants have no legal claim to, or occupy illegally.OECD Definition
24 Partnership with UN-Habitat Informal settlementsTraditional cadastral systemsdo not provide for security oftenure in informal settlements.A more flexible system is neededfor identifying the various kind ofsocial tenure existing in informalsettlements.Such systems must be based ona global standard and must bemanageable by the local communityItself.cooperates with UN-Habitat and ITC to develop:The Social Tenure Domain Model.
25 The Social Tenure Domain Model ParcelRightObjectPersonSocial tenureSubjectThe Social Tenure Domain Model
26 Building a Core ModelModeling the relation between Objects – Subjects – Social TenureObjects (”where”): Not only an identified (measured) parcel – but a range of objects such land parcels, buildings, etc and identified in various ways – such as one point, street axes, photos, etc.Subjects (“who”): Not only a (legal) person – but a range of subjects such as person, couple, groups of people, unidentified groups, authority, etc,Social tenure (“what”): Not only ownership and formal legal rights – but also range of informal, indigenous and customary rights as well financial issue such group loans and micro credit.
27 Outline of presentation The global agendaFacing the Millennium Development GoalsLand Markets and the MDGsFormal and Informal Land MarketsInformal structuresInformal Settlements; Informal DevelopmentThe way forwardBuilding sustainable Land Administration Systems
28 Understanding the Land Management Paradigm Land Management includes all activities associated with the management ofland and natural resources that are required to fulfill political objectives andachieve sustainable development.
30 Land Administration for Sustainable Development Williamson, Enemark, Wallace and Rajabifard 487 pagesPublisher - ESRI Press Academic, 2010
31 Ten land administration principles ... LAS provide the infrastructure for implementationof land polices and land management strategiesin support of sustainable development.The land management paradigm provides aconceptual framework for understanding andinnovation in land administration systems.LAS is all about engagement of people within theunique social and institutional fabric of each country.LAS are the basis for conceptualising rights, restrictionsand responsibilities related to people, policies, and places
32 ...Ten land administration principles The cadastre is at the core of any LAS providing spatialintegrity and unique identification of every land parcel.LAS are dynamic.LAS include a set of processes that manage changeTechnology offers opportunities for improved efficiencyof LAS and spatial enablement of land issues.Efficient and effective land administration systems thatsupport sustainable development require aspatial data infrastructure to operate.Successful LAS are measured by their ability to manageand administer land efficiently, effectively and at low cost.
33 sustainable development requires sustainable Key messageSimply put,sustainable development requires sustainableland administration systems