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KINGDOM MONERA. 100,000++ spp M. Paine Your body-1000 billion animal cells 10,000 billion bacteria cells.

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Presentation on theme: "KINGDOM MONERA. 100,000++ spp M. Paine Your body-1000 billion animal cells 10,000 billion bacteria cells."— Presentation transcript:

1 KINGDOM MONERA

2 100,000++ spp M. Paine Your body-1000 billion animal cells 10,000 billion bacteria cells

3 M. Paine

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11 Bacterial Cell Structure M. Paine

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13 STRUCTURE OF BACTERIA M. Paine  Thousand times bigger than a virus  Unicellular [living]  Cell is simpler than other living organisms  Can carry out all the functions of living organisms

14 STRUCTURE OF BACTERIA M. Paine  Rigid cell wall made of polysaccharides and amino acids [protection]  Plasma membrane  Serves as a mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum and sometimes a chloroplast  Controls entry and exit of substances  Rigid cell wall made of polysaccharides and amino acids [protection]  Plasma membrane  Serves as a mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum and sometimes a chloroplast  Controls entry and exit of substances

15 STRUCTURE OF BACTERIA M. Paine  Prokaryotes  Do not have a true nucleus  No nuclear membrane  DNA is combined with histone ( a protein) as in eukaryotes  Single chromosome consists of a closed loop  Many have a waxy capsule for protection  Especially disease causing bacteria  Some have flagella for locomotion  Prokaryotes  Do not have a true nucleus  No nuclear membrane  DNA is combined with histone ( a protein) as in eukaryotes  Single chromosome consists of a closed loop  Many have a waxy capsule for protection  Especially disease causing bacteria  Some have flagella for locomotion

16 STRUCTURE OF A BACTERIAL CELL Chromosome Pilus (fimbria) Ribosome Storage granule Flagellum Capsule or Slime layer Cell Wall Plasma Membrane Cytoplasm Plasmid M. Paine

17 SHAPES OF BACTERIA M. Paine  Spherical : cocci  Rod shaped: bacilli  Spiral shaped: spiralla  Comma shaped: vibrios MAKE NOTE

18 M. Paine

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20 Shapes of Bacteria  Coccus  Chain = Streptoccus  Cluster = Staphylococcus  Bacillus  Chain = Streptobacillus  Coccobacillus  Vibrio = curved  Spirillum  Spirochete  Square  Star M. Paine

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23 A BACTERIAL DISEASE M. Paine  TUBERCULOSIS

24 M. Paine  CHRONIC BACTERIAL INFECTION  AFFECTS ALL ORGANS OF THE BODY  MAINLY THE LUNGS

25 M. Paine

26 Mycobacterium tuberculosis M. Paine  CAUSED BY:  TB bacillus  Covered with a waxy coat  Protection from drying out  Heat  Bodies immune system  Can remain alive for a long time  Can survive in dust particles

27 CHARACTERISTICS M. Paine  Bacteria are the oldest and most abundant organisms living on the Earth.  Thrive in a variety of environments  Bacteria are mostly useful but can cause diseases  Can only be seen under a microscope  Thousand times bigger than a virus  Occur in diverse shapes and types  Bacteria are the oldest and most abundant organisms living on the Earth.  Thrive in a variety of environments  Bacteria are mostly useful but can cause diseases  Can only be seen under a microscope  Thousand times bigger than a virus  Occur in diverse shapes and types

28 MORE CHARACTERISTICS M. Paine  The DNA of bacteria is made of a single chromosome.  In favourable conditions bacteria reproduce asexually by binary fission  In unfavourable conditions (high temperatures, dryness) bacteria form spores with a thick protective coat  The DNA of bacteria is made of a single chromosome.  In favourable conditions bacteria reproduce asexually by binary fission  In unfavourable conditions (high temperatures, dryness) bacteria form spores with a thick protective coat

29 SIZE OF BACTERIA  Unit for measurement : Micron or micrometer,μm:  1μm = mm  Size: Varies with kinds of bacteria, and also related to their age and external environment. M. Paine Cocci: sphere, 1μm Bacilli: rods, μm in width -3 μm in length Spiral bacteria: 1~3 μm in length and μm in width

30 BINARY FISSION M. Paine  FAVOURABLE CONDITIONS  Rapid [once every 20 minutes]  Split into two [binary fission]  DNA duplicates itself  Cytoplasm is divided by the cell wall growing inwards  Each of the new cells contains the same genetic information as the parent cell  Ideal conditions = warmth, moisture, food, oxygen, lack of toxins and correct pH

31 Binary Fission M. Paine

32 Rapid Generation Times M. Paine 1cell to 2 million cells in 7 hours! Only a build up of waste or depletion of food will stop growth

33 REPRODUCTION UNDER UNFAVOURABLE CONDITIONS M. Paine  From a thick protective coat around themselves = spore  Bacterium becomes dormant inside the spore  Can withstand unfavourable conditions e.g. dryness, high temperatures  Spore splits open when conditions become better to release the bacterium  Followed by normal rapid binary fission

34 HOW SERIOUS M. Paine  1993 world health organisation proclaimed the tuberculosis pandemic was a global emergency  Pandemic = global epidemic with the possibility of all people benig affected  2002 highest mortality rate was in africa

35 HOW IS TB SPREAD M. Paine  Spread in moisture droplets  From an infected to an uninfected person  TB bacillis is spread through the air when an infected people cough, sneeze, talk or spit  Uninfected person breathes in the moisture droplets containing the bacillus  Bacilli multiply in their air sacs

36 AFTER INFECTION M. Paine  STRONG IMMUNE SYSTEM  Infection is contained walled off in a fibrous capsule  Lie dormant for years  No symptoms  WEAK IMMUNE SYSTEM  Bacilli multiply  Individual gets ill with pulmonary TB  STRONG IMMUNE SYSTEM  Infection is contained walled off in a fibrous capsule  Lie dormant for years  No symptoms  WEAK IMMUNE SYSTEM  Bacilli multiply  Individual gets ill with pulmonary TB

37 EFFECTS OF TB [SYMPTOMS] M. Paine  Individual does not feel well  Persistent cough [coughing up blood]  Weight loss  Fevers  Night sweats  Tired and weak  Individual does not feel well  Persistent cough [coughing up blood]  Weight loss  Fevers  Night sweats  Tired and weak Patient could lose earnings while ill Stigma attached to this disease Untreated it is easily spread Patient could lose earnings while ill Stigma attached to this disease Untreated it is easily spread

38 MANAGEMENT BY PERSON M. Paine  TB can be cured  Treated with an aggressive antibiotic regime called DOTS  Directly Observed Therapy, Short Course  Patients are carefully monitored to make sure that they take their full course of antibiotics  Watched as they swallow the tablets!  Lasts for six months  They will not be able to infect others within days of starting treatment  TB can be cured  Treated with an aggressive antibiotic regime called DOTS  Directly Observed Therapy, Short Course  Patients are carefully monitored to make sure that they take their full course of antibiotics  Watched as they swallow the tablets!  Lasts for six months  They will not be able to infect others within days of starting treatment

39 MANAGEMENT OF TB BY SOCIETY M. Paine  PREVENT THE SPREAD OF TB  Screen people at risk  Treat infected patients quickly  Solve overcrowding and malnutrition  SUPPLY GOOD QUALITY INFORMATION  Eg healthy diets + ways to decrease spreading TB  PROVIDE WELL EDUCTAED HEALTH CARE WORKERS  Persuade patients to take drugs  IMMUNISATION AGAINST TB  BCG vaccine given soon after birth  PREVENT THE SPREAD OF TB  Screen people at risk  Treat infected patients quickly  Solve overcrowding and malnutrition  SUPPLY GOOD QUALITY INFORMATION  Eg healthy diets + ways to decrease spreading TB  PROVIDE WELL EDUCTAED HEALTH CARE WORKERS  Persuade patients to take drugs  IMMUNISATION AGAINST TB  BCG vaccine given soon after birth

40 PROBLEM:MUTI- DRUG RESISTANT TB M. Paine  Many patients stop taking the medication once they start feeling better  TB bacillus then develops resistance to the drugs the next time they are ill with TB and on treatment again  Called multi- drug resistant TB

41 PREVENTION M. Paine  Most children are immunised against TB soon after birth with the BCG vaccine  Repeated once or twice before going to school  Poverty and the underlying social problems of overcrowding and malnutrition need to be addressed: Overcrowding increases the chance of the TB bacillus spreading Malnutrition weakens the immune system  Most children are immunised against TB soon after birth with the BCG vaccine  Repeated once or twice before going to school  Poverty and the underlying social problems of overcrowding and malnutrition need to be addressed: Overcrowding increases the chance of the TB bacillus spreading Malnutrition weakens the immune system

42 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIV AND TB M. Paine  HIV weakens the immune system  HIV positive people infected with TB are very likely to become sick  TB is the leading cause of death among people who are HIV-positive  IN AFRICA, HIV IS THE MAIN REASON WHY THE INCIDENCE OF TB HAS INCREASED OVER THE LAST 10 YEARS  HIV weakens the immune system  HIV positive people infected with TB are very likely to become sick  TB is the leading cause of death among people who are HIV-positive  IN AFRICA, HIV IS THE MAIN REASON WHY THE INCIDENCE OF TB HAS INCREASED OVER THE LAST 10 YEARS

43 Good Bacteria M. Paine  Food production (cheeses, yogurt, alcohol, etc)  Making medicines (insulin)  Recycling

44 Bad Bacteria M. Paine  Are pathogenic (cause disease)  Most are parasitic which cause infections.  Antibiotics are used to treat these infections. An antibiotic is a chemical agent produced by one organism that is harmful to another organism.  One of the most popular antibiotics is Penicillin which comes from a fungus. It destroys the bacteria’s cell wall & therefore causes the cell membrane to break up due to the hypotonic environment.

45 M. Paine THE END

46 IMAGES M. Paine


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