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KINGDOM MONERA.

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Presentation on theme: "KINGDOM MONERA."— Presentation transcript:

1 KINGDOM MONERA

2 100,000++ spp Your body-1000 billion animal cells
10,000 billion bacteria cells M. Paine

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11 Bacterial Cell Structure
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13 STRUCTURE OF BACTERIA Thousand times bigger than a virus
Unicellular [living] Cell is simpler than other living organisms Can carry out all the functions of living organisms M. Paine

14 STRUCTURE OF BACTERIA Rigid cell wall made of polysaccharides and amino acids [protection] Plasma membrane Serves as a mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum and sometimes a chloroplast Controls entry and exit of substances M. Paine

15 STRUCTURE OF BACTERIA Prokaryotes
Do not have a true nucleus No nuclear membrane DNA is combined with histone ( a protein) as in eukaryotes Single chromosome consists of a closed loop Many have a waxy capsule for protection Especially disease causing bacteria Some have flagella for locomotion M. Paine

16 STRUCTURE OF A BACTERIAL CELL
Chromosome Pilus (fimbria) Ribosome Storage granule Flagellum Capsule or Slime layer Plasmid Cell Wall Cytoplasm Plasma Membrane M. Paine

17 SHAPES OF BACTERIA Spherical : cocci Rod shaped: bacilli
MAKE NOTE Spherical : cocci Rod shaped: bacilli Spiral shaped: spiralla Comma shaped: vibrios M. Paine

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20 Shapes of Bacteria Coccus Bacillus Coccobacillus Vibrio = curved
Chain = Streptoccus Cluster = Staphylococcus Bacillus Chain = Streptobacillus Coccobacillus Vibrio = curved Spirillum Spirochete Square Star M. Paine

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23 A BACTERIAL DISEASE TUBERCULOSIS M. Paine

24 CHRONIC BACTERIAL INFECTION AFFECTS ALL ORGANS OF THE BODY
MAINLY THE LUNGS M. Paine

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26 Mycobacterium tuberculosis
CAUSED BY: TB bacillus Covered with a waxy coat Protection from drying out Heat Bodies immune system Can remain alive for a long time Can survive in dust particles M. Paine

27 CHARACTERISTICS Bacteria are the oldest and most abundant organisms living on the Earth. Thrive in a variety of environments Bacteria are mostly useful but can cause diseases Can only be seen under a microscope Thousand times bigger than a virus Occur in diverse shapes and types M. Paine

28 MORE CHARACTERISTICS The DNA of bacteria is made of a single chromosome. In favourable conditions bacteria reproduce asexually by binary fission In unfavourable conditions (high temperatures, dryness) bacteria form spores with a thick protective coat M. Paine

29 SIZE OF BACTERIA Unit for measurement : Micron or micrometer,μm:
1μm = mm Size: Varies with kinds of bacteria, and also related to their age and external environment. Cocci: sphere, 1μm Bacilli: rods , μm in width -3 μm in length Spiral bacteria: 1~3 μm in length and μm in width M. Paine

30 BINARY FISSION FAVOURABLE CONDITIONS Rapid [once every 20 minutes]
Split into two [binary fission] DNA duplicates itself Cytoplasm is divided by the cell wall growing inwards Each of the new cells contains the same genetic information as the parent cell Ideal conditions = warmth, moisture, food, oxygen, lack of toxins and correct pH M. Paine

31 Binary Fission M. Paine

32 Rapid Generation Times
1cell to 2 million cells in 7 hours! Only a build up of waste or depletion of food will stop growth M. Paine

33 REPRODUCTION UNDER UNFAVOURABLE CONDITIONS
From a thick protective coat around themselves = spore Bacterium becomes dormant inside the spore Can withstand unfavourable conditions e.g. dryness, high temperatures Spore splits open when conditions become better to release the bacterium Followed by normal rapid binary fission M. Paine

34 HOW SERIOUS 1993 world health organisation proclaimed the tuberculosis pandemic was a global emergency Pandemic = global epidemic with the possibility of all people benig affected 2002 highest mortality rate was in africa M. Paine

35 HOW IS TB SPREAD Spread in moisture droplets
From an infected to an uninfected person TB bacillis is spread through the air when an infected people cough, sneeze, talk or spit Uninfected person breathes in the moisture droplets containing the bacillus Bacilli multiply in their air sacs M. Paine

36 AFTER INFECTION STRONG IMMUNE SYSTEM WEAK IMMUNE SYSTEM
Infection is contained walled off in a fibrous capsule Lie dormant for years No symptoms WEAK IMMUNE SYSTEM Bacilli multiply Individual gets ill with pulmonary TB M. Paine

37 EFFECTS OF TB [SYMPTOMS]
Individual does not feel well Persistent cough [coughing up blood] Weight loss Fevers Night sweats Tired and weak Patient could lose earnings while ill Stigma attached to this disease Untreated it is easily spread M. Paine

38 MANAGEMENT BY PERSON TB can be cured
Treated with an aggressive antibiotic regime called DOTS Directly Observed Therapy, Short Course Patients are carefully monitored to make sure that they take their full course of antibiotics Watched as they swallow the tablets! Lasts for six months They will not be able to infect others within days of starting treatment M. Paine

39 MANAGEMENT OF TB BY SOCIETY
PREVENT THE SPREAD OF TB Screen people at risk Treat infected patients quickly Solve overcrowding and malnutrition SUPPLY GOOD QUALITY INFORMATION Eg healthy diets + ways to decrease spreading TB PROVIDE WELL EDUCTAED HEALTH CARE WORKERS Persuade patients to take drugs IMMUNISATION AGAINST TB BCG vaccine given soon after birth M. Paine

40 PROBLEM:MUTI- DRUG RESISTANT TB
Many patients stop taking the medication once they start feeling better TB bacillus then develops resistance to the drugs the next time they are ill with TB and on treatment again Called multi- drug resistant TB M. Paine

41 PREVENTION Most children are immunised against TB soon after birth with the BCG vaccine Repeated once or twice before going to school Poverty and the underlying social problems of overcrowding and malnutrition need to be addressed: Overcrowding increases the chance of the TB bacillus spreading Malnutrition weakens the immune system M. Paine

42 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIV AND TB
HIV weakens the immune system HIV positive people infected with TB are very likely to become sick TB is the leading cause of death among people who are HIV-positive IN AFRICA, HIV IS THE MAIN REASON WHY THE INCIDENCE OF TB HAS INCREASED OVER THE LAST 10 YEARS M. Paine

43 Good Bacteria Food production (cheeses , yogurt , alcohol , etc)
Making medicines (insulin) Recycling M. Paine

44 Bad Bacteria Are pathogenic (cause disease)
Most are parasitic which cause infections. Antibiotics are used to treat these infections. An antibiotic is a chemical agent produced by one organism that is harmful to another organism. One of the most popular antibiotics is Penicillin which comes from a fungus. It destroys the bacteria’s cell wall & therefore causes the cell membrane to break up due to the hypotonic environment. M. Paine

45 THE END M. Paine

46 IMAGES M. Paine


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