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Grains Breads belong to the grain food group and are incredibly versatile in all cultures. The staple of life!

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Presentation on theme: "Grains Breads belong to the grain food group and are incredibly versatile in all cultures. The staple of life!"— Presentation transcript:


2 Grains Breads belong to the grain food group and are incredibly versatile in all cultures. The staple of life!

3 What do I need to know about grains: classifying, nutrition, storing, types, etc.?

4 Which grain is native to the United States? CORN

5 RICE WHEAT #1 #2 Which grain is most widely consumed in the world?

6 What is the difference between baking soda & baking powder? Question: What Is the Difference Between Baking Soda & Baking Powder? Answer: Both baking soda and baking powder are leavening agents, which means they are added to baked goods before cooking to produce carbon dioxide and cause them to 'rise'. Baking powder contains baking soda, but the two substances are used under different conditions. Baking Soda is pure sodium bicarbonate. When baking soda is combined with moisture and an acidic ingredient (e.g., yogurt, chocolate, buttermilk, honey), the resulting chemical reaction produces bubbles of carbon dioxide that expand under oven temperatures, causing baked goods to rise. The reaction begins immediately upon mixing the ingredients, so you need to bake recipes which call for baking soda immediately, or else they will fall flat!sodium bicarbonatecarbon dioxide Baking Powder contains sodium bicarbonate, but it includes the acidifying agent already (cream of tartar), and also a drying agent (usually starch). Baking powder is available as single-acting baking powder and as double-acting baking powder. Single- acting powders are activated by moisture, so you must bake recipes which include this product immediately after mixing. Double-acting powders react in two phases and can stand for a while before baking. With double-acting powder, some gas is released at room temperature when the powder is added to dough, but the majority of the gas is released after the temperature of the dough increases in the oven.cream of tartar

7 GRAIN Cereal grains were some of the first domesticated plants, and are the most important staple foods throughout the world. Cereal grains are the least expensive source of calories for human consumption. At sites in Jordan near the Dead Sea, archaeoligists have uncovered remains of four structures used to store grains about 11,300 years ago (9,300 BC) - 1,000 years before domesticated plants were known to be cultivated there. This is the oldest known evidence for systematic storage of wild grains. It is believed that hunter-gatherers sowed wild seeds in fields and stored the surplus for 1,000 to 2,000 years before domesticated species appeared. The would have made it possible to establish permanent communities before cultivation of domesticated plants began. Grains, also called cereal or cereal grains, are the seeds or fruits of various plants in the grass family, and include wheat, corn, rice, barley, oats, millet, rye, sorghum, and triticale. Some other seeds that are not grasses, but are usually characterized as grains are buckwheat, quinoa, and wild rice.cereal grains BELL RINGER

8 HOW MUCH DO YOU KNOW ABOUT GRAINS? 1.___ Rice should be washed before cooking to make sure it is clean. 2.___ “Al dente” means that pasta is overcooked. 3.___ Flour provides structure in baked products. 4.___ salt helps yeast grow quickly 5.___ Yeast used for baking is always marked with a packing date. 6.___ All baked products are leavened with some form of gas. 7.___ The ultimate goal of advertising is to create brand recognition. 8.___ The law requires that all grain products be packaged with nutrition information on the label. 9.___ A package labeled “flour” indicates thtat it is made from wheat. 10.___ Durum wheat is used to make most flour on the market today. 11.___ Cooked cereals cost approximately one half the cost of ready-to-eat cereals. 12.___ Pasta can be considered a convenience food. 13.___ Grain products are generally less costly than protein foods or fruits & veggies! IN SPACE PROVIDED WRITE T (true) OR F (false), DEPENDING ON ACCURACY OF STATEMENT.

9 14. Cereal must be _______ while heating in order to prevent lumps. 15. Quick breads are leavened with ___________ ________, _____________ _________, or _________ 16. When fat is cut into dry ingredients to make pie crust, the mixing method is called the __________________________ method. 17.The method for combining ingredients by stirring gently until just moist is known as the ______________ method. 18.Stiffly beaten egg whites must be ______________ into a batter using a rubber scraper When ingredients are combined all at once, the method is called the _________ ________ method. 20.Cake pans should be _______________ in the oven to allow even heat distribution. ************************************************************************************************* UNDERLINE THE CORRECT ANSWERS FOR THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS. NOTE THAT SOME OF THE QUESTIONS MAY HAVE SEVERAL CORRECT ANSWERS. 21.Which of the following do not come from grains? a. popcorn b. potato flour c. wheat germ d. oatmeal e. tortilla chips 22.Which of the following are not considered grains? a. wheat b. rice c. corn d. soy beans e. none of the above 23.Starch must be cooked to make it a. Edible b. have flavor c. dissolve in water d. all of the above e. none of the above 24.All of the following are made from doughs except a. Biscuits b. pie crust c. pancakes d. sugar cookies e. fritters f. banana bread g. clover leaf rolls 25.To prevent pasta from sticking a. Cook in rapidly boiling water b. don’t overcook c. drain & rinse after cooking d. all of the above e. none of the above COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS BY FILLING IN THE MISSING WORDS.

10 HOMEWORK: Bring in an empty box of cereal for 25 points by __________. We really just need the nutritional information from the side panel, so you could just cut out this portion!

11 Where does tapioca come from, is it a grain? For Lance McDanel: What is triticale? org/wiki/Triticale Unfortunately, Americans consume less than one serving of whole grains per day. (Slavin et al, 2001) TRIVIA Nutritionists recommend at least 3 servings of whole grain foods each day (about 16g per serving or 48g per day). (USDA Dietary Guidelines 2005) The USDA Food Pyramid recommends making half your grains whole grains. ( People that include whole grain and whole wheat products in their diet each day are less likely to get certain chronic diseases like cancer, heart disease and diabetes compared to people who don’t eat whole wheat foods. Slavin For Ryan Neufer Is hops considered to be a grain? Hops is not a grain, rather the flower of a climbing plant.

12 VOCABULARY Yeast Quick Leaven Gliaden Glutenin Knead Fermentation Staple Bran Germ Endosperm Enrichment Whole grain Preservative Fiber UNIT 8

13 How to Choose Whole Grain Foods  Check the ingredient statement on food labels and look for a “whole grain” listed as the first ingredient.  Some common whole grain ingredients include: whole wheat, whole barley, whole oats and oatmeal, graham flour, brown rice, whole grain corn, whole grain cornmeal, and whole rye  Other whole grains include amaranth, millet, quinoa, sorghum and triticale.  Beware of products labeled with words such as “multi-grain,” “100% Wheat,” or “stone ground” they may not necessarily be “whole grain” – make sure the ingredient statement lists “whole” before the specific grain

14 Anatomy of Grain Kernel Bran – The outer covering of the kernel Endosperm - The largest part of the kernel and is very high in starch Germ- Often called the heart of the kernel This slide is to help you with # on your ‘GRAIN PRODUCTS’ paper for note taking.

15 A Close LOOK at the Grain Kernel BranEndospermGerm Outer protective covering of the kernel Source of vitamins Source of fiber Bran is removed during refining. Largest part of the kernel Contains most of the starch & protein Few minerals Little fiber It is meant to be the food supply for the plant as it grows MAIN source of energy The only part of the kernel in refined flour The heart of the kernel Contains fat (can go rancid) Is the reproductive part of the kernel Richest in vitamins, minerals, protein, & fat Smallest part of kernel Germ is removed during refining. Whole grain products contain all 3 parts of the kernel.

16 Alton Brown, part 1: “Dr. Strangeloaf” part 2: Terms to Define on ‘GRAIN PRODUCTS’ handout Whole grain Milling or refining Enrichment Additives Leavening The bran and germ are left on the endosperm Grinding wheat to make flour Adding vitamins and minerals that were lost in the milling process Ingredients added to food product to preserve, color, or flavor. Expanding or rising E358F282167A71B3A312E358F282167A71B3A&first=0&FORM=LKVR1 Flour Mill: from grain kernel to loaf

17 What vitamins are added to bread to enrich it? If you’re not sure read through your handout / notes from the video titled, ‘Amazing Grains.’

18 Nutritional Value of Bread Hint: “B” for bread…. Vitamin “B” What are the B vitamins we learned about many units ago that are also found in bread? NIACIN THIAMIN RIBLOFLAVIN

19 Additives What are they? Are they bad for us? What is a common example of an additive in our food that has been used for centuries? What are the purposes of putting additives in bread?

20 ADDITIVES Food Additive: Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. Some additives have been used for centuries; for example, preserving food by pickling (with vinegar), salting, as with bacon, preserving sweets or using sulfur dioxide as in some wines. With the advent of processed foods in the second half of the 20th century, many more additives have been introduced, of both natural and artificial origin. (source - wikipedia) Some additives are manufactured from natural sources such as soybeans and corn, which provide lecithin to maintain product consistency, or beets, which provide beet powder used as food coloring. Other additives are man-made. Artificial additives can be produced more economically, with greater purity and more consistent quality than some of their natural counterparts. A substance added to a food for a specific purpose in that food is referred to as a direct additive. Many direct additives are identified on the ingredient label of foods. WHAT ARE THREE EXAMPLES OF ADDITIVES THAT ARE USED TO CHANGE GRAIN PRODUCTS? COLORING, SWEETENER, PRESERVATIVES (BHT)

21 Aluminium silicate - Mineral salt, anticaking agent used in medications and vending machine dried milk. Amino acids Compounds - needed by the human body in a certain combination. Animal protein usually has the needed composition, but amino acids are also used to fortify vegetables. Ammonium carbonates - Mineral salt, adjusting and modifying agent. Irritant to mucous membranes, alters pH of urine and may cause loss of calcium and magnesium. Used in some medications, baked goods, baking powder, cocoa items confectionary, ice cream. Anti-caking agents - many foods tend to coagulate and specific agents are needed to prevent this. Many anti-caking agents are natural products such as talc (E533b) and bentonite (E558), and some are manufactured, such as silicon dioxide (E551) (chemically the same as sand but much purer), calcium silicate (E552) and sodium aluminosilicate (E554). Antimicrobials - prevent the growth of molds, yeasts and bacteria. Antioxidants - Keep foods from becoming rancid, browning, or developing black spots. Antioxidants also minimize the damage to some essential amino acids and the loss of some vitamins Azo dyes - Azo dyes are members of a chemical group comprising the following colorants: E 102 tartrazin, E 110 yellow-orange S, E 122 Azorubine, E 123 amaranth, E 124 cochineal red red A, E 151 brilliant black BN, E 180 Lithol rubine BK, E 128 red 2G, E 155 brown HT. Bentonite - From natural clay. Decolouriser, filter medium, emulsifier and anti-caking agent. Used in pharmaceutical agents for external use, edible fats and oils, sugar, wine. BHA & BHT -Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is a phenolic antioxidant Phenolic antioxidants prevent rancidity of fats and oils in food by protecting against lipid oxidation. B vitamins - Niacin, thiamin and riboflavin. Vitamins added to or used to enrich bread, flour and cereals to help combat nutritional deficiencies Calcium hydroxide - Mineral salt made from lime as a firming and neutralising agent used in making beer, soap and glazing pretzels, infant formula as a mineral, cocoa products, sour cream, edible fats and oils, jam, tinned vegetables

22 Calcium Propionate - An inhibitor of molds and other microorganisms in foods, animal feed, tobacco, pharmaceuticals in butyl rubber to improve processability and Scorching resistance. Colorings -make food visually more attractive Copper sulphate - Mineral salt, anti-caking agent which is manufactured but occurs naturally and used for making azo dyes. Not to be taken on its own! D & C - Prefix meaning that a dye is FDA-approved for drugs and cosmetics. E 100 Turmeric - It is the natural color of the root of turmeric (Curcuma longa). It is the traditional ingredient of curry powder. It may be obtained by synthesis. Its color is yellow + Emulsifier - An additive used in the preparation and processing of foods, which is used to blend or mix ingredients together and also, to keep them from separating. Erythorbates - Erythorbates are food ingredients that inhibit the change of flavor and color in food when exposed to air, such as when a cut apple is exposed to air. Ext. D & C - Prefix signifying a dye that is FDA-approved for externally applied drugs and cosmetics only. Ferrous gluconate - Color-retention agent (derived from iron and glucose) used in olives, iron supplements (use sparingly). Food acids - They help maintain a constant sourness in food. FD & C - Prefix for a dye that is FDA-approved for foods, drugs and cosmetics. Flavor enhancers - enhance food palatability. Glazing agents - They give a shiny appearance or provide a protective coating to a food. Glucono delta-lactone - Food acid, artificial sweetener base, acidity regulator. Made from glucose. Stops 'stone' formation during manufacture with milk and beer. Glycerine - Glycerine is an alcohol (glycerol) and is used as a preservative in the food industry, as well as a sweetener: it is very sweet, yet it contains no sugar. This makes it an ideal sweetener for patients who cannot take sugar, such as the increasing number of Candida sufferers.

23 Humectants - Used to prevent dried fruit from drying out. Iodine - Added to salt to prevent a goiter, an iodine-deficiency condition. Iron - Added to foods to help prevent anemia and other iron-deficiency diseases. Lecithin - An emulsifier, or mixing agent, that helps fat and water stay together. Lecithin is present in egg yolks and milk; it aids mixing in mayonnaise and ice cream. Magnesium chloride - Mineral salt, firming agent. Magnesium is an essential mineral. Used in foods and pharmaceuticals. Magnesium oxide - Alkali, neutraliser and anti-caking agent. It can be found in frozen dairy products, butter, canned peas, cocoa products, medications. Used as a medical laxative. Mono- and Dyglycerides - Emulsifiers present in bread, margarine and peanut butter. MSG (monosodium glutamate) - A flavor enhancer derived from beet sugar. MSG is manufactured through a process of protein hydrolysis. When a product is 99% pure MSG, the product is called "monosodium glutamate" by the FDA and must be labeled as such. However, when a hydrolyzed protein contains less than 99% MSG, the FDA does not require that the MSG be identified. "Autolyzed yeast," "hydrolyzedsoy protein," and "sodium caseinate," are examples of names givento hydrolyzed proteins on food labels. MSG is found in most soups, salad dressings, and processed meats; in some crackers, bread, canned tuna fish, most frozen entrees, ice cream, and frozen yogurt. It is often used in "low fat" foods to make up for the flavor lost when fat is reduced or eliminated. Natamycin - Natamycin (it is also called pimaricin) is an antibiotic used in infections of mouth,foot and genitals.It is employed in food industry to treat the shell of cheese. Resistance against this antibiotic will soon be established in bacteria coming in contact with it.His use should therefore be forbidden in food industry Nitrites. (1) Inhibit the growth of bacterial spores that cause botulism, a deadly food-borne illness. (2) Are color enhancements of cured meat, poultry, and fish products. Nitrates react with secondary amines to form nitrosamines Phenolic antioxidants - They prevent rancidity of fats and oils in food by protecting against lipid oxidation. Potassium sorbate - the potassium salt of sorbic acid. It is much more soluble in water than the acid. Potassium sorbate will produce sorbic acid once it is dissolved in water and is the most widely used food preservative in the world. It is effective up to pH 6.5 but effectiveness increases as the pH decreases. Potassium sulphates - Mineral salt, anti-caking agent for beer, pharmaceuticals, salt substitute. No known adverse effects, but large doses can cause severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Propellants - gases which help propel food from a container. Red #3 - Though FDA viewed Red No. 3 cancer risks as small--about 1 in 100,000 over a 70-year lifetime--the agency banned provisional listings because of Delaney directives. At the same time, Red No. 3 has "permanent" listings for food and drug uses that are still allowed although the agency has announced plans to propose revoking these uses as well. For now, Red No. 3 can be used in foods and oral medications. Products such as maraschino cherries, bubble gum, baked goods, and all sorts of snack foods and candy may contain Red No. 3.

24 Red #40 - FD and C Red #40: Allura Red AC. Newest color. Used widely in the cosmetics industry. Approved in Allied Chemical has an exclusive patent on it. It is substituted for FD and C Red #4 in many cosmetics, food and drug products. Permanently listed because like the producers of "temporary" colors, this producer supplied reproductive data. However, many American scientists feel that the safety of Red # 40 is far from established, particularly because all of the tests were conducted by the manufacturer. Therefore, the dye should not have receive a permanent safety rating. The National Cancer institute reported that p-credine, a chemical used in preparation of Red #40, was carcinogenic in animals. The FDA permanently listed Red #40 for use in foods and ingested drugs but only temporarily listed it for cosmetics and externally applied drugs. See also Azo Dyes and FD and C colors. Sorbitol - A polyol (sugar alcohol), bulk sweetener found in numerous food products. In addition to providing sweetness, it is an excellent humectant and texturizing agent. Sodium Benzoate and Benzoic Acid - These two compounds are related because sodium benzote produces benzoic acid once it is dissolved in water. Benzoic acid is the compound with the antimicrobial properties, and is found naturally in cranberries, prunes, greengage plums, cinnamon, ripe cloves and apples. Sodium carbonates - Mineral salt, adjusting and modifying agent in the process of malting beer, baking soft and fizzy drinks, medications. No known adverse effects in small quantities. Sorbates - This family of compounds is available as sorbic acid, potassium sorbate, sodium sorbate or calcium sorbate. Sorbic acid is the compound with the antimicrobial properties but its salts (sorbates) are used in many cases due to differences in solubility. Stabilizers - They maintain the uniform dispersion of substances in a food. Sulfites - Sulfites are used as antioxidants to prevent discoloration of light-colored fruits and vegetables, such as dried apples and dehydrated potatoes. They are also used in wine-making because they inhibit bacterial growth but do not interfere with the desired development of yeast. Stearic acid - Saturated fatty acid, possibly of pig origin, cascarilla bark extract or vegetable fats. Anti-caking agent in chewing gum, confectionary, butter or vanilla flavouring for drinks, artificial sweeteners. Talc - Linked to stomach cancer, typical products are polished rice, chocolate, confectionary, icing sugar, noodles, medicinal tablets Thickeners and vegetable gums - They help improve texture and maintain uniform consistency. Vitamin D - Commonly added to milk, to prevent the childhood bone disease known as rickets, which is caused by a vitamin D deficiency. An excess of vitamin D causes abnormally high blood concentrations of calcium which can eventually cause severe damage to the bones, soft tissues, and kidneys. It is almost always associated with forms of vitamin D requiring a doctor's prescription. Yellow #5. This dye is used to add color to a large number of items, such as wool, silk, sheepskins, furs, the plastic used in some cloth and containers (nylon, polyesters, and poly methyl-methacrylate), foods, personal products (soap, deodorants, cosmetics) and drugs. One reason people use it so much is that it dissolves easily in water.

25 YEAST Yeast is actually a plant and is useful in leavening bread. This means that the bread rises or expands before baking. Yeast is available in two forms. They are: When substituting dry yeast for compressed yeast, it is helpful to remember that one cube of compressed yeast is equivalent to ____ single packages of dry yeast. Dry & Compressed 3

26 Converting Yeast! 1 compressed cake of yeast = 3 single dry yeast packages. (#27 – 28)

27 RICE & PASTA When cooking pasta or rice, add some kind of ______ to rapidly ___________ water! oil boiling # 30 In general, rice triples in volume when cooked!

28 How to cook pasta… Al dente is a Italian term for pasta meaning that is fully cooked, but not overly soft. An Italian phrase for "to the tooth," it comes from testing pasta's consistency with your teeth.

29 GRAIN PRODUCTS ~ handout 1 – 3. Draw & label the three parts of the kernel: 4. The endosperm is the largest part of the kernel and is very high in ___________ content. 5. The ______ is called the heart of the kernel. 6. The outer covering of the kernel is called the ________. Define the following terms: 7. Whole grain 8.Milling or Refining 9.Enrichment 10.Most products using whole grain flour are much lighter/darker in color and have a coarser texture. List ten bread & cereal products which are commonly eaten

30 What three nutrients are most notably found in breads & cereals? What are three examples of additives that are used to change grain products? Yeast is actually a plant and is useful in leavening bread. This means that the bread rises or expands before baking. Yeast is available in two forms. They are: When substituting dry yeast for compressed yeast, it is helpful to remember that one cube of compressed yeast is equivalent to ____ single packages of dry yeast. 30.When cooking a grain product such as pasta or rice, add some kind of _______ to rapidly __________ water

31 Amazing Grains List 12 grains: 1.How much of the planet’s cropland is used to raise grain? 2.How many servings of grain should we include daily in our diet? 3.What type of flour is used for making bread? 4.What products are made using soft wheat? 5.What type of flour is used to make noodles and pasta? 6.How is all-purpose flour made? 7.Draw a kernel of wheat & label it. 8.How does whole wheat flour get its name? 9.What nutrients are added to white flour to enrich it? 10.What creates the structure in bread? 11.Why might food scientists and nutritionists blame corn for America’s obesity problem? a.b. c. d. e.f. g. h. j. k. l. i. Wheat Oats Millet Rice Rye Triticale Corn Buckwheat Ameranth Barley Spelt Quinoa 50% 6 oz. Hard wheat (higher protein) Pastries Durham Wheat A blend of hard & soft wheats Iron, folic acid, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin Gluten (protein) “it’s all over the place”…. Corn is turned into sugar (corn syrup) … which is found everywhere, like soda! It is made from the “whole” kernel

32 Notes on Breads Breads are divided into two categories. Category is determined by leavening agent used: 1) yeast2) quick Leavening agent – ingredient that makes the bread rise – Examples: Baking powder Baking soda Yeast Yeast breads – 6 essential ingredients Main proteins in flour: Yeast is a plant (fungus). In or to develop, it requires.... (Salt has a tendency to retard the growth of yeast) 1) Flour – makes framework 2) Water – dissolves other ingredients 3) Shortening – makes bread tender 4) Yeast – allows for leavening 5) Salt – adds flavor 6)Sugar – allows browning and adds flavor Glutenin & Gliaden Food = sugar &Warmth (110 – 120 ) &Liquid (to activate) Chemical leaveners When combined with water & mixed, these proteins form ‘gluten’; the structure of breads!

33 Grains should be stored in air tight containers to keep out moisture, dust, and these common critters:

34 Grains Test… December ________ What to know: Muffin Method Yeast (what it needs to grow, fermentation) Steps in making a yeast bread Differences between quick & yeast breads

35 Two main type of mixtures… Both are the raw form of a baked or fried good. Either can contain yeast or chemical leaveners. Batters ~ more liquid Pour Batter  Can be for coating fried foods.  Can easily pour out of a spout, like pancakes & funnel cake. Drop Batter  Often dropped by spoonfuls, like muffins Doughs ~ more solid  Have a thicker consistency.  Can be rolled, shaped, cut like pie crust, braided rolls, pizza crust  It doesn’t spread out when removed from the bowl in its raw form

36 Words & phrases to know: kneading: fermentation: punching down: shape dough: “oven spring:” test for doneness: cool: Release carbon dioxide; reduce size of holes in bread; use only a light coating of flour Occurs as yeast grows (warm place – 85 degrees) Use fist to eliminate air bubbles – This is done to avoid stretching dough. many variations available Preheat oven near the end of second rising time – bread is placed in hot oven and gets larger immediately Tap bottom of loaf with wooden spoon – listen for hollow sound; this indicates bread is done. On wire rack so bread does not become soggy

37 Procedure for yeast bread preparation: Dissolve yeast in warm (110 F) liquid Add sugar, salt, and fat. (shortening doesn’t need to melt) Add yeast; stir. Add half the flour. Beat with wooden spoon until smooth. Add enough of remaining flour so dough is not too sticky to knead. (Avoid too much flour for good consistency.) Let dough stand 5 – 10 minutes. Knead 8 – 10 minutes. Place in greased bowl and turn dough so top is coated with shortening. Cover with plastic wrap. Let rise until double in bulk. Punch down shape, let rise again…. This is called PROOFING! Bake

38 How much sugar is in your cereal? Sugar is going to be listed in grams on the nutritional label. 4 grams of sugar = 1 teaspoon of sugar If your sugar had 14 grams of sugar, you would divide 14 by 4. The answer would be 3 ½ teaspoons of sugar per serving. Directions: 1.Figure out how much sugar is in one serving. 2.If you eat more than one serving, figure out what 1.5, 2, or 2.5 times the serving amount is to get a realistic view of how much sugar you’re really getting. 3.If you also add sugar to your cereal, you’ll have to add that on as well. 4.Share with your group which cereals have the most & least amount of sugar! Most nutritionists & dentists are recommending that you choose cereals that contain 6 grams or less of sugar per serving.

39 Top 10 WORST CEREALS!!! How much sugar is too much? Consumption of “added (free) sugars” includes: table sugar (refined, processed sugars from cane, beet - sucrose - added to foods by the manufacturer, cook or consumer) corn sugar (glucose) corn syrup high-fructose corn syrup commonly added to fruit juices sugars naturally present in fruit juices honey, and other syrups, like molasses and maple syrup A report released in 2006 by the World Health Organization (WHO) urges people to limit their daily consumption of free (added) sugars to less than 10 percent of their total energy intake (Diet Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases; TRS916). This recommendation adds up to approximately 12 teaspoons (48 grams) of added (free) sugar a day based on an average 2000-calorie diet. ***So, if I'm eating a 1300 calorie a day diet, that means I should limit those added sugars (like the one in the oatmeal) to about 26g. Yikes - that adds up fast if you eat any kind of processed food or condiment! worst-cereals.html?page=1

40 Converting grams of sugar to ounces… let’s look at it on the digital scale! metric- conversion t/grams-to- ounces.htm

41 Video demonstration of kneading dough. Alton Brown: “Pretzel Logic” Part 1 Part 2

42 Alton Brown “Gotten Grains” … excellent review for Grains Test.

43 Purchasing Breads & Cereals… Determine if the statements are true or false. Correct the false statements by rewriting the entire sentence. There are only 7 false statements. 1.___Studies show most breakfast cereals are 50% sugar. 1.___ Nationality, geographical area, gender & age all affect our choices when purchasing food products. 2.___ Grains are high in carbohydrates, and most have some protein as well. 3.___Grains are not really essential for a well balanced diet. 4.___Breads and cereals provide an excellent way to stretch food dollars. 5.___ The bran is the outer covering of the kernel and is very rich in minerals, vitamins and cellulose. 6.___ The germ is the largest part of the kernel and has a very high starch content 7.___ Milling is the process in which the kernel is broken down and separated into various parts. 8.___ Enrichment is the process of putting back vitamins and minerals which are lost during the milling process. 9.___ Ready to eat products are usually much less expensive than those products which require some preparation. 10.___ Some of the most inexpensive, nutritious and budget-stretching foods on the market are made from grain products. 11.___Grains are considered the seeds of grasses that can be eaten. 12.___ Grains should be stored in tightly-covered containers to keep out moisture, dust, and insects. 13.___ The most important rule in preparing any flour or cereal mixture is to measure accurately. 14.___It is important to cook cereal grains so the starch mixture will digest. 15.___Before cooking rice, it is essential to wash it so it is clean. 16.___In general, rice triples in volume when cooked. 17.___Pasta should be cooked the “al dente” stage which means “to the teeth.” 18.___There are two basic types of flour mixture=batters & doughs 19.___Flour is the main dry ingredient in most grain products and is responsible for providing structure 20.___Quick breads use yeast to make them rise.

44 Three types of quick bread mixtures: 1. ex. 2.ex. 3.ex. Pour batter Drop batter Dough Funnel cake, pancakes Shortcakes, rolled biscuits Many muffins What is the ‘muffin method’ for mixing ingredients?  Measure the dry ingredients into a mixing bowl.  Make a well in the center of the dry ingredients.  In a separate bowl combine beaten eggs with milk & oil or melted fat.  Pour the liquid mixture in the well.  Stir the batter just until the dry ingredients are moistened. When is the ‘muffin method’ used? Usually used for making muffins, waffles, pancakes, popovers, and some coffee cakes. Characteristics of high-quality muffins:  Has a thin, evenly browned crust.  Top is symmetrical, but it looks rough.  When broken apart, the texture is uniform, and the crumb is tender & light. Characteristics of under-mixed muffins:  Low volume  Flat top  The crumb is coarse Characteristics of over-mixed muffins:  Peaked top & pale, slick crust.  When broken, narrow, open areas (tunnels) are visible

45 * Yeast needs ____________ temperatures to grow. * Yeast bread should be kneaded for 5 – 10 minutes to develop the _________. * When yeast bread is left to rise it should first be covered in ________. * Yeast breads should rise until they are ___________ in bulk. * If yeast bread doesn’t rise long enough the bread will be _____________________. * To test for doneness, ‘thump’ the bread with your hand/fingers. There should be a ‘_______________’ to the way it sounds. * Remove bread from hot pans when cooling so that ___________ doesn’t build up, creating a sogginess. FUNCTIONS OF LIQUIDS IN MIXTURES: * improves texture *improves volume * slows ‘staling’ (going stale) (2 ½ - 3 c. of flour in a recipe can absorb 1 c. of liquid.) warmth hollow-ness dense/ compact / heavy oil / fa t gluten doubled moisture 1.Kneading 2.Rounding 3.1 st Rise 4.Punching 5.Shaping 6.Proofing 7.Baking

46 Yeast Bread Study Guide 1.What is the difference between a quick bread and a yeast bread? 2.List the six basic ingredients that are used when making yeast breads. 3._____________ provides the structure of the bread. 4.Flour contains two proteins which are called: 5.When the flour is mixed with a liquid, these two proteins unite to form what is called ________________. 6.The liquid most often used in yeast breads is __________. 7.Liquid in any form improves the texture and volume of baked bread and also delays ______________. 8.2 ½ to 3 cups of flour will absorb ________ cup(s) of liquid. 9.Yeast is a living organism that will produce carbon dioxide if it is placed in warm surroundings and finds suitable food & moisture. 10.The process in which yeast produces carbon dioxide is referred to as ________________________. 11.What two functions does sugar serve in the preparation of bread (not in the fermentation of yeast)? 12.______________________ breaks up gluten to prevent overexpansion of the dough and makes the bread tender. 13.What two functions does salt serve in the preparation of bread? 14.List at least five nutrients which are found in bread. 15.List the seven steps which are required in the preparation of yeast breads. 16.The final fermentation period is referred to as _________________(2 nd rise). 17.Describe the test for doneness when baking yeast bread. a. b. c. d. e. f. a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

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