Presentation on theme: "Word Formation Nuha Alwadaani. Open para 1. p. 52. It is a fact that we can understand and cope with new words (neologisms) and accept the use of different."— Presentation transcript:
Open para 1. p. 52. It is a fact that we can understand and cope with new words (neologisms) and accept the use of different forms of that new word. We can know the source and the development of words by Etymology. Etymology is the study of the origin and history of a word. There is a lot of regularity in the word-formation processes in a language. Consequently, in the current chapter WORD FORMATION, we will explore some of the basic processes by which NEW WORDS are created.
Word Formation Processes Coinage Coinage: It is one of the least common processes of word formation. It is the invention of TOTALLY new words. Coined words come from different sources: 1. Invented trade names for commercial products: They were invented trade names and after the first coinage, they became everyday words in the language. For example, aspirin, nylon, teflon, kleenex, xerox and granola.
Word Formation Processes Coinage 2. IT (Information Technology): For example, the search engine google (to use internet to find information), the American internet customer to customer auction and shopping website ebay (to advertise, buy and sell via ebay—Have you tried ebaying it?). 3. Eponyms ( New words based on the neme of a person or place): For Example, hoover, spangler, sandwich (Earl of Sandwitch), jeans (Italian city of Genoa), fahrenheit (Gabriel Fahrenheit), watt (James Watt).
Word Formation Processes Borrowing Borrowing: the taking over of words from other languages. 1. Words from other languages to English: Croissant (French), dope (Dutch), lilac (Persian), piano (Italian), pretzel (German), sofa (Arabic), yogurt (Turkish).
2. Words from English to other languages: A. Same meaning: Japanese suupaa or supaamaaketto (Supermarket), Hungarian klub and futbal (sports), French le stress, whisky, le weekend. B. Quite different meanings: The German “I’m Partnerlook” to describe two people who are together and are wearing similar clothing.
C. Loan-translation or calque: In calque, there is a direct translation of the elements of a word into the borrowing language. It is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word translation. For example, French grate-ciel which literally translates as (scrape-sky), Dutch wolkenkrabber (cloud scratcher), German wolkenkratzer (cloud scraper), all of which were calques for the English “skyscraper.” Superman is a loan translation of the German Ubermensch. The English Moment of truth is a calque from the Spanish phrase el momento de la verdad. Other examples on page 55.
Word Formation Processes Compounding Compounding is joining together of two separate words to make a single word. 1. Compound nouns: Bookcase, doorknob, fingerprint, sunburn, textbook, wallpaper, and wastebasket. 2. Compound adjectives: Good-looking boy, low-paid job, fast-food restaurant, and full-time job.
Word Formation Processes Blending Blending is combining two seprarte words to produce a single new term. Blending is typically accomplished by taking only the beginning of one word and joining it to the end of the other word. The Beginning of a word + the ending of the other: For example, gasoline + alcohol= gasohol. Smoke + fog= smog. Breakfast + lunch =brunch. Information + entertainment = infotainment. Spanish + English = Spanglish. The Beginning of a word + the beginning of the other: Teleprinter + exchange = telex. Modulator + demodulater = modem.
Word Formation Processes Clipping Clipping occurs when a word of more than one syllable (facsimile) is reduced to a shorter form (fax) and (gasoline) to (gas) usually beginning in the casual speech. Further examples, ad (advertisement), bra (brassiere), flu (influenza), phone (telephone), plane (aeroplane), pub (public house). In educational environment, so many words get reduced as in, chem (Chemistry), exam (examination), gym (gymnastics), lab (laboratory), math (Mathematics), prof (Professor), typo (typographical errors). Clipping names as in Mike, Liz, Sam, Tom.
Word Formation Processes Clipping/Hypocorisms In hypocorisms, a longer word is reduced to a single syllable, then –y or –ie is added to the end. This is the process that results in words like movie (moving pictures), telly (television), Aussie (Australian), bookie (bookmarker), brekky (breakfast) and hankie (handkerchief).
Word Formation Processes Backformation In backformation, a word of one grammatical type (usually a noun) is reduced to form a word of another grammatical type (usually a verb). A good example of backformation is the process whereby the noun television first came into use and then the verb televise was created from it. Examples, denote (donation), emote (emotion), enthuse (enthusiasm), babysit (babysitter), backform (backformation). Examples of worker-work pattern: Editor (edit), sculptor (sculpt), burglars (burgle), peddlers (peddle), swindlers (swindle).
Word Formation Processes Conversion Conversion is a category change or a functional shift. 1. Nouns Verbs: We bottled the home-brew last night. Have you buttered the toast? Someone has to chair the meeting. They are vacationing in Florida.
Word Formation Processes Conversion 2. Verbs Nouns Guess, must and spy a guess, a must, a spy. Phrasal Verbs (to print out, to take over) ( a printout, a takeover). (Want to be) ( a wannabe) He is not in the group, he is a wannabe.
3. Verbs Adjectives: See through see-through material. Stand up a stand-up comedian. 4. Adjectives Verbs or Nouns: Dirty floor to dirty (v.) Empty room to empty (v.) Crazy ideas a crazy (n.) Nasty people a nasty (n.)
5. Compound nouns Adjectives or Verbs The compound noun “ball park” can become an adjective as in a ball-park figure or a verb as in “can you ball-park an estimate of the cost?” Other nouns of this type are carpool, mastermind, microwave and quarterback, which are all regulary used as verbs. Other forms, such as up and down, can also become verbs, as in They’re going to up the price of oil or “ we downed a few beers at the Chimes.”
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