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PROTEINS Chapter 5. Learning Objectives Describe the structure and functions of protein Explain how the body uses protein Discuss the quality and quantity.

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Presentation on theme: "PROTEINS Chapter 5. Learning Objectives Describe the structure and functions of protein Explain how the body uses protein Discuss the quality and quantity."— Presentation transcript:

1 PROTEINS Chapter 5

2 Learning Objectives Describe the structure and functions of protein Explain how the body uses protein Discuss the quality and quantity of protein necessary in the diet Give examples of complementary proteins

3 Learning Objectives Describe the unique nutritional benefits of legumes Distinguish between animal and plant proteins Plan diets with proteins coming from animal and vegetable sources Identify appropriate portions of protein foods per serving and for daily consumption

4 Food Protein Sources (grams)  3 oz meat =  1 oz meat = 7-8  1 cup milk = 8  1 cup yogurt = 8  2 T. peanut butter = 7  1 egg white = 7  ½ c nuts/seeds = 7  ½ legumes/beans = 7  ½ cup grain = 3  1 slice bread = 3  ½ cup veg = 2  1 cup soy milk = 8  1 oz. tofu = 8  ½ cup meat substitute = 7  Veggie Burger = 14  Scoop of protein powder =  Protein Bars  MyPlate- 76 grams

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6 Protein Sources are also sources of …..  Iron  B-vitamins (thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, B-6, B-12)  Zinc  Magnesium and vitamin E (nuts/seeds)  Fiber (legumes)  Omega 3 fats (fish, eggs)

7 How the Body Uses Protein Muscles, organs, blood, bones, nails, hair and skin are mostly protein Proteins in the blood help transport nutrients and oxygen Antibodies, enzymes and hormones are composed of proteins

8 How the Body Uses Protein Necessary for blood clotting Necessary to maintain acid-base balance within cells

9 How the Body Uses Protein Energy  1 gram of protein = 4 calories Used as fuel after carbohydrate and fat

10 How the Body Uses Protein Body breaks down protein in muscle tissue if:  Calories very low  Prolonged physical activity  High fever  Severe burns  Some diseases

11 Protein Structure Amino acids (20) are the building blocks of protein that contain nitrogen in the chemical structure  Essential amino acids (8 or 9)  Cannot be produced by the body  Must be provided by food  Nonessential amino acids  Can be made by the body from essential amino acids

12 Amino Acids Essential Amino AcidsNonessential Amino Acids HistidineAlanine IsoleucineArginine LeucineAspargine LysineAspartic Acid MethionineCysteine PhenylalanineGlutamic Acid ThreonineGlutamine TryptophanGlycine ValineProline Serine Tyrosine

13 Protein  Made of amino acids combined in a specific sequence Large, complex chemical structures

14 Protein Digestion Proteins from food are broken down into separate amino acids and then absorbed into the body Hemoglobin

15 Protein Digestion Digestive enzymes break protein down  Proteases  Pepsin 50,000 different proteins are created in cells from amino acids in the bloodstream Hemoglobin

16 Complete Proteins Foods that provide all essential amino acids in amounts to support growth and maintenance of body tissues High biological value Primarily from animal sources

17 Complete Proteins Foods:  Meat  Fish  Poultry  Cheese  Eggs (perfect amount and variety of amino acids)  Milk  Isolated soy protein

18 Incomplete Proteins Foods that lack one or more of the essential amino acids in sufficient quantity to support growth and maintenance of body tissues Have one or more limiting amino acids Lower biological value score From plant sources

19 Incomplete Proteins Foods:  Grains  Legumes  Nuts  Seeds  Vegetables

20 Complementary Proteins Combining foods that complement limiting amino acids The combination of plant protein foods which when eaten together provide all the essential amino acids.

21 Complementary Proteins  Cereal grain and legumes  Hummus and pita bread  Grain and beans  Black beans and bulgur  Tofu and rice  Nuts and grain  Nut butter sandwich  A small amount of complete protein makes an incomplete protein complete  Cheese and pasta  Pork and beans

22 Protein Recommendations  Body weight  Grams per kg of body weight 170 pounds ÷ 2.2 = 77.2 kg 77.2 kg x.8 gram/kg = 62 grams protein a day  Adults-.8 grams/kg (RDA)  Infants- 2.2 grams/kg  Teens- 1.8 grams/kg  Older Adult- 1.3 grams/kg  Malnourished, Health Issues grams/kg  Athletes grams/kg

23 Protein Needs World Health Organization: 40 grams protein Dietary Guidelines for Americans: % of calories from protein 2000 calories grams/day

24 Protein and Health: Too Much Protein  High protein foods are often high in fat and cholesterol  Few high protein foods are low-fat foods  No extra health benefit  VERY high protein may decrease calcium absorption and increases work of kidney and liver to process

25 Protein and Health: Too Much Protein cont. Very high protein, very low carbohydrate diets are difficult to maintain and are not usually nutritionally adequate High-protein foods are usually more expensive

26 Protein and Health: Too Little Protein Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) Marasmus  Severe protein-calorie malnutrition Kwashiorkor Seen in children in underdeveloped countries  Severe protein malnutrition but with enough calories from starchy foods  Probably not a nutritional problem; due to aflatoxins in the grains eaten

27 Protein and Satiety Protein is more satiating than carbohydrate diet Protein reduces hunger

28 Protein Equivalents MyPlate: 1 ounce protein equivalent = 7 to 8 grams protein  1 ounce meat, poultry, fish  ¼ cup cooked beans  1 tablespoon peanut butter  ½ ounce nuts or seeds

29 Protein Sources: Meat Generally, meats compared in 100 gram or 3 ½ ounce servings Cuts from loin and round are often leanest Check ground meats % 80 vs 90%

30 Protein Sources: Meat Most sausages, spareribs, short ribs are high in fat Game meats are often low in fat  Venison  Buffalo

31 Protein Sources: Poultry Lighter meat is lower in fat Much fat under the skin Skin can be removed before or after cooking

32 Protein Sources Goose and duck is higher in fat that chicken or turkey Protein not very different in free-range, organic, kosher, without hormone or other methods of raising

33 Protein Sources: Seafood Most seafood is high in excellent quality protein Most seafood is either low in fat or high in heart-healthy fat

34 Protein Sources: Eggs Egg protein is of highest biological value Egg white is low-fat protein

35 Protein Sources: Eggs Omega-3 eggs are produced by feeding fishmeal to chickens, usually cost more Shell color does not influence nutrients

36 Protein Sources: Dairy 3 cups or equivalent for most adults Low-fat, non-fat Yogurt, especially Greek yogurt

37 Protein Sources: Milk Substitutes Soymilk is usually protein-rich Nut, hemp, oat and grain milk is usually low in protein Some milk substitutes are fortified with calcium and vitamin D

38 Protein Sources: Legumes Soy protein availability is limited in raw product. tofu or well-cooked allow protein digested Textured vegetable protein (TVP) and isolated soy protein are good sources for vegans

39 Protein Sources: Nuts and Seeds Nuts, nut butters, seeds have protein and fiber Most are high in heart-healthy fats and high in calories 1 ounce is only a few nuts but a large portion of seeds

40 Protein Sources: Grains The limiting essential amino acid is generally lysine Eat with legumes for complementary protein Kamut and teff are highest in protein

41 Protein in Cooking Denaturation  Change in chemical structure of protein by heat, whipping or adding salt or acid Coagulation  Protein strands break and re-bond, releasing water

42 Protein in Cooking Gluten  Protein in wheat. Gluten is the protein that influences texture and structure of dough Amino acids are sometimes used as ingredients  T o boost nutrients  As flavor enhancers  Made into sweeteners

43 Vegetarians 43

44 Vegetarians – Types Strict vegetarian, vegan Excludes all animal products including meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, cheese, other dairy products, ingredients from animal sources such as gelatin. Lacto-vegetarian Excludes meat, poultry, fish and eggs but includes dairy products. Lacto-ovo vegetarian Excludes meat, poultry and fish but includes eggs and dairy products. Most vegetarians in the United States in this category. Raw vegan Includes raw vegetables and fruits, nuts and nut pastes, grain and legume sprouts, seeds, plant oils, sea vegetables, herbs and fresh juices. Excludes all food of animal origin, and all food cooked above 118° F. Flexitarian A mostly vegetarian diet with an occasional meat consumption – “semi” or sometimes vegetarian. Pescetarian A mostly vegetarian diet that includes fish and shellfish but excludes mammals and birds. 44

45 Meeting the Needs of Vegetarians Key nutrition points Include a variety of foods including whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds, fruits and vegetables Nutrients of concern that may be limited include Protein Vitamin B 12 Calcium Iron 45

46 THE END! Chapter 5


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