Shape/Organelles Coccus-sphere shaped-Micrococcus, Streptococcus, & Sarcina Bacilli-rods –Bacillus, Lactobacillus & Pseudomonas Spirilla-spirals-Vibrio, Triponema, & Camphilovextor Staph-clusters Strep-chains Outer cell wall is made of petidoglycan Lack Nucleus Cell wall of many of these are covered by a capsule, the capsule is made of polysaccharide or protein; the capsule also protects the cell from a host’s immune system. Fimbrae are fibers that let the bacteria stay to a surface Move via Flagella(um) Have no nuclear envelope, no membrane-enclosed organelles, no histones (associates with DNA), and can’t grow at temperature below 100 degrees Celsius. Have membrane lipids (un-branched hydrocarbons which have all carbon atoms in a straight line), 1 kind of RNA polymerase, use Formyl-Methionine for starting amino acids for protein synthesis, & circular chromosome. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IekdfJ-7Zyk
Diversity Cyanobacteria are most self-sufficient when it comes to Nitrogen Fixation since they only need light, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, water, and some minerals to grow. Methanogens are unique way they get energy: use carbon dioxide to oxidize Hydrogen, & methane is released as waste. Bacteria are organized into subgroups more than phyla Alpha Proteobacteria are found with eukaryotic hosts, an example is a Rhizobium which is a species that live in Plants, where the bacteria change Nitrogen to compounds that the plant can use to make proteins. Beta Proteobacteria can be a genus of soil bacteria plays a role in nitrogen recycle by oxidizing ammonium and making nitrate. Cyanobacteria-are the ONLY prokaryotes with plant-like oxygen making photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria are in mass amounts where there is water, making a large amount of food for freshwater & marine ecosystems. This plays a huge role in the basis for the ecology pyramid. Spirochetes & Epsilon Proteobacteria are the main viral bacteria. These can cause Lyme Disease and stomach ulsers.
Food Source/Nutrition Eubacteria rely on chemosynthesis rather than photosynthesis for energy. Four major are photo/chemo autptrophs/heterotrophs. Chemosynthesis is the synthesis from CO2 & water using energy that is gained from chemical oxidation of inorganic compounds. Ex of inorganic: ammonium nitrate. Photoheterotrophs use light for energy, but need to get their carbon in organic form (marine prokaryotes mostly). Chemoheterotrophs have to consume organic molecules for energy & carbon. In a stable environment, the flagella prokaryotes usually move randomly, but in a heterogeneous environment, prokaryotes display taxis, which is moving away or closer to a stimulus. Can use Nitrogen Fixation which is changing Nitrogen to Ammonia. They can incorporate the fixed nitrogen into amino acids & other organic molecules. Ex: prokaryote that show chemotaxis (responding to chemical gradient toward or away) can move closer to nutrients or oxygen (positive chemotaxis) or away from a toxic substance (negative chemotaxis). E Coli happens to be positive chemotaxis which lets them make more of them.
Reproduction & Adaption Eubacteria are successful in reproducing, because they can do this quickly in an environment that favors them. Reproduce by Binary Fission; which is when a bacterial cell separates into 2 cells; asexual reproduction. Most can only do this 1-3 hours and can make a whole new generation in 20 minutes in the best conditions. Prokaryotes adaption to hostile environments have allowed them to reproduce for billions of years. Eubacteria can make endospores, which are resistant cells when they’re missing a key nutrient in the environment. That original cell makes a coy of its chromosome & surrounds it with a tough wall, making the endospore. Water leaves the endospore & metabolism is paused. They can also rehydrate & continue their metabolism when they “sense” the environment is more favorable. Ex: The bacteria that causes Anthrax makes endospores, which allowed it to survive in soil. Overuse & constant use of antibiotics have caused some bacteria to be resistant to drugs.
Area Live in extreme/hazardous areas such as volcanoes, geysers. Heterotrophs live almost anywhere, in form of a parasite. Autotrophs get energy from photosynthesis, they are usually blue green, which is due from the chlorophyll. These live in ponds, lakes, & moist regions.
Disease Eubacteria E.Coli-many types of E.coli but most are harmless. enterohemorrhagic e.coli (EHEC) can cause kidney failure and kill people.
Eubacteria + Us Eubacetria have mostly every kind of symbiotic relationship with the world around them. If it’s larger, than the larger organism is the host & the eubacteria is the parasite. Human intestines are known to have 500-1000 different species of bacteria in them, many are mutualists, digesting food that our intestines can’t break down. Prokaryotes are notorious for causing disease, but are also key to making yogurt & such foods. Pathogenic prokaryotes generally cause illnesses by making poisons, which are generalized into endo/exotoxins Exotoxins are proteins secreted by prokaryotes, cholera is caused by exotoxin release by a probacterium Vibrio Cholerae. Endotoxins are released when bacteria die & their cell wall falls apart.
How are Bacteria Different than Others? Bacteria help us digest whatever our intestines can not. Bacteria can make vitamins found in yogurt & such dairy products. Bacteria can recycle nutrients. Bacteria have no membrane bound organelles. Scientists believe Mitochondria evolved from aerobic Alpha Proteobacteria through endosymbiosis.
Works Cited Flannery, M. C. (2010). Bacteria Everywhere. Biology Today, pg.513-516. Raven, P., & Johnson, G. (2002). Biology. New York, NY: McGraw -Hill. Kingdom Eubacteria. (n.d.). Retrieved febuary 15, 2012, from Taxonomy: http://danmarkltd.tripod.com/taxonomy/id6.htmlhttp://danmarkltd.tripod.com/taxonomy/id6.html Stöppler, M. C. (n.d.). Staph Infection. Retrieved febuary 17, 2012, from http://www.medicinenet.com/staph_infection/article.htm http://www.medicinenet.com/staph_infection/article.htm Arya, N. (2011, October 1). Retrieved febuary 2012, 16, from Eubacteria Kingdom: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/eubacteria-kingdom.html http://www.buzzle.com/articles/eubacteria-kingdom.html Reece, N. C. (2005). Biology 7th Edition. San Francisco: Pearson Education. (n.d.). Retrieved Febuary 19, 2012, from http://scienceforums.com/uploads/1282315024/gallery_4447_5_10268.jpghttp://scienceforums.com/uploads/1282315024/gallery_4447_5_10268.jpg (n.d.). Retrieved Febuary 19, 2012, from http://www.lpi.usra.edu/publications/slidesets/marslife/images/slif_s27.jpghttp://www.lpi.usra.edu/publications/slidesets/marslife/images/slif_s27.jpg (n.d.). Retrieved from http://biology.clc.uc.edu/graphics/bio106/bacteria.jpg (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ncl.ac.uk/dental/oralbiol/oralenv/images/bactshapes.gif (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/publicat/microbial/nitrosomonas.jpg (n.d.). Retrieved from http://trendsupdates.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/cyanobacteria.jpg (n.d.). Retrieved from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/59/Troph_flowchart.png/500px- Troph_flowchart.png