Nutrition: supply of nutrients Organoleptic and/or Sociocultural properties Added value: health benefit
4 Functional foods, such as Probiotics: Living organisms which have additional positive influences on health besides their nutritive value, if they are eaten in sufficient amounts. Prebiotics: Fermentative substances, which have a positive influence on the microflora of the gut (for instance nutritional fiber, fructooligosaccharides). Sybiotics: Combination of pro- and prebiotic foods Designer Foods: Products which have been developed to meet special purposes as CLA.
5 Producing Functional Foods Addition of one or more components Food Concentration of one or more components Modification of one or more components or its/their bioavailability Removal of one or more components Functional Food
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), an anticarcinogenic compound with numerous other health benefits, is present mainly in dairy and beef lipids The main.. CLA isomer present in dairy and beef lipids is cis 9, trans 11 CLA at a 0.5% concentration. The typical minimum human dietary intake of CLA is 10 times less than the 3 g/d.
Lunch Roast Beef ( 77 mg ) Carrot And Broccoli Salad Smoothie with 2% Milk ( 38 mg ) Applesauce Bread with Cream Cheese ( 13 mg ) 2 % Milk ( 25 mg ) Breakfast Cereal with 2% Milk ( 25 mg ) Whole Wheat Toast with Butter ( 40 mg ) Orange Juice + Banana Coffee with Half and Half Dinner Lamp Chop ( 170 mg ) Baked Potato with Sour Cream ( 18 mg ) Tossed Salad with Raisins Pineapple and Banana Bread Tea Snack Chocolate Pudding ( 2% milk ) ( 13 mg )
Dairy ProductsMg/ g of fat Homogenized milk5.5 2% milk4.1 Butter fat6.1 Condensed milk7.0 Cultured buttermilk5.4 Butter4.7 Sour cream4.6 Ice cream3.6 Low-fat yogurt4.4 Custard style yogurt4.8 Plain yogurt4.8 Frozen yogurt2.8 Medium cheddar4.1 American processed5.0 Meats/FishMg/ g of fat Fresh ground beef4.3 Veal2.7 Lamb5.8 Pork0.6 Chicken0.9 Fresh ground turkey2.6 Salmon0.3 Egg yolk0.6
Biological Properties * Prostaglandins The diversity of receptors means that prostaglandins act on an array of cells and have a wide variety of effects: Cause constriction or dilation in vascular smooth muscle cells, Cause aggregation or disaggregation of platelets, Sensitize spinal neurons to pain, Decrease intraocular pressure, Regulate inflammatory mediation, Regulate calcium movement Control hormone regulation, Control cell growth. * Thromboxane Thromboxane is named for its role in clot formation (thrombosis). Hypertensive agent, and it facilitates platelet aggregation. * Leukotrienes Leukotrienes are fatty molecules of the immune system that contribute to inflammation in asthma and bronchitis. Leukotrienes antagonists are used to treat asthma and bronchitis. Leukotrienes also have a powerful effect in bronchoconstriction they also increase vascular permeability.
Biological Properties 1.Anticarcinogenic 2.Antidiabetic 3.Anabolic 4.Antiplatelet 5.Positive immunmodulating 6.Antiatherosclerotic 7.CLA is a natural substance which inhibits the enzyme that transports fat into the cells.
Sources of CLA CLA mixture CLA isomers oil rich in linoleic acid (sunflower oil, soy oil, safflower oil) chem. synthesis modified feeding (enrichment with peanut oil, sunflower oil, linseed oil) microbiological enrichment in butter Candida antarctica microbiological isomerase (immobilizing resp. transgene MO) isomerization (base) enrichment in milk factor 2 enrichment factor 20 primary material, e.g. ricinoleic acid linoleic acid
requirement that has been extrapolated from animal and cell-line studies. The objectives of this study were to produce CLA isomers from soybean oil by photoisomerization of soybean oil linoleic acid and to study the oxidation status of the oil. Refined, bleached, and deodorized soybean oil with added iodine concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5% was exposed to a 100-W mercury lamp for 0 to 120 h. An SP-2560 fused-silica capillary GC column with FID was used to analyze the esterified CLA isomers in the photoisomerized oil. The CLA content of the individual isomers was optimized by response surface methodology. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-FTIR spectra in the 3400 to 3600 cm −1 range and 1 H NMR spectra in the 8 to 12 ppm range of the photoisomerized soybean oil were obtained to follow hydroperoxide formation. The largest amount of cis 9, trans 11 CLA isomer in soybean oil was 0.6%, obtained with 0.25% iodine and 84 h of photoisomerization. Lipid hydroperoxide peaks in the ATR-FTIR spectra and aldehyde peaks in the 1 H NMR spectra were not observed in the photoisomerized soybean oil, and the spectra were similar to that of fresh soybean oil. This study shows that CLA isomers can be produced simply and inexpensively from soybean oil by photoisomerization.
Photocatalytic Production and Processing of Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Rich Soy Oil Daily intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), an anticarcinogenic, antiatherosclerotic, antimutagenic agent, and antioxidant, from dairy and meat products is substantially less than estimated required values. The objective of this study was to obtain CLA-rich soybean oil by a customized photochemical reaction system with an iodine catalyst and evaluate the effect of processing on iodine and iodo compounds after adsorption. After 144 h of irradiation, a total CLA yield of 24% (w/w) total oil was obtained with 0.15% (w/w) iodine. Trans,trans isomers (17.5%) formed the majority of the total yield and are also associated with health benefits. The isomers cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA, associated with maximum health benefits, formed approximately 3.5% of the total oil. This amount is quite significant considering that total CLA obtained from dairy sources is only 0.6%. ATR-FTIR, 1 H NMR, and GC-MS analyses indicated the absence of peroxide and aldehyde protons, providing evidence that secondary lipid oxidation products were not formed during the photochemical reaction. Adsorption processing vastly reduced the iodine and iodocompounds without CLA loss. Photocatalysis significantly increased the levels of CLA in soybean oil.
CLA content Several factors influence the CLA content of food products, such as: – Temperature – Protein quality – Choice of starter cultures – Period of aging Variations of CLA content in foods are also affected by the animal’s: – Diet (type of feed, feeding regimen, grass quality, dietary restriction) – Age or breed – Seasonal factors
Influence of processing conditions: * aging/storage (e.g. time, temperature) * heat treatment (e.g. pasteurization or pan frying of meat) * fermentation conditions (e.g. starter cultures) * food additives (e.g. BHT, ascorbic acid, propyl gallate, sodium caseinate) Health implications of CLA
CLA has been shown to reduce body fat in mice, as well as in rats and chickens Evaluation of the metabolic effects of CLA in both intact animals and in adiposity culture has suggested that CLA directly affects key enzymes and processes involved in lipid mobilization and storage