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Presentation on theme: "PERFORMANCE NUTRITION"— Presentation transcript:

Are You Ready? Jorie Janzen, RD, BHEc The info covered in this session is designed to provide you as a coach with an overview of the latest guidelines in sports nutrition. There is no such thing as a magic diet or food, however there are ways in which eating and drinking well can allow athletes at all levels of performance to achieve the special goals of their training and competition programs. It makes no sense to train hard and ignore the benefits that follow from good food choices. There are benefits to eating well!

2 From Training to Competition Are You Ready?
Fluid and food When, Where, What, Why? Events away from home Pre-comp anxiety and appetite Environmental change Temperature Humidity Elevation Little time to eat between events Events lasting longer than usual training Preventing heat illness Concern supplements that may lead to positive doping test All athletes can benefit from making good food choices. Good food choices support consistent training, maximize performance in competition and help maintain good health and optimal recovery. Food choices will be very different in different countries & cultures. However, the basics of good nutrition for athletes remains the same which is: a wide variety of healthy and wholesome foods eaten in appropriate amounts should be the primary elements of every athlete’s sport nutrition plan. Whenever highly talented, motivated & well-trained athletes meet in competition, the margin b/t victory & defeat is small. Attention to detain can make the difference. Diet affects performance, and our eating & drinking patterns will influence how well we train and whether we compete at our best. All athletes need to be aware of their personal nutritional goals & how they can select an eating strategy to meet those goals. Because each athlete is different (just as athletics in and of itself is diverse), there is no single diet that meets the needs of all athletes at all times. Individual needs also change across the season and athletes need to be flexible to accommodate for this. Diet may have its biggest impact on training, and a good diet will help support consistent intensive training while limiting the risks for illness or injury. A good nutrition plan promotes adaptations to the training stimulus.

3 Benefits of a well-chosen sports nutrition plan
Allows higher quality training Optimal gains from training program Enhanced recovery within/between workouts and events Consistency in achieving high-level performance Achievement/maintenance of ideal BW and physique Reduced risk of injury & illness injury, illness, malnutrition A well-chosen diet offers many benefits to all athletes, irrespective of event, age, sex, age or level of competition.

4 Quality Nutrition is Key
Maximizes genetic potential Speeds recovery Long term health benefits Enjoyment of food and social eating occasions Athletes as role models

5 The Nutrition Challenge…
Athletes look for the competitive edge but often undervalue the benefits of nutrition basics. Do you follow a high quality sport nutrition training plan?


7 Common Problems & Challenges…
Poor knowledge of foods & drinks and inadequate cooking skills Poor choices when shopping or dining out Poor/outdated sports nutrition info Inadequate finances Busy lifestyle….inadequate time to obtain or consume appropriate foods Frequent travel Indiscriminate use of supplements & sports foods Despite these disadvantages, many athletes do not meet their nutrition goals. Common problems and challenges include (read slide)

8 WHY DO ATHLETES TRAIN… Improve Fitness, Athletic Performance and maybe Health Athletes become more efficient with Restoring ATP-CP faster Storing more energy (glycogen) Overall aerobic fitness (cardiovascular)

Build up of lactic acid Hypoglycemia Depleted muscle glycogen Dehydration Low iron

simple vs. complex vs. supplement vs. Glycemic Index Protein: animal vs. plant vs. supplement Fat: trans, saturated, unsaturated MICRO-NUTRIENTS Vitamins A, C, E, B6, B12, D, Calcium, Iron, Zinc, Selenium etc. FLUID Water Sport Drinks Energy Drinks Alcohol Getting the right amount of energy to stay healthy and to perform well is essential. Consuming too much energy increases body fat. If athletes do not eat enough, performance falls, injuries are more likely to occur, and illness results. CARBS supplies the muscles & brain with the fuels they need to meet the stress of training & comp. Athletes must be aware of what foods they should choose to meet their carb needs, how much should be eaten, & when these foods should be eaten on a day to day basis. Carb Intake Goals: Min. phys. activity: 2-3g/kg, Light phys activity: 4-5g/kg, Med phys activity: 6-7g/kg, Professional/elite athlete(20hr+/wk): 7+g/kg and Carb Loading for endurance & ultra-endurance: 7-12g/kg. Pro rich foods are NB for building & repairing muscles, but a varied diet containing everyday foods will generally supply more than enough protein. The timing of pro intake in relation to training is also important. Well chosen vegetarian diets can easily meet pro needs. A varied diet is key to meeting energy and nutritional needs. A diet with a variety of veggies, fruit, beans, legumes, beans, cereals, lean meats, fish and dairy foods should ensure adequate intake of all essential vitamins and minerals. Excluding any one of the food groups increases the risk of missing out on important nutrient needs and means more careful food choices must be made. Pro Needs: Sedentary = 0.8g/kg; General Training = 1.0g/kg; Endurance in extreme training = g/kg; Endurance in extreme training, comp or race = 2.0g/kg; Strength athlete in heavy training = 1.2 – 1.7g/kg; and Adolescent athlete = 2.0g/kg.

11 HYDRATION MATTERS As little as 1% dehydration can impair physical and mental performance 1 ½ pounds in a 150 lb person or 3 cups (750 ml) 3% causes 10% decrease in muscle performance Signs & Symptoms… dizziness, nausea, headache, chills, muscle cramps, thirst Dehydration leads to… Early fatigue (speed, intensity, strength, power) Decreased concentration/focus/timing Increased risk for injury Heat stroke (reduced evaporation of sweat, body overheats)

12 PREVENT DEHYDRATION Be aware – monitor hydration status
WUT Have a plan – when and what will you drink… follow it!!!

13 WUT: a simple self assessment
Weight Urine Color Thirst

14 FLUID SCHEDULE (ACSM) Before During
4 hrs 5-7 ml/kg water/sport drink 2 hrs 3-5 ml/kg cool water/sport drink During ~15-20 min 125 – 250 ml cup cool fluid/ sports drink OR ml/hr After ~ ml per lb sweat loss or 1 L/kg Sport drink = 6-8% CHO Amounts are individual: sweat losses, tolerance/comfort, temperature, humidity, altitude, degree of hydration going into training or competition

15 AFTER TRAINING… Weigh self - aim to regain lost weight
Sip 150% of fluid losses Higher sodium if shorter recovery Greatest fluid intake with 400mg sodium/carb beverage Carbs facilitate faster fluid absorption from gut in short term

16 HYDRATION TIPS Drink water, milk, juice, tea, sport drink
Eat watery soups, fruits and veggies. Limit caffeine, carbonation, alcohol Plan ahead - Calculate needs, bring what you need and empty them!

17 STUDY 6 % carb 1150 mg Na 2764 ml 2229 ml 535 ml
Fluid Composition Fluid Intake Absorbed Losses 6 % carb 1150 mg Na ml ml ml Flavored water ml ml ml 575 mg Na ml ml ml

18 TRAINING NUTRTION Balance: carbohydrate, protein and fat
Aim for high food quality NEVER try anything new day of competition

19 CARBS Main fuel used by the body Depleted during intense, endurance or
multi session/multi day training Depletion = fatigue Athletes usually report intakes similar to age matched, non active individuals Carb rich foods necessary to fill glycogen stores Quality sources include: veggies, fruits, whole grains, legumes, milk, yogurt, soy milk Other sources: processed/white foods juices, sport foods, sweets

20 GLYCOGEN DEPLETION Tired, slower movement/reaction time
Reduced strength/endurance/coordination Hypoglycemia => stress response => delays recovery Protein breakdown

21 CARB REQUIREMENTS Min. Activity 2-3 g/kg BW
Light (3-5 h/wk) g/kg BW Medium (10 h/wk) 6-7 g/kg BW Prof Athlete (20+ h/wk) 7+ g/kg BW Endurance/Carb load g/kg BW 150 lb or 68.2 kg 68.2 kg x 7 g = 480 g carb/day 480 g carb x 4 cal/g = 1920 calories from carbs

22 Fuel Use with Increased Exercise Intensity (Ref: Brooks and Mercier, 1994)

23 PROTEIN Growth, repair & tissue maintenance
Antibodies, hormones, enzymes and hemoglobin Energy source Sources include: fish, meat, poultry, eggs, legumes, soy products, milk, yogurt, low fat cheese, nuts and nut butters, meal replacements, sport bars, protein powders

24 YOUR PROTEIN NEEDS… 0.8 g/kg/d 1-1.2g/kg 1.2-1.6g/kg 1.6-1.7g/kg/d
RDA Adults Fitness/youth Endurance Strength ***Endurance with extreme training = 2.0g/kg Adolescent Athletes = 2.0g/kg North American diet easily provides: 1.4 to 2.0 g/kg/d

25 10 grams Protein… 2 small eggs 1 ½ slices reduced fat cheese
2 cups cooked pasta 100 g soy meat 40 g cooked lean chicken 120 g tofu 60 g nuts/seeds 200 g baked beans 50 g grilled fish 200 g reduced fat yogurt 50 g canned tuna/salmon 35 g cooked lean beef, pork

26 10 grams Protein… 2 small eggs 1 ½ slices reduced fat cheese
2 cups cooked pasta 100 g soy meat 40 g cooked lean chicken 120 g tofu 60 g nuts/seeds 200 g baked beans 50 g grilled fish 200 g reduced fat yogurt 50 g canned tuna/salmon 35 g cooked lean beef, pork

27 FATS/OILS Protection, insulation, satiety, flavour, energy, fat soluble vitamin carrier, cell membranes, essential fatty acids, hormones Quality sources include: Avocado, nuts/seeds/olives, vegetable oils & spreads, animal products (meat, dairy, eggs,…) Fatty fish, walnuts, pumpkin seeds, ground flax Avoid hydrogenation/trans fats Approx. 1 gram/kg/day

Before, During and Recovery

29 PRE-COMP NUTRITION Pre-exercise nutrition provides: Energy
Physical Comfort Mental Alertness Reduction in Stress Hormones (i.e. Cortisol) Prevent glycogen depletion

30 PRE-COMP NUTRITION Targets: Optimal Fluid Intake High Carbohydrate
Moderate Protein Low Fat

31 PRE-COMP NUTRITION WHY? Max. fluid levels and to prevent dehydration
Supply food that is quickly & easily digested Ensure ample energy to train or compete Prevent hunger before and during exercise Mental preparation Improves endurance and power output, improving training/performance potential

32 PRE-COMP NUTRITION Timing & Meal Size:
3-4 hours for large meal to digest 2-3 hours for smaller meal 1-2 hours for small snack or blender/liquid meal (or whatever your own tolerance allows) CAUTION: spicy, fatty, and/or fibre rich foods may cause discomfort such as, bloating and gaseous build-up. Products containing caffeine may also be problematic.

33 NUTRITION BEFORE… Most important if intakes poor 24 hrs. prior
approx g carb/kg per hour: example - 30–70g for a 68kg (150lb) athlete in the hour before ? protein in the hr before pay attention to: individual differences, timing, easily digested, familiar, hydration, glycemic index

Drink 1.5 to 2.5 cups fluid 2-3 hrs. prior Drink 0.5 to 1.5 cup(s) fluid 15 min. prior, depending on comfort Eat high carb meal/snack 2-4 hrs. prior Whole grains, veggies, fruit, juices, milk, yogurt, soy drinks, and legumes (gas forming?)

35 PRE-COMP NUTRITION Experiment during training sessions to determine which foods and fluids and at what amounts are comfortable for you! Never try new foods or drinks the day of competition!

36 1 hour before: 30 - 50 grams carb
1 cup cereal shake, fruit smoothies, CIB 1- 2 containers flavored yogurt 250 – 500ml carton chocolate milk 1 sport bar, 3 – 4 fig bars, 1 large low fat muffin 1 large banana (30g) or 1 – 2 cups fruit juice 1 bowl oatmeal/cold cereal and milk 1 pancake with syrup, 1 toast with jam

37 2 hours before g 2c pasta, ½ - 1c tomato sauce and c chocolate milk g cereal, c milk and 2c juice or 1/4c raisins 2 toast or 1 bagel with p.b.* & jam, 1c milk lean protein* sandwich, 2c juice 1c rice, 1/2c lentils**, 1c juice 2 French toast/pancake, 2 tbsp. syrup,1c fruit yogurt or 1 - 2c juice *Not everyone will tolerate ** May cause GI upset

38 3-4 Hours Before add an extra grams carbohydrate i.e. increase portion size add low fat protein and a small amount of fat

39 PRE-COMP NUTRITION MEAL IDEAS – home or on-the-go
Toast/bagel with jam, peanut butter, juice, yogurt Oatmeal/cereal, milk, raisins, juice Pancakes with little syrup/spread, ham, juice Grilled chicken sandwich, juice *****MAYBE DURING THE PRESENTATION MENTION WHAT CATEGORY THESE MEAL IDEAS FOR THE NEXT FEW SLIDES FIT INTO (IE. FROM SLIDE #7 (3-4 hours for large meal to digest 2-3 hours for smaller meal 1-2 hours for small snack or blender/liquid meal (or whatever your own tolerance allows))*****

Lean meat sandwich, carrots, milk, oatmeal raisin cookie, fruit Minestrone soup, cheese, crackers, veggie juice Chili, bagel, milk Pasta with tomato/lean meat sauce, applesauce, chocolate milk

41 PRE-COMP NUTRITION SNACK IDEAS: Fruit (fresh, canned, or juice)
Fruit yogurt Low-fat muffin, juice, or applesauce Yogurt, social tea biscuits, juice Pita with hummus, veggie juice Fig or oatmeal cookies, fruit, milk

Cereal, sport, or energy bars Juice boxes or fruit cup Crackers Dried fruit Trail mix with cereal

43 COMP-NUTRITION During Exercise, Nutrition Provides: Energy
Physical comfort, absence of hunger Mental focus for best technique and skill execution

44 COMP-NUTRITION TARGETS: Optimal fluid & electrolyte intake
Carbohydrate to maintain blood glucose

45 COMP-NUTRITION WHY? Max. fluid levels & prevent dehydration
Replace fluid losses Fluid needs vary with sweat rate, sport, & environment (temp, humidity, altitude) Ensure energy to train or compete

46 COMP-NUTRITION DURING EXERCISE: Drink 0.5 to 1.5 cups every 15-20 min.
Drink more… Days you train harder During hot, humid weather Training / competing > 1 hr Consume some carbohydrate (sport drink) for sessions lasting longer than 1 hour to maintain focus, technique and energy

47 COMP-NUTRITION Sport Drinks:
Optimal Fluid Absorption: 40-80g/L carb g/L sodium Sport Drinks: water, carbs, (40-80g/L) and electrolytes (sodium, potassium) Fruit Juice: ( g/L carb) may be diluted for tolerence (*Note-since Fructose is metabolized differently, athletes may want to try this during training to ensure no negative effects are seen i.e. GI distress) Energy Drinks / Soft Drinks: too concentrated for rapid absorption

48 COMP-NUTRITION Make Your Own Fluid Replacement:
2 cups unsweetened orange juice 2 cups water ¼ tsp salt 1 L = 54 g (5.4%) carb and 0.5 to 0.7 g salt ****Other ideas that I would suggest would be either to use a Gatorade powder mixed in water, or to buy dextrose (from the wine/beer making aisle) and add water and salt. The dextrose is an excellent cheap alternative that one can measure the exact amount that they are consuming)**** Again, try fruit juice during training

49 COMP-NUTRITION DURING – focus on fluid & carbs
Water is effective for short exercise sessions (< 1 hr) Athletes Consume More Fluid When… Easy to access (right beside you) Flavour you like Chilled Has sodium added ( g/L enhances flavour)

50 COMP-NUTRITION Training/Comp lasting several hours, focus on fluid and carb-rich snacks during rest breaks Amount consumed depends on time between snack and event During breaks, choose higher carb and lower protein & fat foods -for quick digestion and absorption of fluid & carb to prep for next event

51 Nutrition During Longer Training Sessions: > 90 minutes
Enhance physical and mental performance Prevent injury Delay deterioration of sport specific skills Spare protein

52 How Much? Carbs: g/hour or 2 – 4 cups (500 ml – 1L) sport drink/hour Fluids 1 - 2 cups ( ml) every 15 minutes most likely sport drinks

Diluted fruit juice or sport drink Fruit (fresh, canned, pureed) Bread, pretzels, or crackers Cereal, sport or energy bars Arrowroot, fig, oatmeal, or similar low fat cookies Plain or chocolate milk Fruit yogurt

54 COMP-NUTRITION 2 – 3 Hour Breaks: Juice and bagel
Yogurt, fruit and water Lean meat sandwich and veggie juice Fruit, cookies, and chocolate milk

55 COMP-NUTRITION SMALL MEAL IDEAS (3 hr) Cereal, fruit, milk
Veggie soup, lean meat sandwich, milk and fruit Rice, steamed veggies, chicken/fish, yogurt, and juice

56 COMP-NUTRITION Plan ahead & be prepared Carry snack items
Know where you can buy snacks

57 Recovery Nutrition Goals: the 3 R’s Refuel Repair Re-hydrate

58 RECOVERY NUTRITION WHY? Replace fluid loss
Ensure energy & nutrients to recover and prepare for the next event Carb-rich foods/fluids consumed within first 15 minutes optimal Carbs move rapidly through blood stream, into muscles to replace glycogen. (rate slows down to normal within 2hr)

59 WHY Improves future training & performance
Replenish liver and muscle glycogen Prevents muscle protein breakdown and aids in protein synthesis during recovery Enhances immune system Reduces stress hormones

60 RECOVERY NUTRITION Post-Exercise Nutrition: Energy & Nutrients
Physical Comfort; absence of hunger Mental Alertness

61 RECOVERY NUTRITION TARGETS: Optimal fluid & electrolyte levels
Carbs to restore muscle glycogen Protein to repair muscle tissue damage Nutrients to support health and strong immune system

62 Recovery Nutrition Details
A.S.A.P. Within the first minutes is optimal fluids-150% or more of lost weight or pale urine g carb/kg (50+ grams) in the first hour and then follow training diet First snack high glycemic then low GI protein g every 2 hrs. Plan for and have a portable nutrition source close at hand.

Drink 1.5 L fluid per kg (2.2 pounds) of body weight lost Consume some salty fluids and food Electrolyte replacement & fluid retention Eat high carb meal/snack High glycemic index Have some lean protein Avoid skipping meals Amount of food consumed depends on time of next event and next scheduled snack. ********This is a time where someone could use a reputable protein powder, mixed with dextrose or powdered Gatorade for rapid delivery, followed by a food meal 1-2 hrs. after ingesting their liquid beverage. The liquid beverage can even be split into 2 servings. 1 serving immediately following competition, 2nd serving within 1hr after the 1st serving, and then a food meal 1hr-1.5hrs after the 2nd serving. This works extremely well at replenishing glycogen and providing amino acids after competition.********

64 RECOVERY NUTRITION AFTER – fluid, carb, protein Consumed within 2 hr
Choose from the 4 food groups Vegetables & Fruit Grain Products Milk & Alternatives Meat & Alternatives

You end late at night – you still must eat a recovery meal Carb-based meal Milk and fruit Lean meat sandwich with juice

66 Immediate Recovery – for a 50 kg athlete
1/2 liter Gatorade or other sports drink + 5 tablespoons skim milk powder Total: 45 grams carb and 10 grams protein Heavier athlete: 1.5 – 2 X the above Note: Tastes ok. Shake vigorously in a water bottle – it sometimes looks curdled, it is not. This would also work in the hour before training or racing if you have trouble digesting solids.

67 Immediate Recovery – for a 50 kg athlete
1 175 ml container flavored yogurt Approximately 25+g carb and 8+g pro + 1 banana or 1 large slice watermelon approx 25 g carb and 2g pro Total: 50g carbohydrate and 10g protein For a heavier athlete: try 2 containers of yogurt for 75 + grams of carb and 16 + grams of protein

68 Immediate Recovery – for a 50 kg athlete
ml container Boost High Protein Total: 41g carbohydrate + 14g protein For a heavier athlete: add additional carbohydrates by also drinking sport drink – add 250 ml per 10 kg of weight (15 grams of carbohydrate per 250 ml) Note: Boost has a fairly sweet taste Available at most large chain grocery stores Could use in the hour before training/racing if trouble digesting solids

69 Immediate Recovery – for a 50 - 60 kg athlete
500 ml Chocolate Milk Total - 50g carb and 16g pro For a heavier athlete: add additional carbs by also drinking sport drink – add 250 ml per 10 kg of weight (15g of carb/250 ml) Note: This would also work in the hour before training if you have trouble digesting solids

70 Immediate Recovery – for a 50 - 60 kg athlete
1 pkg. Carnation Instant Breakfast mixed with 500 ml of milk Total: 52 g carbohydrate and 23 g protein For a heavier athlete: add additional carbs by also drinking sport drink – add 250 ml per 10 kg of weight (15g of carb/250 ml) or make the milk chocolate for an extra 26g of carb. Note: Shake vigorously in a water bottle Could use in the hour before training/racing if trouble digesting solids

71 Immediate Recovery – for a 50 - 60 kg athlete
½ cup Raisins – 60 grams carb + ½ cup roasted soy nuts – 30 grams carb and 15 grams protein Total: 15 grams of pro and 90 grams carb Note: Don’t forget to hydrate

Mix and match foods from the recovery cards to eat at least 10 grams of protein and gram of carbohydrate per kg of weight i.e. 40 – 50 grams carb for a 50 kg athlete 48 – 60 grams carb for a 60 kg athlete …and so on

73 GLYCEMIC INDEX Low G.I. (<60) Med. G.I. (60-85) High G.I. Fructose
Apple Applesauce Cherries Kidney beans Chick peas Lentils Dates Figs Peaches Plums Ice cream Milk Yogurt Tomato soup High G.I. (>85) Glucose Sucrose Maple syrup Honey Bagel Candy Corn flakes Carrots Crackers Molasses Potatoes Raisins Bread Soda Med. G.I. (60-85) All-bran cereal Grapes Oatmeal Orange juice Pasta Rice Yams Corn Whole-grain rye bread Baked beans Potato chips

74 RECOVERY NUTRITION MEAL IDEAS… Fruit, juice, bagel (with jam), yogurt
Hot/cold cereal, milk, banana, juice Lean meat sandwich/sub, carrot sticks, milk, oatmeal raisin cookie, fruit Egg, ham on English muffin, juice Thick crust pizza with lean meat, veggie topping, milk, fruit

Minestrone soup, bagel, cheese, veggie juice Chili on baked potato or crusty roll, juice, applesauce Pasta, veggies & meat sauce, bread roll, juice, applesauce Bean burrito with veggies, chocolate milk

76 RECOVERY NUTRITION SNACK IDEAS… Cereal/cereal bar, fruit, milk/yogurt
Pretzels, tomato or fruit juice Bagel, peanut butter, jam, chocolate milk Yogurt, crackers/cookies, juice Fruit smoothie (fruit, milk, yogurt), toast Sport or energy bar, fruit, chocolate milk

77 RECOVERY NUTRITION Backpack/Car SNACKS Dry cereal
Cereal, sport, energy bars Juice boxes or fruit cups Crackers Tuna or beans in cans with pull-off tops Dried fruit Trail mix with cereal

78 Eating for General Sports Activity/Weight Loss
Easiest intensity of activities/training while still improving fitness Walking/learn to run/cardiac rehab/athletes on a light day or day off Body is in the fat burning zone; using more fat than carb/pro as fuel; improving fitness while losing weight May be appropriate for aesthetics/class sports: wrestling, gymnastics, synchronized swimming, figure skating V&F = 6+ G = MP&A = 3 MA = 2 Minimize extra foods as they are usually high in energy and low in nutrients

79 Eating for Power Energy costs for fitness; work the heart& other muscles to get strong Training at a moderate pace for minutes (tempo training), 60 min. of moderate-vigorous (start-stop sports) Basketball, volleyball, rugby, ringette, short track, inline speed skating, weight training, track and field events Down hill mountain biking, track cycling, power lifting, interval training VF = G = MP&A = MA = 2-3 Fluids = 12 cups or 3L/day

80 Eating for Endurance Best for training days involving endurance (2 hr or longer) of moderate to race pace intensity Middle distance/marathon running, cross country mountain biking, triathlons, marathon cycling, ice speed skating, swimming, rowing, and cross country skiing VF = G = MP&A = MA = 2-4 Extra energy foods may be required t fuel you for your sport (sweets, fats & oils, desserts, energy/sport bars, drinks and gels)

81 Peak Performance Traveling
Don’t go more than 3 hours without eating a snack/meal Stay away from coffee if you tend to be anxious Moderate amount of carbs end of flight to be bright-eyed and bushy-tailed

82 Peak Performance Traveling
Stick to your normal routine Sleeping pattern Eating pattern Fluid intake Pack snacks (nonperishable foods) These are “meals on the go” Keep your metabolism burning Keep you eating the right foods at the right time

83 Peak Performance Traveling
~40% of food dollars are spent on eating away from home Plan Ahead Know which restaurants are willing to cater to your needs Plan your stops along the way to your destination in advance Order Smart Avoid cream dishes, gravies, fried, bisque, hollandaise, au gratin Choose steamed, grilled, broiled, tomato based, poached Control Portions There are no rewards for clearing your plate! Eat off a plate, not a platter

84 ENERGY DRINKS – Ergogenic Aids
Use of the word “natural” can be misleading Natural does not mean legal - DISQUALIFICATION Natural does not mean safe

85 ENERGY DRINKS – Ergogenic Aids
Supposedly enhance performance Speed, endurance, reduce body fat, mental alertness, recovery Added to make up for nutritional deficiency Supplement companies do not have to prove effectiveness or potency before hitting the market

86 ENERGY DRINKS – What you need to know
Caffeine Stimulant – not necessarily a good thing Diuretic (?) & Laxative effect Light-headed Guarana, yerba mate, caffeine 80 mg or more caffeine/250 ml can Double of soft drinks, half of brewed coffee Exceeds recommendations for children

87 ENERGY DRINKS – What you need to know
Health Canada: no more than 45 mg/day for children 4-6 yr, 62.5 mg for 7-9 yr, 85 mg for yr Adults no more than 400 mg/day Aim for less than 200 mg/day Watch meds with caffeine: Anacin, Vivarin 12 oz can cola = 35 mg 20 oz cola = 65 mg Starbucks grande coffee = 200 mg Red Bull = 80 mg

88 Caffeine and You… The caffeine in coffee, if you drink several cups daily, can precipitate a fast pulse nervousness insomnia headache irritability diarrhea and frequent urination Performance enhancing????

89 ENERGY DRINKS – What you need to know
Herbs Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, guarana, kola nuts, Yerba Mate, Echinacea, Astragalus Do not enhance performance Are in very low amounts Interact with medications Affect blood clotting Possible mislabeling, no standardization

90 ENERGY DRINKS – What you need to know
Taurine Amino acid found in meat & dairy products Claim increases alertness, cardiac fxn, antioxidant – no scientific evidence Typically 1 g per 250 ml can Safety not known!

91 ENERGY DRINKS – What you need to know
Protein and Other Amino Acids Arginine, Taurine, Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA’S), Glutamine Thought to enhance glycogen storage Reduce synthesis of serotonin Negligible amounts To add enough to be of benefit would affect taste and mouth feel May cause digestive distress

92 ENERGY DRINKS – What you need to know
Carbohydrate Contains twice as much sugar as sport drinks Impede rehydration (high doses of glucose, sucrose, maltodextrins, fructose, galactose) Excess sugar can lead to nausea, stomach cramps, and diarrhea Carbonation can cause gas/bloating Best Choice For Exercise… Water & Sports Drinks

93 ENERGY DRINKS – What you need to know
Royal Jelly/Bee Pollen Supposed to improve exercise performance No proven effect Dangerous to those allergic to bee stings Pyruvate Supposed to enhance aerobic metabolism, delay fatigue, decrease body fat Current products do not provide adequate amounts for effect Large doses = GI distress

94 ENERGY DRINKS – What you need to know
Creatine Purpose to delay fatigue in high-intensity exercise Insufficient amounts in energy drinks for effect You would need to drink 178 servings for five days to obtain creatine loading of 20g/day for five days ****Side Note: the 20g loading phase for creatine is not needed. It has been proven that simply consuming approx. 5 grams/day will achieve the same creatine concentration levels within the muscles within 28-days of use when compared to the traditional loading phase followed by a maintenance phase. The loading phase is a nice ploy to have people buy more of the product then is actually required.***

95 ENERGY DRINKS – What you need to know
Carnitine Involved in fatty acid metabolism Claims it delays fatigue in high intensity exercise Not even the best research confirms above claim in energy drinks

96 ENERGY DRINKS – What you need to know
Oxygen Claim: dissolved oxygen accelerates aerobic metabolism and results in lower levels of lactic acid… improved performance No scientific support as blood is fully saturated with oxygen and “extra” is immediately exhaled

97 ENERGY DRINKS – What you need to know
Fat Burners Ciwujia, hydroxycitrate, ephedra Stimulate metabolism and brain fxn; reduce fat Little to no evidence of athletic performance effect Can cause cardiovascular dysfunction and even death in sensitive individuals (ephedra)

98 ENERGY DRINKS – What you need to know
Not substitutes for adequate training, rest, recovery and nutrition (fueling for sport) You must take the responsibility for what goes into your body You must be informed and cautious about dietary supplements Fair Play Legal Performance Health Medical Safety Financial If you have not heard Dr. Kriellaars present on Substance Use in Sport, you need to get him in to meet with you as a team.

99 Sport Supplements? First choice is a well balanced diet
Never try new supplements/food the day of competition May be beneficial: Too nervous to eat: liquid meal Avoid certain foods/small appetite Time constraints/Traveling Vegetarian, pregnant, anemic See your doctor and sports dietitian first!

100 Pre-Competition Sport Supplements
PowerBar min. prior Clif Bar min. Clif Shot min. Sport Beans 1 hr Optimum Energy Bar 1 hr Power Gel min. Ele8vMe hr Accel Gel 1 hr Cytomax Sport Energy 15 min. Drink (8 oz) Food Choice: ½ banana with ½ cup skim milk

101 Competition Sport Supplements
Clif Shot Sports Beans PowerBar Cytomax Sport/Energy Drink Gatorade Make your own sport drink: orange juice, water, and pinch of salt

102 Recovery Supplements 15-30 Minute Window for optimal recovery
Food Alternatives Banana and fruit yogurt 2 slices toast + tsp peanut butter = 1 scrambled egg ½ banana, ½ cup strawberries, ½ cup cottage cheese Sandwich: 2 oz turkey breast, lettuce, tomato, + mustard Chocolate milk (1 or 2%) 2-3 fruit filled cookies + 1 cup low fat milk Make your own sport drink Clif Shot Clif Bar Optimum Energy Bar Power Gel PowerBar Harvest Flash 5 Protein/Energy Bar Cytomax Sport/Energy Drink PowerBar ProteinPlus Protein Drink Elev8Me

103 VITAMINS vs FOOD 75% of all athletes take some type of supplement Why?
Guard your health Compensate for diet filled with processed foods Enhance athletic abilities Boost energy Promote future “super health”

104 VITAMINS vs FOOD True or False
A vitamin supplement satisfies 100% of your nutritional needs

105 VITAMINS vs FOOD False Yes, you may get 100% of your vitamin needs with the pill. But, we also need protein, minerals, energy, fibre, and phytochemicals – non-vitamin compounds in foods that protect our health. No vitamin provides energy (calories)

106 VITAMINS vs FOOD Vitamins will not… Offer a competitive edge
Enhance performance Increase strength/endurance Provide energy Build muscle Unless you are deficient in that nutrient, likely no benefit to health and performance. Placebo Effect?!

107 VITAMINS & ATHLETES Does Exercise Increase Needs?
For the most part, no… The more you exercise/train, the more you eat and the more vitamins you consume.

108 VITAMINS & ATHLETES Supplements for Special Situations:
Restricting calories Allergic to certain foods Lactose intolerant Contemplating pregnancy Total vegetarian – VEGAN (B-12, D, riboflavin, protein, iron, zinc)

109 VITAMINS & ATHLETES Too Much of a Good Thing: Toxic Reactions
B6 – numbness, loss of muscle coordination, paralysis Nicotinic Acid – liver damage Any dose greater than 10 times the Daily Value is considered a mega dose

Antioxidants (vit C, beta carotene, selenium) May prevent heart disease Reduce formation of cancerous tumors Vitamin E, oxidative damage and injuries

111 MINERALS Present in all living cells
Travel through food chain – absorbed into plants that grow in soil, and then into animals that consume plants and water Found in wide variety of wholesome foods

112 IRON Female athletes at risk for iron deficiency anemia Menstruating
Avoid red meat Marathon runners (damaged RBC) Endurance Athletes (heavy sweat losses) Teenage Athletes (growth)

113 IRON Getting Enough: Eat lean cuts of beef, lamb, pork, and the dark meat of skinless chicken/turkey Select breads & cereals stating Iron enriched or fortified on the label Use cast-iron skillets for cooking Don’t drink coffee/tea with every meal Combine heme (animal) with nonheme (plant)

114 TOO MUCH IRON >200 mcg may lead to: Heart disease Heart attack
Damage blood vessels and heart tissue Damage the liver Associated with diabetes and arthritis

115 FOOD vs. SUPPLEMENT Milk Fluid Carbohydrate Protein Calcium Vitamin D
Vitamin A Potassium Sodium Folate Calcium Pill Calcium

116 How To Choose a Supplement
Vit/min close to 100% and no greater than 200% DV Not in excessive doses Beta carotene and chromium Buy before expiration date, store in cool, dry place Ignore claims “natural” vitamins Label indicates passed 45 minute dissolution test (otherwise can’t be absorbed) Take with or after a meal Think food first – balanced meal plan can not be compensated with supplements DIN number WADA

117 BOTTOM LINE Athletes need to incorporate proper Fueling Hydration
Training Rest If it sounds too good to be true… it probably is!!!

118 BEST ENERGY ENHANCERS Be well fueled every day Be well hydrated
3-5 g carb/lb body weight as a min. Be well hydrated Urinate every 2-4 hrs.; clear, pale yellow Consume adequate carbs & fluids during exercise lasting > minutes 0.5 g carb/lb body weight per hr 8 oz of fluid every minutes

119 BEST ENERGY ENHANCERS Recover with adequate carbs
~75 g (300 calories) carb every 2 hrs. for 6-8 hrs. Allow adequate rest days so muscles can refuel and recover Proper sports diet with adequate fluids & carbs is the best investment in high energy performance! Consider a sports dietitian to assist with developing a personalized nutrition plan

120 MEAL IDEAS Meal in one potatoes i.e. baked potato with baked beans, cottage cheese, leftover chili, ... Salads with protein such as leftover chicken Veggie burgers with cheese - broil for a few minutes Brown rice/pasta with legumes/eggs/shrimp/cottage cheese and veggies - add jarred tomato sauce, salsa, Patak’s curry paste or pesto “Homemade” soups made from bouillon, frozen/leftover veggies and canned tomatoes/legumes i.e. chick peas, kidney beans, black beans * add veg/fruit to all meals Bake chicken or fish with yogurt and Dijon or honey and curry powder Noodle casseroles, or tortilla lasagna Scrambled eggs/tofu add tomatoes and greens, stir fry’s, bean soups Sloppy Joe’s, tuna/salmon melts, homemade pizza on whole wheat pita Whole grain cereal, milk and toast with pb Tofu, bean or Yves Mexican ground round burritos, quesadillas

121 SMART Goal Setting Specific Measurable Action oriented
Realistic…. for you Time limited POD = prioritize, organize, discipline

122 THANK YOU Question/Comments? Jorie Janzen, RD, BHEc Sports Dietitian
CSCM, SMCM, DC SNN, CDM IOC Diploma In Sports Nutrition (in progress)


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