Presentation on theme: "PERFORMANCE NUTRITION"— Presentation transcript:
1PERFORMANCE NUTRITION Are You Ready?Jorie Janzen, RD, BHEcThe info covered in this session is designed to provide you as a coach with an overview of the latest guidelines in sports nutrition. There is no such thing as a magic diet or food, however there are ways in which eating and drinking well can allow athletes at all levels of performance to achieve the special goals of their training and competition programs. It makes no sense to train hard and ignore the benefits that follow from good food choices. There are benefits to eating well!
2From Training to Competition Are You Ready? Fluid and foodWhen, Where, What, Why?Events away from homePre-comp anxiety and appetiteEnvironmental changeTemperatureHumidityElevationLittle time to eat between eventsEvents lasting longer than usual trainingPreventing heat illnessConcernsupplements that may lead to positive doping testAll athletes can benefit from making good food choices. Good food choices support consistent training, maximize performance in competition and help maintain good health and optimal recovery.Food choices will be very different in different countries & cultures. However, the basics of good nutrition for athletes remains the same which is: a wide variety of healthy and wholesome foods eaten in appropriate amounts should be the primary elements of every athlete’s sport nutrition plan.Whenever highly talented, motivated & well-trained athletes meet in competition, the margin b/t victory & defeat is small. Attention to detain can make the difference. Diet affects performance, and our eating & drinking patterns will influence how well we train and whether we compete at our best. All athletes need to be aware of their personal nutritional goals & how they can select an eating strategy to meet those goals.Because each athlete is different (just as athletics in and of itself is diverse), there is no single diet that meets the needs of all athletes at all times. Individual needs also change across the season and athletes need to be flexible to accommodate for this.Diet may have its biggest impact on training, and a good diet will help support consistent intensive training while limiting the risks for illness or injury. A good nutrition plan promotes adaptations to the training stimulus.
3Benefits of a well-chosen sports nutrition plan Allows higher quality trainingOptimal gains from training programEnhanced recovery within/between workouts and eventsConsistency in achieving high-level performanceAchievement/maintenance of ideal BW and physiqueReduced risk of injury & illnessinjury, illness, malnutritionA well-chosen diet offers many benefits to all athletes, irrespective of event, age, sex, age or level of competition.
4Quality Nutrition is Key Maximizes genetic potentialSpeeds recoveryLong term health benefitsEnjoyment of food and social eating occasionsAthletes as role models
5The Nutrition Challenge… Athletes look for the competitive edge but often undervalue the benefits of nutrition basics.Do you follow a high quality sport nutrition training plan?
7Common Problems & Challenges… Poor knowledge of foods & drinks and inadequate cooking skillsPoor choices when shopping or dining outPoor/outdated sports nutrition infoInadequate financesBusy lifestyle….inadequate time to obtain or consume appropriate foodsFrequent travelIndiscriminate use of supplements & sports foodsDespite these disadvantages, many athletes do not meet their nutrition goals. Common problems and challenges include (read slide)
8WHY DO ATHLETES TRAIN…Improve Fitness, Athletic Performance and maybe HealthAthletes become more efficient withRestoring ATP-CP fasterStoring more energy (glycogen)Overall aerobic fitness (cardiovascular)
9WHY DO ATHLETES FATIGUE? Build up of lactic acidHypoglycemiaDepleted muscle glycogenDehydrationLow iron
10KEY NUTRIENTS… MACRO-NUTRIENTS MICRO-NUTRIENTS FLUID Carbohydrate: simple vs. complex vs. supplement vs. Glycemic IndexProtein: animal vs. plant vs. supplementFat: trans, saturated, unsaturatedMICRO-NUTRIENTSVitamins A, C, E, B6, B12, D, Calcium, Iron, Zinc, Selenium etc.FLUIDWaterSport DrinksEnergy DrinksAlcoholGetting the right amount of energy to stay healthy and to perform well is essential. Consuming too much energy increases body fat. If athletes do not eat enough, performance falls, injuries are more likely to occur, and illness results.CARBS supplies the muscles & brain with the fuels they need to meet the stress of training & comp. Athletes must be aware of what foods they should choose to meet their carb needs, how much should be eaten, & when these foods should be eaten on a day to day basis.Carb Intake Goals: Min. phys. activity: 2-3g/kg, Light phys activity: 4-5g/kg, Med phys activity: 6-7g/kg, Professional/elite athlete(20hr+/wk): 7+g/kg and Carb Loading for endurance & ultra-endurance: 7-12g/kg.Pro rich foods are NB for building & repairing muscles, but a varied diet containing everyday foods will generally supply more than enough protein. The timing of pro intake in relation to training is also important. Well chosen vegetarian diets can easily meet pro needs.A varied diet is key to meeting energy and nutritional needs. A diet with a variety of veggies, fruit, beans, legumes, beans, cereals, lean meats, fish and dairy foods should ensure adequate intake of all essential vitamins and minerals. Excluding any one of the food groups increases the risk of missing out on important nutrient needs and means more careful food choices must be made.Pro Needs: Sedentary = 0.8g/kg; General Training = 1.0g/kg; Endurance in extreme training = g/kg; Endurance in extreme training, comp or race = 2.0g/kg; Strength athlete in heavy training = 1.2 – 1.7g/kg; and Adolescent athlete = 2.0g/kg.
11HYDRATION MATTERSAs little as 1% dehydration can impair physical and mental performance1 ½ pounds in a 150 lb person or 3 cups (750 ml)3% causes 10% decrease in muscle performanceSigns & Symptoms…dizziness, nausea, headache, chills, muscle cramps, thirstDehydration leads to…Early fatigue (speed, intensity, strength, power)Decreased concentration/focus/timingIncreased risk for injuryHeat stroke (reduced evaporation of sweat, body overheats)
12PREVENT DEHYDRATION Be aware – monitor hydration status WUTHave a plan – when and what will you drink…follow it!!!
13WUT: a simple self assessment WeightUrine ColorThirst
14FLUID SCHEDULE (ACSM) Before During 4 hrs 5-7 ml/kg water/sport drink2 hrs 3-5 ml/kg cool water/sport drinkDuring~15-20 min 125 – 250 ml cup cool fluid/ sports drink OR ml/hrAfter~ ml per lb sweat loss or 1 L/kgSport drink = 6-8% CHOAmounts are individual: sweat losses, tolerance/comfort, temperature, humidity, altitude, degree of hydration going into training or competition
15AFTER TRAINING… Weigh self - aim to regain lost weight Sip 150% of fluid lossesHigher sodium if shorter recoveryGreatest fluid intake with 400mg sodium/carb beverageCarbs facilitate faster fluid absorption from gut in short term
16HYDRATION TIPS Drink water, milk, juice, tea, sport drink Eat watery soups, fruits and veggies.Limit caffeine, carbonation, alcoholPlan ahead - Calculate needs, bring what you need and empty them!
17STUDY 6 % carb 1150 mg Na 2764 ml 2229 ml 535 ml Fluid Composition Fluid Intake Absorbed Losses6 % carb1150 mg Na ml ml mlFlavored water ml ml ml575 mg Na ml ml ml
18TRAINING NUTRTION Balance: carbohydrate, protein and fat Aim for high food qualityNEVER try anything new day of competition
19CARBS Main fuel used by the body Depleted during intense, endurance or multi session/multi day trainingDepletion = fatigueAthletes usually report intakes similar to age matched, non active individualsCarb rich foods necessary to fill glycogen storesQuality sources include:veggies, fruits, whole grains, legumes, milk, yogurt, soy milkOther sources: processed/white foods juices, sport foods, sweets
21CARB REQUIREMENTS Min. Activity 2-3 g/kg BW Light (3-5 h/wk) g/kg BWMedium (10 h/wk) 6-7 g/kg BWProf Athlete (20+ h/wk) 7+ g/kg BWEndurance/Carb load g/kg BW150 lb or 68.2 kg68.2 kg x 7 g = 480 g carb/day480 g carb x 4 cal/g = 1920 calories from carbs
22Fuel Use with Increased Exercise Intensity (Ref: Brooks and Mercier, 1994)
23PROTEIN Growth, repair & tissue maintenance Antibodies, hormones, enzymes and hemoglobinEnergy sourceSources include:fish, meat, poultry, eggs, legumes, soy products, milk, yogurt, low fat cheese, nuts and nut butters, meal replacements, sport bars, protein powders
24YOUR PROTEIN NEEDS… 0.8 g/kg/d 1-1.2g/kg 1.2-1.6g/kg 1.6-1.7g/kg/d RDA Adults Fitness/youth Endurance Strength***Endurance with extreme training = 2.0g/kgAdolescent Athletes = 2.0g/kgNorth American diet easily provides: 1.4 to 2.0 g/kg/d
2510 grams Protein… 2 small eggs 1 ½ slices reduced fat cheese 2 cups cooked pasta100 g soy meat40 g cooked lean chicken120 g tofu60 g nuts/seeds200 g baked beans50 g grilled fish200 g reduced fat yogurt50 g canned tuna/salmon35 g cooked lean beef, pork
2610 grams Protein… 2 small eggs 1 ½ slices reduced fat cheese 2 cups cooked pasta100 g soy meat40 g cooked lean chicken120 g tofu60 g nuts/seeds200 g baked beans50 g grilled fish200 g reduced fat yogurt50 g canned tuna/salmon35 g cooked lean beef, pork
31PRE-COMP NUTRITION WHY? Max. fluid levels and to prevent dehydration Supply food that is quickly & easily digestedEnsure ample energy to train or competePrevent hunger before and during exerciseMental preparationImproves endurance and power output, improving training/performance potential
32PRE-COMP NUTRITION Timing & Meal Size: 3-4 hours for large meal to digest2-3 hours for smaller meal1-2 hours for small snack or blender/liquid meal (or whatever your own tolerance allows)CAUTION: spicy, fatty, and/or fibre rich foods may cause discomfort such as, bloating and gaseous build-up.Products containing caffeine may also be problematic.
33NUTRITION BEFORE… Most important if intakes poor 24 hrs. prior approx g carb/kg per hour:example - 30–70g for a 68kg (150lb) athlete in the hour before? protein in the hr beforepay attention to: individual differences, timing, easily digested, familiar, hydration, glycemic index
34PRE-COMP NUTRITION BEFORE EXERCISE: Drink 1.5 to 2.5 cups fluid 2-3 hrs. priorDrink 0.5 to 1.5 cup(s) fluid 15 min. prior, depending on comfortEat high carb meal/snack 2-4 hrs. priorWhole grains, veggies, fruit, juices, milk, yogurt, soy drinks, and legumes (gas forming?)
35PRE-COMP NUTRITIONExperiment during training sessions to determine which foods and fluids and at what amounts are comfortable for you!Never try new foods or drinks the day of competition!
361 hour before: 30 - 50 grams carb 1 cup cereal shake, fruit smoothies, CIB1- 2 containers flavored yogurt250 – 500ml carton chocolate milk1 sport bar, 3 – 4 fig bars, 1 large low fat muffin1 large banana (30g) or 1 – 2 cups fruit juice1 bowl oatmeal/cold cereal and milk1 pancake with syrup, 1 toast with jam
372 hours before g2c pasta, ½ - 1c tomato sauce and c chocolate milkg cereal, c milk and2c juice or 1/4c raisins2 toast or 1 bagel with p.b.* & jam, 1c milklean protein* sandwich, 2c juice1c rice, 1/2c lentils**, 1c juice2 French toast/pancake, 2 tbsp.syrup,1c fruit yogurt or 1 - 2c juice*Not everyone will tolerate** May cause GI upset
383-4 Hours Beforeadd an extra grams carbohydrate i.e. increase portion sizeadd low fat protein and a small amount of fat
39PRE-COMP NUTRITION MEAL IDEAS – home or on-the-go Toast/bagel with jam, peanut butter, juice, yogurtOatmeal/cereal, milk, raisins, juicePancakes with little syrup/spread, ham, juiceGrilled chicken sandwich, juice*****MAYBE DURING THE PRESENTATION MENTION WHAT CATEGORY THESE MEAL IDEAS FOR THE NEXT FEW SLIDES FIT INTO (IE. FROM SLIDE #7 (3-4 hours for large meal to digest 2-3 hours for smaller meal 1-2 hours for small snack or blender/liquid meal (or whatever your own tolerance allows))*****
41PRE-COMP NUTRITION SNACK IDEAS: Fruit (fresh, canned, or juice) Fruit yogurtLow-fat muffin, juice, or applesauceYogurt, social tea biscuits, juicePita with hummus, veggie juiceFig or oatmeal cookies, fruit, milk
42PRE-COMP NUTRITION BACKPACK / CAR SNACKS: Dry cereal Cereal, sport, or energy barsJuice boxes or fruit cupCrackersDried fruitTrail mix with cereal
43COMP-NUTRITION During Exercise, Nutrition Provides: Energy Physical comfort, absence of hungerMental focus for best technique and skill execution
45COMP-NUTRITION WHY? Max. fluid levels & prevent dehydration Replace fluid lossesFluid needs vary with sweat rate, sport, & environment (temp, humidity, altitude)Ensure energy to train or compete
46COMP-NUTRITION DURING EXERCISE: Drink 0.5 to 1.5 cups every 15-20 min. Drink more…Days you train harderDuring hot, humid weatherTraining / competing > 1 hrConsume some carbohydrate (sport drink) for sessions lasting longer than 1 hour to maintain focus, technique and energy
47COMP-NUTRITION Sport Drinks: Optimal Fluid Absorption:40-80g/L carbg/L sodiumSport Drinks:water, carbs, (40-80g/L) and electrolytes (sodium, potassium)Fruit Juice: ( g/L carb)may be diluted for tolerence (*Note-since Fructose is metabolized differently, athletes may want to try this during training to ensure no negative effects are seen i.e. GI distress)Energy Drinks / Soft Drinks:too concentrated for rapid absorption
48COMP-NUTRITION Make Your Own Fluid Replacement: 2 cups unsweetened orange juice2 cups water¼ tsp salt1 L = 54 g (5.4%) carb and 0.5 to 0.7 g salt****Other ideas that I would suggest would be either to use a Gatorade powder mixed in water, or to buy dextrose (from the wine/beer making aisle) and add water and salt. The dextrose is an excellent cheap alternative that one can measure the exact amount that they are consuming)**** Again, try fruit juice during training
49COMP-NUTRITION DURING – focus on fluid & carbs Water is effective for short exercise sessions (< 1 hr)Athletes Consume More Fluid When…Easy to access (right beside you)Flavour you likeChilledHas sodium added( g/L enhances flavour)
50COMP-NUTRITIONTraining/Comp lasting several hours, focus on fluid and carb-rich snacks during rest breaksAmount consumed depends on time between snack and eventDuring breaks, choose higher carb and lower protein & fat foods-for quick digestion and absorption of fluid & carb to prep for next event
51Nutrition During Longer Training Sessions: > 90 minutes Enhance physical and mental performancePrevent injuryDelay deterioration of sport specific skillsSpare protein
52How Much?Carbs:g/hour or 2 – 4 cups (500 ml – 1L) sport drink/hourFluids1 - 2 cups ( ml) every 15 minutesmost likely sport drinks
53COMP-NUTRITION SHORT BREAKS (< 2 hr) Diluted fruit juice or sport drinkFruit (fresh, canned, pureed)Bread, pretzels, or crackersCereal, sport or energy barsArrowroot, fig, oatmeal, or similar low fat cookiesPlain or chocolate milkFruit yogurt
54COMP-NUTRITION 2 – 3 Hour Breaks: Juice and bagel Yogurt, fruit and waterLean meat sandwich and veggie juiceFruit, cookies, and chocolate milk
55COMP-NUTRITION SMALL MEAL IDEAS (3 hr) Cereal, fruit, milk Veggie soup, lean meat sandwich, milk and fruitRice, steamed veggies, chicken/fish, yogurt, and juice
56COMP-NUTRITION Plan ahead & be prepared Carry snack items Know where you can buy snacks
57Recovery NutritionGoals: the 3 R’sRefuelRepairRe-hydrate
58RECOVERY NUTRITION WHY? Replace fluid loss Ensure energy & nutrients to recover and prepare for the next eventCarb-rich foods/fluids consumed within first 15 minutes optimalCarbs move rapidly through blood stream, into muscles to replace glycogen.(rate slows down to normal within 2hr)
59WHY Improves future training & performance Replenish liver and muscle glycogenPrevents muscle protein breakdown and aids in protein synthesis during recoveryEnhances immune systemReduces stress hormones
60RECOVERY NUTRITION Post-Exercise Nutrition: Energy & Nutrients Physical Comfort; absence of hungerMental Alertness
61RECOVERY NUTRITION TARGETS: Optimal fluid & electrolyte levels Carbs to restore muscle glycogenProtein to repair muscle tissue damageNutrients to support health and strong immune system
62Recovery Nutrition Details A.S.A.P.Within the first minutes is optimalfluids-150% or more of lost weight or pale urineg carb/kg (50+ grams) in the first hour and then follow training dietFirst snack high glycemic then low GIprotein g every 2 hrs.Plan for and have a portable nutrition source close at hand.
63RECOVERY NUTRITION AFTER EXERCISE: Drink 1.5 L fluid per kg (2.2 pounds) of body weight lostConsume some salty fluids and foodElectrolyte replacement & fluid retentionEat high carb meal/snackHigh glycemic indexHave some lean proteinAvoid skipping mealsAmount of food consumed depends on time of next event and next scheduled snack.********This is a time where someone could use a reputable protein powder, mixed with dextrose or powdered Gatorade for rapid delivery, followed by a food meal 1-2 hrs. after ingesting their liquid beverage. The liquid beverage can even be split into 2 servings. 1 serving immediately following competition, 2nd serving within 1hr after the 1st serving, and then a food meal 1hr-1.5hrs after the 2nd serving. This works extremely well at replenishing glycogen and providing amino acids after competition.********
64RECOVERY NUTRITION AFTER – fluid, carb, protein Consumed within 2 hr Choose from the 4 food groupsVegetables & FruitGrain ProductsMilk & AlternativesMeat & Alternatives
65RECOVERY NUTRITION LATE NIGHT RECOVERY: You end late at night – you still must eat a recovery mealCarb-based mealMilk and fruitLean meat sandwich with juice
66Immediate Recovery – for a 50 kg athlete 1/2 liter Gatorade or other sports drink +5 tablespoons skim milk powderTotal: 45 grams carb and 10 grams proteinHeavier athlete: 1.5 – 2 X the aboveNote:Tastes ok.Shake vigorously in a water bottle – it sometimes looks curdled, itis not.This would also work in the hour before training or racing if youhave trouble digesting solids.
67Immediate Recovery – for a 50 kg athlete 1 175 ml container flavored yogurtApproximately 25+g carb and 8+g pro+1 banana or 1 large slice watermelonapprox 25 g carb and 2g proTotal: 50g carbohydrate and 10g proteinFor a heavier athlete:try 2 containers of yogurt for 75 + grams of carb and 16 + grams of protein
68Immediate Recovery – for a 50 kg athlete ml container Boost High ProteinTotal: 41g carbohydrate + 14g proteinFor a heavier athlete:add additional carbohydrates by also drinking sport drink – add 250 ml per 10 kg of weight (15 grams of carbohydrate per 250 ml)Note:Boost has a fairly sweet tasteAvailable at most large chain grocery storesCould use in the hour before training/racing if trouble digesting solids
69Immediate Recovery – for a 50 - 60 kg athlete 500 ml Chocolate MilkTotal - 50g carb and 16g proFor a heavier athlete:add additional carbs by also drinking sport drink – add 250 ml per 10 kg of weight (15g of carb/250 ml)Note:This would also work in the hour before training ifyou have trouble digesting solids
70Immediate Recovery – for a 50 - 60 kg athlete 1 pkg. Carnation Instant Breakfast mixed with500 ml of milkTotal: 52 g carbohydrate and 23 g proteinFor a heavier athlete:add additional carbs by also drinking sport drink –add 250 ml per 10 kg of weight (15g of carb/250 ml)or make the milk chocolate for an extra 26g of carb.Note:Shake vigorously in a water bottleCould use in the hour before training/racing if trouble digesting solids
71Immediate Recovery – for a 50 - 60 kg athlete ½ cup Raisins – 60 grams carb+½ cup roasted soy nuts – 30 grams carband 15 grams proteinTotal: 15 grams of pro and 90 grams carbNote:Don’t forget to hydrate
72IMMEDIATE RECOVERY Optional: Mix and match foods from the recovery cards to eat at least10 grams of protein andgram of carbohydrate per kg of weighti.e. 40 – 50 grams carb for a 50 kg athlete48 – 60 grams carb for a 60 kg athlete…and so on
76RECOVERY NUTRITION SNACK IDEAS… Cereal/cereal bar, fruit, milk/yogurt Pretzels, tomato or fruit juiceBagel, peanut butter, jam, chocolate milkYogurt, crackers/cookies, juiceFruit smoothie (fruit, milk, yogurt), toastSport or energy bar, fruit, chocolate milk
77RECOVERY NUTRITION Backpack/Car SNACKS Dry cereal Cereal, sport, energy barsJuice boxes or fruit cupsCrackersTuna or beans in cans with pull-off topsDried fruitTrail mix with cereal
78Eating for General Sports Activity/Weight Loss Easiest intensity of activities/training while still improving fitnessWalking/learn to run/cardiac rehab/athletes on a light day or day offBody is in the fat burning zone; using more fat than carb/pro as fuel; improving fitness while losing weightMay be appropriate for aesthetics/class sports: wrestling, gymnastics, synchronized swimming, figure skatingV&F = 6+ G = MP&A = 3 MA = 2Minimize extra foods as they are usually high in energy and low in nutrients
79Eating for PowerEnergy costs for fitness; work the heart& other muscles to get strongTraining at a moderate pace for minutes (tempo training), 60 min. of moderate-vigorous (start-stop sports)Basketball, volleyball, rugby, ringette, short track, inline speed skating, weight training, track and field eventsDown hill mountain biking, track cycling, power lifting, interval trainingVF = G = MP&A = MA = 2-3Fluids = 12 cups or 3L/day
80Eating for EnduranceBest for training days involving endurance (2 hr or longer) of moderate to race pace intensityMiddle distance/marathon running, cross country mountain biking, triathlons, marathon cycling, ice speed skating, swimming, rowing, and cross country skiingVF = G = MP&A = MA = 2-4Extra energy foods may be required t fuel you for your sport (sweets, fats & oils, desserts, energy/sport bars, drinks and gels)
81Peak Performance Traveling Don’t go more than 3 hours without eating a snack/mealStay away from coffee if you tend to be anxiousModerate amount of carbs end of flight to be bright-eyed and bushy-tailed
82Peak Performance Traveling Stick to your normal routineSleeping patternEating patternFluid intakePack snacks (nonperishable foods)These are “meals on the go”Keep your metabolism burningKeep you eating the right foods at the right time
83Peak Performance Traveling ~40% of food dollars are spent on eating away from homePlan AheadKnow which restaurants are willing to cater to your needsPlan your stops along the way to your destination in advanceOrder SmartAvoid cream dishes, gravies, fried, bisque, hollandaise, au gratinChoose steamed, grilled, broiled, tomato based, poachedControl PortionsThere are no rewards for clearing your plate!Eat off a plate, not a platter
84ENERGY DRINKS – Ergogenic Aids Use of the word “natural” can be misleadingNatural does not mean legal - DISQUALIFICATIONNatural does not mean safe
85ENERGY DRINKS – Ergogenic Aids Supposedly enhance performanceSpeed, endurance, reduce body fat, mental alertness, recoveryAdded to make up for nutritional deficiencySupplement companies do not have to prove effectiveness or potency before hitting the market
86ENERGY DRINKS – What you need to know CaffeineStimulant – not necessarily a good thingDiuretic (?) & Laxative effectLight-headedGuarana, yerba mate, caffeine80 mg or more caffeine/250 ml canDouble of soft drinks, half of brewed coffeeExceeds recommendations for children
87ENERGY DRINKS – What you need to know Health Canada:no more than 45 mg/day for children 4-6 yr, 62.5 mg for 7-9 yr, 85 mg for yrAdults no more than 400 mg/dayAim for less than 200 mg/dayWatch meds with caffeine: Anacin, Vivarin12 oz can cola = 35 mg20 oz cola = 65 mgStarbucks grande coffee = 200 mgRed Bull = 80 mg
88Caffeine and You…The caffeine in coffee, if you drink several cups daily, can precipitate afast pulsenervousnessinsomniaheadacheirritabilitydiarrhea andfrequent urinationPerformanceenhancing????
89ENERGY DRINKS – What you need to know HerbsGinkgo biloba, ginseng, guarana, kola nuts, Yerba Mate, Echinacea, AstragalusDo not enhance performanceAre in very low amountsInteract with medicationsAffect blood clottingPossible mislabeling, no standardization
90ENERGY DRINKS – What you need to know TaurineAmino acid found in meat & dairy productsClaim increases alertness, cardiac fxn, antioxidant – no scientific evidenceTypically 1 g per 250 ml canSafety not known!
91ENERGY DRINKS – What you need to know Protein and Other Amino AcidsArginine, Taurine, Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA’S), GlutamineThought to enhance glycogen storageReduce synthesis of serotoninNegligible amountsTo add enough to be of benefit would affect taste and mouth feelMay cause digestive distress
92ENERGY DRINKS – What you need to know CarbohydrateContains twice as much sugar as sport drinksImpede rehydration (high doses of glucose, sucrose, maltodextrins, fructose, galactose)Excess sugar can lead to nausea, stomach cramps, and diarrheaCarbonation can cause gas/bloatingBest Choice For Exercise…Water & Sports Drinks
93ENERGY DRINKS – What you need to know Royal Jelly/Bee PollenSupposed to improve exercise performanceNo proven effectDangerous to those allergic to bee stingsPyruvateSupposed to enhance aerobic metabolism, delay fatigue, decrease body fatCurrent products do not provide adequate amounts for effectLarge doses = GI distress
94ENERGY DRINKS – What you need to know CreatinePurpose to delay fatigue in high-intensity exerciseInsufficient amounts in energy drinks for effectYou would need to drink 178 servings for five days to obtain creatine loading of 20g/day for five days****Side Note: the 20g loading phase for creatine is not needed. It has been proven that simply consuming approx. 5 grams/day will achieve the same creatine concentration levels within the muscles within 28-days of use when compared to the traditional loading phase followed by a maintenance phase. The loading phase is a nice ploy to have people buy more of the product then is actually required.***
95ENERGY DRINKS – What you need to know CarnitineInvolved in fatty acid metabolismClaims it delays fatigue in high intensity exerciseNot even the best research confirms above claim in energy drinks
96ENERGY DRINKS – What you need to know OxygenClaim: dissolved oxygen accelerates aerobic metabolism and results in lower levels of lactic acid… improved performanceNo scientific support as blood is fully saturated with oxygen and “extra” is immediately exhaled
97ENERGY DRINKS – What you need to know Fat BurnersCiwujia, hydroxycitrate, ephedraStimulate metabolism and brain fxn; reduce fatLittle to no evidence of athletic performance effectCan cause cardiovascular dysfunction and even death in sensitive individuals (ephedra)
98ENERGY DRINKS – What you need to know Not substitutes for adequate training, rest, recovery and nutrition (fueling for sport)You must take the responsibility for what goes into your bodyYou must be informed and cautious about dietary supplementsFair PlayLegalPerformanceHealthMedicalSafetyFinancialIf you have not heard Dr. Kriellaars present on Substance Use in Sport, you need to get him in to meet with you as a team.
99Sport Supplements? First choice is a well balanced diet Never try new supplements/food the day of competitionMay be beneficial:Too nervous to eat: liquid mealAvoid certain foods/small appetiteTime constraints/TravelingVegetarian, pregnant, anemicSee your doctor and sports dietitian first!
100Pre-Competition Sport Supplements PowerBar min. priorClif Bar min.Clif Shot min.Sport Beans 1 hrOptimum Energy Bar 1 hrPower Gel min.Ele8vMe hrAccel Gel 1 hrCytomax Sport Energy 15 min.Drink (8 oz)Food Choice: ½ banana with ½ cup skim milk
101Competition Sport Supplements Clif ShotSports BeansPowerBarCytomax Sport/Energy DrinkGatoradeMake your own sport drink: orange juice, water, and pinch of salt
102Recovery Supplements 15-30 Minute Window for optimal recovery Food AlternativesBanana and fruit yogurt2 slices toast + tsp peanut butter = 1 scrambled egg½ banana, ½ cup strawberries, ½ cup cottage cheeseSandwich: 2 oz turkey breast, lettuce, tomato, + mustardChocolate milk (1 or 2%)2-3 fruit filled cookies + 1 cup low fat milkMake your own sport drinkClif ShotClif BarOptimum Energy BarPower GelPowerBar HarvestFlash 5 Protein/Energy BarCytomax Sport/Energy DrinkPowerBar ProteinPlus Protein DrinkElev8Me
103VITAMINS vs FOOD 75% of all athletes take some type of supplement Why? Guard your healthCompensate for diet filled with processed foodsEnhance athletic abilitiesBoost energyPromote future “super health”
104VITAMINS vs FOOD True or False A vitamin supplement satisfies 100% of your nutritional needs
105VITAMINS vs FOODFalseYes, you may get 100% of your vitamin needs with the pill. But, we also need protein, minerals, energy, fibre, and phytochemicals – non-vitamin compounds in foods that protect our health.No vitamin provides energy (calories)
106VITAMINS vs FOOD Vitamins will not… Offer a competitive edge Enhance performanceIncrease strength/enduranceProvide energyBuild muscleUnless you are deficient in that nutrient, likely no benefit to health and performance.Placebo Effect?!
107VITAMINS & ATHLETES Does Exercise Increase Needs? For the most part, no…The more you exercise/train, the more you eat and the more vitamins you consume.
108VITAMINS & ATHLETES Supplements for Special Situations: Restricting caloriesAllergic to certain foodsLactose intolerantContemplating pregnancyTotal vegetarian – VEGAN(B-12, D, riboflavin, protein, iron, zinc)
109VITAMINS & ATHLETES Too Much of a Good Thing: Toxic Reactions B6 – numbness, loss of muscle coordination, paralysisNicotinic Acid – liver damageAny dose greater than 10 times the Daily Value is considered a mega dose
110VITAMINS & ATHLETES BEYOND DIETARY DEFICIENCIES: Antioxidants (vit C, beta carotene, selenium)May prevent heart diseaseReduce formation of cancerous tumorsVitamin E, oxidative damage and injuries
111MINERALS Present in all living cells Travel through food chain – absorbed into plants that grow in soil, and then into animals that consume plants and waterFound in wide variety of wholesome foods
112IRON Female athletes at risk for iron deficiency anemia Menstruating Avoid red meatMarathon runners (damaged RBC)Endurance Athletes (heavy sweat losses)Teenage Athletes (growth)
113IRONGetting Enough:Eat lean cuts of beef, lamb, pork, and the dark meat of skinless chicken/turkeySelect breads & cereals statingIron enriched or fortified on the labelUse cast-iron skillets for cookingDon’t drink coffee/tea with every mealCombine heme (animal) with nonheme (plant)
114TOO MUCH IRON >200 mcg may lead to: Heart disease Heart attack Damage blood vessels and heart tissueDamage the liverAssociated with diabetes and arthritis
115FOOD vs. SUPPLEMENT Milk Fluid Carbohydrate Protein Calcium Vitamin D Vitamin APotassiumSodiumFolateCalcium PillCalcium
116How To Choose a Supplement Vit/min close to 100% and no greater than 200% DVNot in excessive dosesBeta carotene and chromiumBuy before expiration date, store in cool, dry placeIgnore claims “natural” vitaminsLabel indicates passed 45 minute dissolution test (otherwise can’t be absorbed)Take with or after a mealThink food first – balanced meal plan can not be compensated with supplementsDIN numberWADA
117BOTTOM LINE Athletes need to incorporate proper Fueling Hydration TrainingRestIf it sounds too good to be true…it probably is!!!
118BEST ENERGY ENHANCERS Be well fueled every day Be well hydrated 3-5 g carb/lb body weight as a min.Be well hydratedUrinate every 2-4 hrs.; clear, pale yellowConsume adequate carbs & fluids during exercise lasting > minutes0.5 g carb/lb body weight per hr8 oz of fluid every minutes
119BEST ENERGY ENHANCERS Recover with adequate carbs ~75 g (300 calories) carb every 2 hrs. for 6-8 hrs.Allow adequate rest days so muscles can refuel and recoverProper sports diet with adequate fluids & carbs is the best investment in high energy performance!Consider a sports dietitian to assist with developing a personalized nutrition plan
120MEAL IDEASMeal in one potatoes i.e. baked potato with baked beans, cottage cheese, leftover chili, ...Salads with protein such as leftover chickenVeggie burgers with cheese - broil for a few minutesBrown rice/pasta with legumes/eggs/shrimp/cottage cheese and veggies - add jarred tomato sauce, salsa, Patak’s curry paste or pesto“Homemade” soups made from bouillon, frozen/leftover veggies and canned tomatoes/legumes i.e. chick peas, kidney beans, black beans* add veg/fruit to all mealsBake chicken or fish with yogurt and Dijon or honey and curry powderNoodle casseroles, or tortilla lasagnaScrambled eggs/tofu add tomatoes and greens, stir fry’s, bean soupsSloppy Joe’s, tuna/salmon melts, homemade pizza on whole wheat pitaWhole grain cereal, milk and toast with pbTofu, bean or Yves Mexican ground round burritos, quesadillas
121SMART Goal Setting Specific Measurable Action oriented Realistic…. for youTime limitedPOD = prioritize, organize, discipline
122THANK YOU Question/Comments? Jorie Janzen, RD, BHEc Sports Dietitian CSCM, SMCM, DC SNN, CDMIOC Diploma In Sports Nutrition(in progress)