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Sports Nutrition: The Benefits of Optimal Fueling

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1 Sports Nutrition: The Benefits of Optimal Fueling
Christine Sorg RD, CD Parkview Sports Medicine April 24, 2015

2 Outline 1. Breakfast 2. Nutrition and exercise for the athlete 6. How to take advantage It’s all about the timing with athletes. Whether we are timing that last shot at the buzzer for a win, timing that 400 meter relay to bring in the win, or timing the spike on the volleyball court. Some of these times we don’t even think about. They just come along with the athletic ability. Other things, we must put in to focus, plan, and prepare to obtain optimal timing. I.E. we must put in thought to our pre/post event meals, as well as fueling during training/events.

3 Optimal fuel for the body can:
Delay fatigue and enhance energy levels… during exercise and all day long. Lead to better and faster recovery. Reduce soreness and inflammation; enhance immunity. Minimize injury risk… return to play time after injury or surgery. Eat to fuel your working muscles. As many of you already know, proper fuel for the body can delay fatigue and enhance energy levels, during exercise and all day long, Lead to better and faster recovery, reduce soreness and inflammation, enhance immunity, minimize injury risk, return to play time faster. The overall goal is to eat to fuel your working muscles. Which leads to success… Boston marathon winner

4 Eating for performance
The athlete: Small changes can lead to significant improvements in performance and health status. The coaches and trainers: It’s all about consistency, support, encouragement, knowledge, understanding. TEAM It is important to work together as a team, from the athletes perspective, as well as the coaches perspective. The athlete is the one making the changes to improve performance, and those involved in training need support, encouragement, etc

5 Me? I eat pretty healthy…
256 HS athletes surveyed re. their personal eating habits They gave themselves a “B” Their actual grade was a “D” Change is unlikely if a person sees no need for it This is an interesting study found by Rachel Clark, RD at Purdue University. The study showed that the high school athletes surveyed their personal eating habits and gave themselves a B. Their actual grade was a D. IF athletes don’t see a need for change “I eat fine, etc” change is unlikely. Rachel Clark

6 The Athlete GOAL 1. Consistent fuel times, eating regularly throughout the day. 2. Carbohydrate: energy for exercise. 3. Protein: repair and building tissues. 4. Fat: enhance endurance, healing and recovery. There for, my goal as a dietitian is to show that there is a need for change, and provide the athlete with the tools to make the changes. It is important for athletes to have consistent fuel times, eating regularly throughout the day. Carbohydrates: fruits, vegetables, whole grains, from various sources, protein sources to build and repair tissues. And fat is necessary for the diet to enhance endurance, healing and recovery.

7 The Athlete REALITY 1. Skipping breakfast… 2. Tendency to under eat throughout the day and over eat during the evening. Results from busy schedules, failing to plan ahead, lack of hunger during the day, or fear of eating before workouts. As much as we would love to see the intake of athletes to be that…. This is the reality in most cases. The skipping breakfast is all to common. It is also common to see athletes who under eat during the day and over eat in the evening. This could be for many many reasons. Some of which include busy schedules, failing to plan ahead, lack of hunger, fear of eating during workouts.

8 BREAKFAST SELLING POINTS
Breakfast makes better lunch & dinner choices easier Breakfast makes you more energetic and productive at practice Skipping breakfast causes late day cravings and out-of-control overeating To begin, it is important to teach athletes the breakfast selling points. Breakfast makes better lunch, and dinner choices easier, breakfast makes you more energetic and productive at practice, skipping breakfast causes late day cravings and out of control overeating. Rachel Clark

9 BREAKFAST OPTIONS GRAINS FRUIT/VEG PROTEIN Toast Banana
Peanut butter (add jelly if you want) Cereal (stir it into yogurt) Frozen or fresh berries (stir into yogurt) Yogurt McD’s oatmeal or Egg McMuffin OJ Chocolate milk Granola (put in a baggie with raisins & nuts) Raisins or other dried fruit Any kind of nuts Crackers Apple Cheese sticks Breakfast options can include fast food: McDonalds oatmeal or Egg mcmuffin, orange juice, and chocolate milk gives you appropriate fuel for the start of the day. Other options can be packed the night before, consumed on the way to school. Etc. Leftovers from the night before can also be appropriate for breakfast. Fueling the body in the morning is the key here. Not only are these great breakfast ideas, these are also good snack ideas as well. Rachel clark

10 Optimal Fueling Practices: Pre- Exercise
3-4 hours before exercise: Carbohydrate + Protein: Peanut butter and honey on toast + instant breakfast drink Fruit and yogurt smoothie + low fat granola Oatmeal with brown sugar and almonds + skim milk, + banana Low fat cottage cheese + apple butter + crackers + fresh grapes Next: Lets talk about optimal fueling practices before exercise Here is a common scenario that you may be familiar with: Scenario: The day of a football game, I often feel nervous and sometimes skip lunch, only to feel hungry later. Games are usually in the afternoon so I know I need to eat something beforehand. Playing both offense and defense, I rarely get a break. What foods can I eat and at what times to supply me with enough energy to perform well the entire game? The key here is to consume carbohydrate + protein 3-4 hours before exercise. Here are some examples for the athlete. Other meal ideas may be: Lean hamburger on bun with lettuce and tomato + side salad + yogurt-fruit parfait Turkey and swiss sandwich + fruit + sports drink Low fat tuna melt sandwich + fruit cup + fat free yogurt

11 Optimal Fueling Practices: Pre-Exercise
2 fig bars or cookies 1 medium apple 2 slices of bread 1 medium banana or orange selections ½ bagel or one mini bagel Examples: 30 grams of carbohydrates minutes prior to GO TIME: Step two in the process to pre-exercise fueling includes consuming 30 grams of carbohydrates minute prior to game time, practice time. These are simple, lower cost, ideas for the athlete. These can be brought on the bus in the cooler, stored in the athletes lockers, bags etc. The key is timing, 30 min prior to go time. Liquids may be easier to digest. The key is trial and error before competitions. During lighter practices, multiple times.

12 Pre-Exercise [TIMELINE] 3-4 HRS PRE-EX GO TIME
As you get closer to exercise: Carb (1/2 x BW = grams carb needed 1-2 hrs prior) Protein Fat, Fiber Focus on carb-rich foods/fluids for energy & quick digestion and absorption Fruits & Veg Carb Putting it all together in a complete time line, using the plate method as a visual. Overall goals include: Avoid hunger, yet avoid GI distress Carbohydrate-based Low fat (takes longer to digest) Little fiber (prevent bloating, gas) Moderate protein Some times that 30 minute window is not an option. At this point we would recommend: Blended or liquid meal recommended for meals eaten 1-2 hrs prior Excessive protein and fat can cause gut distress, including stomach cramping, and can worsen “nervous stomachs” Focus on liquids or semi-solids (pudding, applesauce, sports drinks, possibly milk/fruit juices/smoothies) Think Snack size (not meal size) since less time available to digest For a few, simple sugars <1 hour pre-exercise will cause hypoglycemia No nutrition-related reason to avoid dairy in the >1 hour pre-exercise Protein

13 Optimal Fueling Practices: During Exercise
Foods and Fluids: Easily digested carbohydrate-rich foods during endurance events: Half time cooler: banana, or roll, with jam or honey sports foods (gels, gummy chews) bite sized pieces of low fat granola or sports bars Side lines: Fluids + carbohydrate gels or carbohydrate-rich foods to speed fuel transport to muscles. Example:Seatle Seahawks skittles, Marshawn lynch. Right time right place for everything. If he was going for skittles as a quick carbohydrate source, yes. If this is something he wants to consume every night for dessert, we may have a problem. Here are some other examples of easily digested carbohydrate-rich foods during endurance events. Coaches and Trainers allow for athlete to: Experiment with foods and drinks in practice and lower level competitions. Provide pre-game foods/beverages or specific options the athletes can provide for themselves. EXAMPLE: Tailgates prior to games, coolers at competition, pre-game dinners.

14 Optimal Fueling Practices: Hydration
CRITICAL AT 3 TIMES During training… allows for maximum adaptations Keep fluid losses <2% of pre-exercise body weight During competition… prevents performance decline Maintain pale urine (but not clear) During recovery… restores lost body water 24 oz for every 1 lb loss of body weight Track your sweat loss by weighing athlete before and after exercise. Hint one gulp is approximately 1 oz. Hydration Scenario: Ever since football practice started in August, I’ve been getting headaches, feeling tired, and having trouble paying attention in class. I’ve been thirsty during the day, so I drink juice or soda at meals, and stop at the water fountain on my way to class. During practice, I drink a 20 oz sports drink, and occasionally, I drink water from the cooler. Am I getting enough fluids? How much and when should I be drinking? Hydration is critial during training, it allows for maximum adaptations; you want to keep fluid losses at less than or equal to 2% of pre exercise body weight. That’s no more than a 3 pound weight loss for a 150 pound athlete, or 2.5 pounds for a 125 pound athlete.

15 Dehydration Thirst Dark urine Decreased performance Cramps Headache
NOTHING AFFECTS PERFORMANCE FASTER Thirst Dark urine Decreased performance Cramps Headache Dizziness Nausea Irritability Weakness Loss of focus Rachel Clark Do a shirt check. Is the athlete sweating through shirt? When was there last drink break?

16 Post-Exercise Fuel a.k.a. recovery
Recovery influences fatigue & immunity Begin nutrition recovery with a snack or meal within minutes following practice or competition. Carbs: grams/kg body weight 120 lbs … grams 220 lbs … grams Protein (10-25 g) is especially important… If the workout was resistance training If the athlete is restricting calories If there are multiple workouts in one day Eating For Recovery Scenario: The day after a hard soccer practice, my legs feel heavy, I feel sluggish, and I’m often sore even if I didn’t have a resistance training session the day before. My performance at practice suffers because I’m unable to put forth 100%. I usually drink water and sometimes sports drink during practice and games, but afterward I don’t usually feel like eating much. What can I do so I have more energy at practice and feel better about my performance? Rachel clark Liver = 100 grams carb Muscle = 400 grams carb

17 Optimal Fueling Practices: Post Exercise
Recovery Snack Ideas Chocolate milk Cottage cheese and fruit Cheese and crackers Smoothie made with yogurt and frozen berries Sports drink (carbohydrate, electrolyte, fluid), + sport bar (carbohydrate + protein) Graham crackers with peanut butter + low fat chocolate milk + banana SCAN handout

18 Recovery Fuel Chocolate Milk 20 fl oz 250 calories 50 g carb
20 g protein 6 g fat Talk about examples of meal replacers that are expensive etc. Give ideas for getting chocolate milk in to the schools, vending machines, etc

19 Pro Carb Pro Carb F&V F&V Carb Pro F&V
Basketball Volleyball Football Tennis* Wrestling Gymnastics* Pro Carb Pro Carb F&V F&V Swimming Soccer Tennis* Carb Golf Baseball Softball Diving Gymnastics The plate method is a fantastic way to use as a guide. It can replace the idea of counting cups, servings, etc. It gives the athlete the idea, the foundation. We could go in to more detail with an easy day and CHO intake, vs a harder training day. This represents that it is not about portion, more like proportion. This may not work as well for an athlete who was over eating. They may actually benefit more on the portion size examples to monitor kcal intake vs output. Eat energy supplying carbohydrates The key is to have more nutritious carbohydrates as your building blocks to a smart diet and to have the less than nutritious ones less often and in smaller quantities. Choose whole grains vs refined grains. Whole grains, over processed grains give you more vitamins and minerals naturally, fiber and provide a more sustained release of energy. Pro F&V

20 Pro Carb Pro Carb F&V F&V Carb Pro F&V
Sprinters Mid-distance (less volume) Hurdlers Jumpers Throwers (while muscle- building) Pro Carb Pro Carb F&V F&V Endurance Mid-distance (more volume) Throwers Weight loss Off-season More examples of the plate. Give some structure that also allows them choice. The main thing here is to adjust the carbohydrates, and let the other food groups do their job. Carbohydrates are the main source of our energy. Down time, off season, the Carbohydrates will differ and vary in proportion. Carb Pro F&V

21 watermelon red peppers salsa strawberries tomatoes spaghetti sauce red grapes tomato juice cherries minestrone soup cranberries carrots sweet potatoes vegetable soup butternut squash peaches pumpkin oranges tangerines mangos cantaloupe papaya apricots grapefruit yellow peppers corn nectarines pineapple applesauce honeydew melon green grapes kiwi green beans asparagus peas pea pods green peppers turnip greens spinach Swiss chard broccoli romaine bananas onions mushrooms cauliflower cabbage slaw raspberries radishes blueberries beets plums prunes cabbage raisins eggplant berries wheat germ canola oil olive oil sunflower seeds oil&vinegar Italian salad dressing almonds walnuts hazelnuts macadamia nuts cashews peanuts peanut butter pumpkin seeds ground flaxseed pine nuts egg yolk avocado guacamole Pigments in food deliver antioxidants – they are natural anti-inflammatories (like aspirin or tylenol) MVM okay, but it won’t replace antioxidants (and what about the stuff we haven’t discovered yet, like the active components in the skins of apples or white membrane of oranges – you won’t find that in your supplement) Food is infinitely more sophisticated than supplements Fresh vs. Frozen vs. canned italics=also a good source of vit E *=good source of both vit C and carotenoids (2 for 1) Vitamins and minerals are important in digesting and utilizing nutrients. Vitamin C is necessary to absorp iron in the body, for example. There are also nutrients that are absorbed more readily in the natural state, vs the supplement.

22 Optimal Athlete Nutrition
EMPHASIZE FRUITS & VEG OIL, NUTS, SEEDS ANTIOXIDANTS Outwork the competition Minimize getting run down and sick Have less downtime Increase resilience to stress Rachel Clark: Not get sick every time the weather changes or it’s test time and you’re under stress

23 Carb-rich foods Protein-rich foods Fruits and Vegetables
Use for making mealtime food decisions… at home, at school, at Burger King, etc Carb-rich foods Protein-rich foods Fruits and Vegetables Rachel Clark: Aim for 2-3 pieces of fruit per day Aim for 3-5 servings of vegetables per day Fresh fruit, frozen fruit, canned fruit, 100% juice, dried fruit Fresh vegetables, frozen vegetables, canned veggies, 100% vegetable juice The more color the better!

24 How To Take Advantage Build it into the team culture… at practice
Make it clear that it’s one of your expectations Mandate water bottles at every practice Take water breaks every 30 minutes Rachel Clark Recognize these are the choices that you can make that will impact them positively and relieve you of the frustration you feel when you tell them to make good choices at lunch time or to eat breakfast, but they continually fail to follow through. Those are their choices that, in reality, you have MUCH less impact on. To generate buy-in Write it in your handbook Make it part of the “uniform”

25 How to take advantage Incorporate team goals and rewards… but not food-based rewards Rachel Clark

26 How to take advantage Avoid simplistic, generalized characterizations like healthy/unhealthy or good/bad Rachel Clark

27 How to take advantage Think in terms of function… how will this food work for this athlete in this situation? Rachel Clark There’s a time and a place Help lead them to their own decisions

28 Ask them to seek out specific types of foods rather than avoid foods
How to take advantage Ask them to seek out specific types of foods rather than avoid foods Rachel Clark Again… also give some structure that also allows them choice.

29 ADJUST Optimal nutrition is a moving target… Developing bodies
In-season vs. off-season needs differ Circumstances change at school & at home There is no endpoint… Rachel Clark

30 Game Days vs. practice days
COMPETITION DAYS EACH SEASON PRACTICE DAYS EACH SEASON Football 10 55 Basketball 22 70 Soccer 16 40 Softball 20 45 Golf 18 50 Wrestling 60 Swimming 90 Tennis Cross Country 14 Track & Field Volleyball 25+ Gymnastics 65 Here is an example of competition days vs practice days each season. These are the times where you as coaches and trainers are with the athletes. Rachel Clark Training, conditioning, drills, and games,

31 More opportunity for impact at practice
COMPETITION DAYS EACH SEASON PRACTICE DAYS EACH SEASON Football 10 60 6x Basketball 22 70 3.2x Soccer 16 40 2.5x Softball 20 45 2.3x Golf 18 50 2.8x Wrestling 3.3x Swimming 90 5x Tennis 1.8x Cross Country 14 3.6x Track & Field 3.8x Volleyball 25+ 55 2.2x Gymnastics 65 4.1x You as coaches and trainers have an opportunity for impact at practice. You can influence their training, and competition, which is sport specific. You train for speed, agility, strength, endurance. You may need to give up the pounding of “open lunches, eating at fast food places, eating junk before practice”. Use the time you have to impact them in different ways Sometimes, you jut need to give it up. Rachel clark

32 Prepare Success for the athlete
Factors that influence how well the athlete performs in their sport… Strength, Agility, Speed, Endurance…. Rachel Clark

33 Optimal Fueling Practices
Eat regularly Consistent recovery post-practice & post-competition Daily good hydration practices Intent and Support to eat regularly Rachel Clark Eat regularly Breakfast, lunch, dinner, maybe evening snack Pre- and post-practice snack

34 References Rachel A. Clark MS, RD, CSSD Purdue University
Julia Just RD Parkview Health SCAN (Sports, Cardiovascular, and Wellness Nutrition) AND (Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics)

35 THANK YOU Christine Sorg RD,CD Parkview Sports Medicine


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