Presentation on theme: "Sports Nutrition: The Benefits of Optimal Fueling"— Presentation transcript:
1 Sports Nutrition: The Benefits of Optimal Fueling Christine Sorg RD, CDParkview Sports MedicineApril 24, 2015
2 Outline1. Breakfast 2. Nutrition and exercise for the athlete 6. How to take advantageIt’s all about the timing with athletes. Whether we are timing that last shot at the buzzer for a win, timing that 400 meter relay to bring in the win, or timing the spike on the volleyball court. Some of these times we don’t even think about. They just come along with the athletic ability. Other things, we must put in to focus, plan, and prepare to obtain optimal timing. I.E. we must put in thought to our pre/post event meals, as well as fueling during training/events.
3 Optimal fuel for the body can: Delay fatigue and enhance energy levels… during exercise and all day long.Lead to better and faster recovery.Reduce soreness and inflammation; enhance immunity.Minimize injury risk… return to play time after injury or surgery.Eat to fuel yourworking muscles.As many of you already know, proper fuel for the body can delay fatigue and enhance energy levels, during exercise and all day long, Lead to better and faster recovery, reduce soreness and inflammation, enhance immunity, minimize injury risk, return to play time faster.The overall goal is to eat to fuel your working muscles. Which leads to success… Boston marathon winner
4 Eating for performance The athlete: Small changes can lead to significant improvements in performance and health status.The coaches and trainers: It’s all about consistency, support, encouragement, knowledge, understanding.TEAMIt is important to work together as a team, from the athletes perspective, as well as the coaches perspective. The athlete is the one making the changes to improve performance, and those involved in training need support, encouragement, etc
5 Me? I eat pretty healthy… 256 HS athletes surveyed re. their personal eating habitsThey gave themselves a “B”Their actual grade was a “D”Change is unlikely if a person sees no need for itThis is an interesting study found by Rachel Clark, RD at Purdue University. The study showed that the high school athletes surveyed their personal eating habits and gave themselves a B. Their actual grade was a D.IF athletes don’t see a need for change “I eat fine, etc” change is unlikely.Rachel Clark
6 The AthleteGOAL1. Consistent fuel times, eating regularly throughout the day.2. Carbohydrate: energy for exercise.3. Protein: repair and building tissues.4. Fat: enhance endurance, healing and recovery.There for, my goal as a dietitian is to show that there is a need for change, and provide the athlete with the tools to make the changes. It is important for athletes to have consistent fuel times, eating regularly throughout the day. Carbohydrates: fruits, vegetables, whole grains, from various sources, protein sources to build and repair tissues. And fat is necessary for the diet to enhance endurance, healing and recovery.
7 The AthleteREALITY 1. Skipping breakfast… 2. Tendency to under eat throughout the day and over eat during the evening. Results from busy schedules, failing to plan ahead, lack of hunger during the day, or fear of eating before workouts.As much as we would love to see the intake of athletes to be that…. This is the reality in most cases.The skipping breakfast is all to common. It is also common to see athletes who under eat during the day and over eat in the evening. This could be for many many reasons. Some of which include busy schedules, failing to plan ahead, lack of hunger, fear of eating during workouts.
8 BREAKFAST SELLING POINTS Breakfast makes better lunch & dinner choices easierBreakfast makes you more energetic and productive at practiceSkipping breakfast causes late day cravings and out-of-control overeatingTo begin, it is important to teach athletes the breakfast selling points. Breakfast makes better lunch, and dinner choices easier, breakfast makes you more energetic and productive at practice, skipping breakfast causes late day cravings and out of control overeating.Rachel Clark
9 BREAKFAST OPTIONS GRAINS FRUIT/VEG PROTEIN Toast Banana Peanut butter (add jelly if you want)Cereal (stir it into yogurt)Frozen or fresh berries (stir into yogurt)YogurtMcD’s oatmeal or Egg McMuffinOJChocolate milkGranola (put in a baggie with raisins & nuts)Raisins or other dried fruitAny kind of nutsCrackersAppleCheese sticksBreakfast options can include fast food: McDonalds oatmeal or Egg mcmuffin, orange juice, and chocolate milk gives you appropriate fuel for the start of the day. Other options can be packed the night before, consumed on the way to school. Etc. Leftovers from the night before can also be appropriate for breakfast. Fueling the body in the morning is the key here.Not only are these great breakfast ideas, these are also good snack ideas as well.Rachel clark
10 Optimal Fueling Practices: Pre- Exercise 3-4 hours before exercise: Carbohydrate + Protein:Peanut butter and honey on toast + instant breakfast drinkFruit and yogurt smoothie + low fat granolaOatmeal with brown sugar and almonds + skim milk, + bananaLow fat cottage cheese + apple butter + crackers + fresh grapesNext: Lets talk about optimal fueling practices before exerciseHere is a common scenario that you may be familiar with:Scenario: The day of a football game, I often feel nervous and sometimes skip lunch, only to feel hungry later. Games are usually in the afternoon so I know I need to eat something beforehand. Playing both offense and defense, I rarely get a break. What foods can I eat and at what times to supply me with enough energy to perform well the entire game?The key here is to consume carbohydrate + protein 3-4 hours before exercise. Here are some examples for the athlete.Other meal ideas may be:Lean hamburger on bun with lettuce and tomato + side salad + yogurt-fruit parfaitTurkey and swiss sandwich + fruit + sports drinkLow fat tuna melt sandwich + fruit cup + fat free yogurt
11 Optimal Fueling Practices: Pre-Exercise 2 fig bars or cookies1 medium apple2 slices of bread1 medium banana or orange selections½ bagel or one mini bagelExamples: 30 grams of carbohydrates minutes prior to GO TIME:Step two in the process to pre-exercise fueling includes consuming 30 grams of carbohydrates minute prior to game time, practice time. These are simple, lower cost, ideas for the athlete. These can be brought on the bus in the cooler, stored in the athletes lockers, bags etc. The key is timing, 30 min prior to go time. Liquids may be easier to digest. The key is trial and error before competitions. During lighter practices, multiple times.
12 Pre-Exercise [TIMELINE] 3-4 HRS PRE-EX GO TIME As you get closer to exercise:Carb (1/2 x BW = grams carb needed 1-2 hrs prior)ProteinFat, FiberFocus on carb-rich foods/fluids for energy & quick digestion and absorptionFruits & VegCarbPutting it all together in a complete time line, using the plate method as a visual. Overall goals include:Avoid hunger, yet avoid GI distressCarbohydrate-basedLow fat (takes longer to digest)Little fiber (prevent bloating, gas)Moderate proteinSome times that 30 minute window is not an option. At this point we would recommend:Blended or liquid meal recommended for meals eaten 1-2 hrs priorExcessive protein and fat can cause gut distress, including stomach cramping, and can worsen “nervous stomachs”Focus on liquids or semi-solids (pudding, applesauce, sports drinks, possibly milk/fruit juices/smoothies)Think Snack size (not meal size) since less time available to digestFor a few, simple sugars <1 hour pre-exercise will cause hypoglycemiaNo nutrition-related reason to avoid dairy in the >1 hour pre-exerciseProtein
13 Optimal Fueling Practices: During Exercise Foods and Fluids:Easily digested carbohydrate-rich foods during endurance events:Half time cooler:banana, or roll, with jam or honeysports foods (gels, gummy chews)bite sized pieces of low fat granola or sports barsSide lines:Fluids + carbohydrate gels or carbohydrate-rich foods to speed fuel transport to muscles.Example:Seatle Seahawks skittles, Marshawn lynch. Right time right place for everything. If he was going for skittles as a quick carbohydrate source, yes. If this is something he wants to consume every night for dessert, we may have a problem. Here are some other examples of easily digested carbohydrate-rich foods during endurance events.Coaches and Trainers allow for athlete to:Experiment with foods and drinks in practice and lower level competitions.Provide pre-game foods/beverages or specific options the athletes can provide for themselves.EXAMPLE: Tailgates prior to games, coolers at competition, pre-game dinners.
14 Optimal Fueling Practices: Hydration CRITICAL AT 3 TIMESDuring training… allows for maximum adaptationsKeep fluid losses <2% of pre-exercise body weightDuring competition… prevents performance declineMaintain pale urine (but not clear)During recovery… restores lost body water24 oz for every 1 lb loss of body weightTrack your sweat loss by weighing athlete before and after exercise.Hint one gulp is approximately 1 oz.HydrationScenario: Ever since football practice started in August, I’ve been getting headaches, feeling tired, and having trouble paying attention in class. I’ve been thirsty during the day, so I drink juice or soda at meals, and stop at the water fountain on my way to class. During practice, I drink a 20 oz sports drink, and occasionally, I drink water from the cooler. Am I getting enough fluids? How much and when should I be drinking?Hydration is critial during training, it allows for maximum adaptations; you want to keep fluid losses at less than or equal to 2% of pre exercise body weight. That’s no more than a 3 pound weight loss for a 150 pound athlete, or 2.5 pounds for a 125 pound athlete.
15 Dehydration Thirst Dark urine Decreased performance Cramps Headache NOTHING AFFECTS PERFORMANCE FASTERThirstDark urineDecreased performanceCrampsHeadacheDizzinessNauseaIrritabilityWeaknessLoss of focusRachel ClarkDo a shirt check. Is the athlete sweating through shirt? When was there last drink break?
16 Post-Exercise Fuel a.k.a. recovery Recovery influences fatigue & immunityBegin nutrition recovery with a snack or meal within minutes following practice or competition.Carbs: grams/kg body weight120 lbs … grams220 lbs … gramsProtein (10-25 g) is especially important…If the workout was resistance trainingIf the athlete is restricting caloriesIf there are multiple workouts in one dayEating For RecoveryScenario:The day after a hard soccer practice, my legs feel heavy, I feel sluggish, and I’m often sore even if I didn’t have a resistance training session the day before. My performance at practice suffers because I’m unable to put forth 100%. I usually drink water and sometimes sports drink during practice and games, but afterward I don’t usually feel like eating much. What can I do so I have more energy at practice and feel better about my performance?Rachel clarkLiver = 100 grams carbMuscle = 400 grams carb
17 Optimal Fueling Practices: Post Exercise Recovery Snack IdeasChocolate milkCottage cheese and fruitCheese and crackersSmoothie made with yogurt and frozen berriesSports drink (carbohydrate, electrolyte, fluid), + sport bar (carbohydrate + protein)Graham crackers with peanut butter + low fat chocolate milk + bananaSCAN handout
18 Recovery Fuel Chocolate Milk 20 fl oz 250 calories 50 g carb 20 g protein6 g fatTalk about examples of meal replacers that are expensive etc. Give ideas for getting chocolate milk in to the schools, vending machines, etc
19 Pro Carb Pro Carb F&V F&V Carb Pro F&V BasketballVolleyballFootballTennis*WrestlingGymnastics*ProCarbProCarbF&VF&VSwimmingSoccerTennis*CarbGolfBaseballSoftballDivingGymnasticsThe plate method is a fantastic way to use as a guide. It can replace the idea of counting cups, servings, etc. It gives the athlete the idea, the foundation. We could go in to more detail with an easy day and CHO intake, vs a harder training day. This represents that it is not about portion, more like proportion. This may not work as well for an athlete who was over eating. They may actually benefit more on the portion size examples to monitor kcal intake vs output.Eat energy supplying carbohydratesThe key is to have more nutritious carbohydrates as your building blocks to a smart diet and to have the less than nutritious ones less often and in smaller quantities. Choose whole grains vs refined grains.Whole grains, over processed grains give you more vitamins and minerals naturally, fiber and provide a more sustained release of energy.ProF&V
20 Pro Carb Pro Carb F&V F&V Carb Pro F&V SprintersMid-distance(less volume)HurdlersJumpersThrowers(while muscle-building)ProCarbProCarbF&VF&VEnduranceMid-distance(more volume)ThrowersWeight lossOff-seasonMore examples of the plate. Give some structure that also allows them choice. The main thing here is to adjust the carbohydrates, and let the other food groups do their job. Carbohydrates are the main source of our energy. Down time, off season, the Carbohydrates will differ and vary in proportion.CarbProF&V
21 watermelon red peppers salsa strawberries tomatoes spaghetti sauce red grapes tomato juice cherries minestrone soup cranberries carrots sweet potatoes vegetable soup butternut squash peaches pumpkin oranges tangerines mangos cantaloupe papaya apricots grapefruit yellow peppers corn nectarines pineapple applesauce honeydew melon green grapes kiwi green beans asparagus peas pea pods green peppers turnip greens spinach Swiss chard broccoli romaine bananas onions mushrooms cauliflower cabbage slaw raspberries radishes blueberries beets plums prunes cabbage raisins eggplant berries wheat germ canola oil olive oil sunflower seeds oil&vinegar Italian salad dressing almonds walnuts hazelnuts macadamia nuts cashews peanuts peanut butter pumpkin seeds ground flaxseed pine nuts egg yolk avocado guacamolePigments in food deliver antioxidants – they are natural anti-inflammatories (like aspirin or tylenol)MVM okay, but it won’t replace antioxidants (and what about the stuff we haven’t discovered yet, like the active components in the skins of apples or white membrane of oranges – you won’t find that in your supplement)Food is infinitely more sophisticated than supplementsFresh vs. Frozen vs. canneditalics=also a good source of vit E*=good source of both vit C and carotenoids (2 for 1)Vitamins and minerals are important in digesting and utilizing nutrients. Vitamin C is necessary to absorp iron in the body, for example. There are also nutrients that are absorbed more readily in the natural state, vs the supplement.
22 Optimal Athlete Nutrition EMPHASIZE FRUITS & VEGOIL, NUTS, SEEDSANTIOXIDANTSOutwork the competitionMinimize getting run down and sickHave less downtimeIncrease resilience to stressRachel Clark: Not get sick every time the weather changes or it’s test time and you’re under stress
23 Carb-rich foods Protein-rich foods Fruits and Vegetables Use for making mealtime food decisions… at home, at school, at Burger King, etcCarb-rich foodsProtein-rich foodsFruits and VegetablesRachel Clark:Aim for 2-3 pieces of fruit per dayAim for 3-5 servings of vegetables per dayFresh fruit, frozen fruit, canned fruit, 100% juice, dried fruitFresh vegetables, frozen vegetables, canned veggies, 100% vegetable juiceThe more color the better!
24 How To Take Advantage Build it into the team culture… at practice Make it clear that it’s one of your expectationsMandate water bottles at every practiceTake water breaks every 30 minutesRachel ClarkRecognize these are the choices that you can make that will impact them positively and relieve you of the frustration you feel when you tell them to make good choices at lunch time or to eat breakfast, but they continually fail to follow through. Those are their choices that, in reality, you have MUCH less impact on.To generate buy-inWrite it in your handbookMake it part of the “uniform”
25 How to take advantageIncorporate team goals and rewards… but not food-based rewardsRachel Clark
26 How to take advantageAvoid simplistic, generalized characterizations like healthy/unhealthy or good/badRachel Clark
27 How to take advantageThink in terms of function… how will this food work for this athlete in this situation?Rachel ClarkThere’s a time and a placeHelp lead them to their own decisions
28 Ask them to seek out specific types of foods rather than avoid foods How to take advantageAsk them to seek out specific types of foods rather than avoid foodsRachel ClarkAgain… also give some structure that also allows them choice.
29 ADJUST Optimal nutrition is a moving target… Developing bodies In-season vs. off-season needs differCircumstances change at school & at homeThere is no endpoint…Rachel Clark
30 Game Days vs. practice days COMPETITION DAYS EACH SEASONPRACTICE DAYS EACH SEASONFootball1055Basketball2270Soccer1640Softball2045Golf1850Wrestling60Swimming90TennisCross Country14Track & FieldVolleyball25+Gymnastics65Here is an example of competition days vs practice days each season. These are the times where you as coaches and trainers are with the athletes.Rachel Clark Training, conditioning, drills, and games,
31 More opportunity for impact at practice COMPETITION DAYS EACH SEASONPRACTICE DAYS EACH SEASONFootball10606xBasketball22703.2xSoccer16402.5xSoftball20452.3xGolf18502.8xWrestling3.3xSwimming905xTennis1.8xCross Country143.6xTrack & Field3.8xVolleyball25+552.2xGymnastics654.1xYou as coaches and trainers have an opportunity for impact at practice. You can influence their training, and competition, which is sport specific. You train for speed, agility, strength, endurance. You may need to give up the pounding of “open lunches, eating at fast food places, eating junk before practice”. Use the time you have to impact them in different ways Sometimes, you jut need to give it up.Rachel clark
32 Prepare Success for the athlete Factors that influence how well the athlete performs in their sport…Strength, Agility, Speed, Endurance….Rachel Clark
33 Optimal Fueling Practices Eat regularlyConsistent recovery post-practice & post-competitionDaily good hydration practicesIntent and Support to eat regularlyRachel ClarkEat regularlyBreakfast, lunch, dinner, maybe evening snackPre- and post-practice snack
34 References Rachel A. Clark MS, RD, CSSD Purdue University Julia Just RD Parkview HealthSCAN (Sports, Cardiovascular, and Wellness Nutrition)AND (Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics)
35 THANK YOUChristine Sorg RD,CD Parkview Sports Medicine