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Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 6th Grade 6th Grade Science.

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Presentation on theme: "Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 6th Grade 6th Grade Science."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 6th Grade 6th Grade Science

2 Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Unit 3 Living Things Chapter 7: Cells: The Basic Units of Living Things Section 1: Discovery and Diversity of CellsDiscovery and Diversity of Cells Section 3: Organization of Living ThingsOrganization of Living Things Chapter 8: Population Changes and Heredity Section 1. Changes Over TimeChanges Over Time Section 2: How Do Populations Change Over Time?How Do Populations Change Over Time? Section 3: Natural Selection in ActionNatural Selection in Action Section 4: InheritanceInheritance

3 Chapter 7 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Discover and Diversity of Cells

4 Chapter 7 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Discover and Diversity of Cells Why weren’t cells discovered until 1665? What Do You Think?

5 Chapter 7 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Discover and Diversity of Cells Robert Hooke first to describe the cell. In 1665, he built a microscope and looked at cork or bark cells. He looked at plants, feathers, fish scales, and fly eyes. Cite:

6 Chapter 7 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Anton van Leeuwenhook- looked at protist under his own microscope. He looked at blood cells and was the first person to see bacteria. He discovered yeast is a single-celled organism. Discover and Diversity of Cells Cite:

7 Chapter 7 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Place a small dot of yogurt on a slide. Add a drop of water and a cover-slip. Use a microscope to examine the slide. What do you see? Discover and Diversity of Cells Activity See speaker notes for lab.

8 Chapter 7 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Discover and Diversity of Cells All organisms are made of one or more cells. The cell is the basic unit of all living things. All cells come from existing cells.

9 Chapter 7 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Discover and Diversity of Cells The largest cell on Earth is the yolk of an ostrich. If the cell gets too large, the cell’s surface area will not be large enough to take in enough nutrients or pump out enough waste. Cite:

10 Chapter 7 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Discover and Diversity of Cells

11 Chapter 7 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Discover and Diversity of Cells A plant cell is easier to see than an animal cell because of the cell wall.

12 Chapter 7 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Eubacteria- are the most common type of cells. They live everywhere. They don’t have a nucleus and they don’t have membrane-bound organelles. Archaebacteria- are not as common as eubacteria. These cells are single-celled organisms. They have circular DNA and they lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Discover and Diversity of Cells

13 Chapter 7 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Eukayotic – are the largest cells. These cells have a nucleus and membrane- bound organelles. Discover and Diversity of Cells

14 Chapter 7 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Plant Cell Has:Animal Cell has: Cytoplasm Cell Membrane Nucleus Organelles DNA Cell Wall Chloroplast Define Each Word Discover and Diversity of Cells

15 Chapter 7 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Learn how to use the microscope by view what an animal cell and plant cell look like. Draw and label the parts of the cell you see. Discover and Diversity of Cells See speaker notes for lab. Activity

16 Chapter 7 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Review the cell parts and their functions by clicking here.clicking here Look at both an plant cell and a animal cell and their parts.plant cell animal cell Discover and Diversity of Cells

17 Chapter 7 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD How are parts of a cell like a city? How do the parts interact with one another? Draw a plant or animal cell, label all the parts and compare the organelles to the parts of a city. Pre-AP Extension See speaker notes for lab.

18 Chapter 7 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD 1. What basic structure carries out functions to sustain life? Let’s Review

19 Chapter 7 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Cells carry our functions to sustain life. Answer

20 Chapter 7 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD 2. Why are cells small? Let’s Review

21 Chapter 7 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD A large cell would be unable to take I enough nutrients or get rid of enough waste. Answer

22 Chapter 7 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD 3. What are the three basic types of cells, and how are they different? Let’s Review

23 Chapter 7 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD The three basic types of cells are eubateria, archaebacteria, and eukaryotes. Archaebacteria and eubacteria don’ have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles, as eukaryotes do. Answer

24 Chapter 7 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD The Organization of Living Things

25 Chapter 7 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD The Organization of Living Things Why can’t you use your arm muscles to digest food? What Do You Think?

26 Chapter 7 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD The benefits to being multi-cellular are: –Many different cells allows organisms to perform many functions. –Each cell is specialized to do a particular job. The Organization of Living Things

27 Chapter 7 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD A tissue is a group of cells that work together to perform a specific job. Cardiac cells make-up the cardiac muscles. The Organization of Living Things

28 Chapter 7 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Animals have the following types of tissue: –Nerve tissues –Muscle tissues –Connective tissues –Protective tissues The Organization of Living Things

29 Chapter 7 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD The Organization of Living Things Nerve Tissue Cite:

30 Chapter 7 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Muscle Tissue The Organization of Living Things

31 Chapter 7 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD The Organization of Living Things Connective Tissue

32 Chapter 7 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD The Organization of Living Things Protective Tissue

33 Chapter 7 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Plants have the following type of tissue: –Transport tissue –Protective tissue –Ground tissue The Organization of Living Things

34 Chapter 7 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Transport tissue moves water and nutrients through the plants. The Organization of Living Things Cite:

35 Chapter 7 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD The plant’s protective tissue covers the plant. The Organization of Living Things Cite:http://www.science.siu.edu/landplants/Anthocerophyta/images/Phaeoceros.stomate.JPEG

36 Chapter 7 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Ground tissue is where photosynthesis takes place. The Organization of Living Things Cite:

37 Chapter 7 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD The Organization of Living Things Tissues work together and groups of tissues form an organ. Cite:

38 Chapter 7 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Cell Tissue Organ Organ System Levels of Organization The Organization of Living Things

39 Chapter 7 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Structure is the shape of a part and the material the part is made of. Function is the job the part does. The Organization of Living Things

40 Chapter 7 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Even though the earthworm looks like a simple organism, it has external and internal parts that work together to help the organism survive. Dissect an earthworm to explore the parts of the worm. The Organization of Living Things Activity

41 Chapter 7 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD The Organization of Living Things Anything that can live on its own is an organism. An organism that is singled celled is called unicellular. Bacteria Cite:

42 Chapter 7 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD The nervous system involves the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and the sensory organ. One function of the nervous system is reflexes. Test your reflexes to see how quickly your brain and nerves respond to stimuli. Pre-AP Extension See speaker notes for lab.

43 Chapter 7 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD 1. What are tissues made of? What are organs made of? Let’s Review

44 Chapter 7 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Cell; tissues Answer

45 Chapter 7 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD 2. Differentiate between structure and function in organ systems using the lung and heart as an example. Let’s Review

46 Chapter 7 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD The structure of the lungs is a group of sacs surrounded by small blood vessels. The function of the lungs is to exchange gases. Oxygen enters the bloodstream. Carbon dioxide enters the sac and is breathed out. The heart is a set of muscular chambers. When a chamber contracts, it pushes blood to its next destination. Valves keep the blood from moving backwards. Answer

47 Chapter 8 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Change Over Time

48 Chapter 8 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Change Over Time What is a fossil? What Do You Think?

49 Chapter 8 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Inherited Characteristics- passed from one generation to another and can change over time. This is known as evolution. Population – is a group of the same kind of organism living in the same place Change Over Time Cite:http://www.kmc.org/Services/family_tree.jpg

50 Chapter 8 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Favorable characteristics that enable an organism to live and reproduce will be passed to the next generation. Change Over Time Cite:

51 Chapter 8 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Change Over Time Fossils are used to study organisms of the past. A fossil is physical evidence of a living thing. Trilobite Cite:

52 Chapter 8 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Change Over Time Fossils are found in the old layers of the earth’s crust. Cite:

53 Chapter 8 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Change Over Time Trace fossils are evidence of animal activity like a footprint. Mold is a cavity in rock where a plant or animal was buried. Cast is a cavity is filled in with minerals, sand or dust. Foot print Mold Cast Cite:

54 Chapter 8 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Click hereClick here to observe how a fossil can form. Change Over Time

55 Chapter 8 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Flatten some clay and place it into the bottom of a cup. Press a seashell into the clay. Pour some plaster of Paris into the cup on top of the shell. Let it dry. Remove the everything the next day. What kind of fossil did you make? Change Over Time Activity See speaker notes for lab.

56 Chapter 8 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Change Over Time The fossil record is the timeline of life. The deeper into the earth’s crust the older the fossil. Cite:

57 Chapter 8 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Change Over Time There is a gap in the fossil records due to present conditions. In order for a fossil to form there needs to be a lack of oxygen. The ocean is the best place for fossils to form. Why? Cite:

58 Chapter 8 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Bones have modified to fit their function over time. Dolphin flipper Bat wing Change Over Time Cite:

59 Chapter 8 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Change Over Time Adaptations are characteristics that help an organism survive and reproduce in its environment. Example: smoky jungle frog. Cite:

60 Chapter 8 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Take 25 colored marshmallows and 25 white marshmallows and spread them out. Ask you partner to pick the first marshmallow he or she sees. Do this 10 times. What was the most common color marshmallow your partner picked? Why? Change Over Time Activity See speaker notes for lab.

61 Chapter 8 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Change Over Time The individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to pass their traits to future generations. Cite:

62 Chapter 8 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Fossils are traces of organisms that lived in the past. The age and morphologies (appearances) of fossils can be used to place fossils in sequences that often show patterns of changes that have occurred over time. Analyze the characteristics of fossils and compare placement of fossils over time. Pre-AP Extension See speaker notes for lab.

63 Chapter 8 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD 1. How can the fossil record be used to suggest that living things have changed over time? Let’s Review

64 Chapter 8 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Fossils provide a historical sequence of life. The deeper in the Earth’s crust fossils are fund, the less they look like present day organisms. Answer

65 Chapter 8 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD 2. Characteristics that help organisms survive and reproduce are called_______. Let’s Review

66 Chapter 8 Section 1Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Adaptations are characteristics that help an organism survive and reproduce in its environment. Answer

67 Chapter 8 Section 2Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD How Do Populations Change?

68 Chapter 8 Section 2Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD How Do Populations Change? How do you explain the presents of fossil shells on top of mountains? What Do You Think?

69 Chapter 8 Section 2Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Charles Darwin traveled around the world as a naturalist. He visited the Galapagos islands- 965 miles west of Ecuador. How Do Populations Change? Cite:

70 Chapter 8 Section 2Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD How Do Populations Change? The animals on the Galapagos Islands are similar to the animals on Ecuador although the finches were different. Their beaks adapted to the way they fed. Cite: Cite:

71 Chapter 8 Section 2Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Traits are distinguishing qualities that can be passed from parents to offspring. Selective breeding is when humans select which plants or animals will reproduce based on certain traits. Dogs are a good example of selective breeding. How Do Populations Change?

72 Chapter 8 Section 2Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD How Do Populations Change? Selective Breeding Cite:

73 Chapter 8 Section 2Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD How Do Populations Change? Darwin was impressed that farmers could make large changes in just a few generations. He learned from geologist that the Earth was older than first thought according to Charles Lyell. Cite:

74 Chapter 8 Section 2Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD How Do Populations Change? Thomas Malthus study the population growth in Europe in 1700’s. He thought that there would be too many people and not enough food. Hunger, sickness and food help keep population under control. Darwin thinks this is the same for animals and plants. Cite: Cite:

75 Chapter 8 Section 2Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD How Do Populations Change? On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin. The book states that organisms that are best adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce - natural selection. Cite:

76 Chapter 8 Section 2Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD How Do Populations Change? 1. Overpopulation- more offspring born then will live to adulthood. 2. Differences in a Population- same species are different from one another. Cite:http://home.nc.rr.com/mediateknic/rabbits.jpg

77 Chapter 8 Section 2Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD How Do Populations Change? 3. Struggle to survive- not enough food for all to survive. 4. Successful Reproduction- find a mate to reproduce.

78 Chapter 8 Section 2Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Go to and click on Natural Selection to explore Darwin’s theory of Natural Selection.http://www2.edc.org/weblabs How Do Populations Change?

79 Chapter 8 Section 2Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD 1. What traits changed in the Galapagos finches as they adapted to the different islands? Let’s Review

80 Chapter 8 Section 2Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD The beaks of the Galapagos finches adapted to the different ways the birds get food. Answer

81 Chapter 8 Section 2Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD 2. How do farmers get animals and plants with desired traits? Let’s Review

82 Chapter 8 Section 2Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Farmers allow only the plants and animals with the desired traits to breed. Answer

83 Chapter 8 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Natural Selection in Action

84 Chapter 8 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Natural Selection in Action Why must you finish your antibiotics when you have an infection? What Do You Think?

85 Chapter 8 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Bacteria can be resistant to antibiotics. They can pass this trait on to their offspring. Natural Selection in Action Cite:

86 Chapter 8 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Natural Selection in Action Dark peppered moths rare before 1850, but now more common. Reason- dark moths were easy to see for prey ( birds) but added smoke after 1850 made it hard to see the dark moths. Cite:

87 Chapter 8 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Species are a group of organisms that can mate with one another to produce fertile offspring. New Species can form after a group gets separated from original population. Speciation- when a single species divides into two. Natural Selection in Action Cite:

88 Chapter 8 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Natural Selection in Action Grand Canyon environment is different on both sides. More rain on the north side than the south thus speciation can occur. Cite:

89 Chapter 8 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Explore animal adaptation and see how animals adapt to their environment. Click here Natural Selection in Action

90 Chapter 8 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Protective coloration helps some animals to survive in nature. Model predatory behavior while feeding on toothpick (insects) prey in an outdoor area. Pre-AP Extension See speaker notes for lab.

91 Chapter 8 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD 1. How did the traits of the peppered moth population in industrial areas of Europe change after 1850? Let’s Review

92 Chapter 8 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD After the 1850s, the population of dark-colored peppered moths increased, and the population of light-colored peppered moths decreased. Answer

93 Chapter 8 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD 2. How do you think speciation affected the Galapagos finches? Let’s Review

94 Chapter 8 Section 3Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Accept any reasonable answer. Answer

95 Chapter 8 Section 4Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Inheritance

96 Chapter 8 Section 4Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Inheritance Where did you get your eye color from? What Do You Think?

97 Chapter 8 Section 4Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Gregor Mendel grew up in Heinzendorf, Austria on the family farm. There he learned a great deal about flowers and plants. Inheritance Cite:

98 Chapter 8 Section 4Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Inheritance Mendel noticed that some traits appeared in one generation but not in another. To find out Mendel decided to study peas. Cite:

99 Chapter 8 Section 4Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Inheritance Mendel decided to study one trait at a time. One trait always appeared while the other trait vanished. First- generation is the offspring of the breeding of plants. Cite:

100 Chapter 8 Section 4Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Inheritance Proteins act as chemical messengers. Proteins are the reason why living things come in all shapes and sizes. Cite:

101 Chapter 8 Section 4Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Asexual is a single parent produces offspring that are exactly like the parent. Most single-celled organisms are asexual. Sexual are two parents produce an offspring that is not exactly like the parents. Sex cells combine and get half of its genes from the mother and half from the father. Inheritance

102 Chapter 8 Section 4Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Go to and select Mendel’s Peas. Explore the characteristics Mendel studied.http://www2.edc.org/weblabs/ Inheritance

103 Chapter 8 Section 4Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Have you noticed the different eye color, hair color and different types of earlobes of your classmates? Create a table for each trait and count the number of classmates with each trait. What are some common traits? Inheritance Activity See speaker notes for lab.

104 Chapter 8 Section 4Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Collect data from your class of who has different dominant traits. Some traits to look for are: tongue rolling, free earlobe, interlocking fingers, dimples, bent little finger, double jointed thumbs, freckles, PTC taste and widow’s peak. Create a graph use Excel with your results. Pre-AP Extension

105 Chapter 8 Section 4Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD 1. What are genes, and what role do they play in inheritance? Let’s Review

106 Chapter 8 Section 4Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Genes are sections of DNA that spell out sequences of amino acids for specific proteins. Proteins determine your traits. Answer

107 Chapter 8 Section 4Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD 2. What is the difference between recessive traits and dominant traits? Let’s Review

108 Chapter 8 Section 4Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD Dominant traits occur most often and recessive traits seem to disappear yet can reappear at any time. Answer


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