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Dairy Cattle Introduction. Unit Map Set Up  Unit name: Dairy Cattle Industry  Unit Essential Question: How does the dairy industry operate?

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Presentation on theme: "Dairy Cattle Introduction. Unit Map Set Up  Unit name: Dairy Cattle Industry  Unit Essential Question: How does the dairy industry operate?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Dairy Cattle Introduction

2 Unit Map Set Up  Unit name: Dairy Cattle Industry  Unit Essential Question: How does the dairy industry operate?

3 Lesson Essential Question  What is the dairy industry?

4 Warm-up  What do you think of when you see this?

5 Dairy Cattle Industry  Most difficult to manage  High producing dairy cows bred to give large amounts of milk that can overwhelm the animal without proper management  Value of dairy products exceeded $37 billion nationally  Most labor intensive Milking 2-3 times a day, 7 days a week

6 Dairy Cattle Industry  Consumer demand lower fat diets  Food scientists respond with specialty items  Ex: Fat-free yogurt, cream cheese, and frozen dairy deserts


8 Dairy Cattle Industry  Rank in Production- top 5 California Wisconsin New York Pennsylvania Idaho


10 Dairy Cattle Industry  Fewer dairy farms own more cows= more milk per farm

11 Dairy Cattle Industry

12  2008- 70,000 operational dairy farms  40 years ago- 2 million dairy farms  # of farm declines, but pounds of milk increased by 20,000 pounds per cow  What does this mean?  How is this possible?

13 Dairy Cattle Industry  2009- 9.2 million dairy cows in the US produced over 185 billion pounds of milk worth over $37 billion  US leads the world in milk production per cow and in total milk production

14 Exit Question  Why are there more cows on less farms now then in the past?

15 Learn about what you eat!  Read the articles and answer the questions in your packet on a separate sheet of paper. Staple it to the back when finished. Use complete sentences.  Return packets

16 Dairy Cattle Breeds

17 Warm-up  What kind of milk do these cows make?

18 Lesson Essential Question  How do Dairy breeds differ?

19 Holstein  Dominate the industry  Well over 90% of the dairy cattle in the US  Officially known as Holstein-Fresians  From Netherlands and Northern Germany  Arrived in US in mid-1800s  Since 1970- genetic progress due to rigorous selection  Total solids % are lower  Mature Holstein weighs 1500 to 1750 pounds

20 Holstein

21 Jersey  Weigh about 1000 pounds  Developed on the island of Jersey, off the coast of France  First imported early 1800s  Coat color ranges from light tan to almost black  2008 registrations- 94,774 (2 nd in popularity)  Ability to efficiently convert feed to milk  Lower body maintenance needs  Amount of milk lower  Total solids %- highest of all breeds

22 Jersey

23 Brown Swiss  3 rd most popular  Registrations totaled 10,824 in 2008  Originated Switzerland  Came to US in mid-1800s  Normally brown to gray  Similar to Holsteins in size  Known for ability to produce milk in hot climates  2 nd in milk production  Total solids % in middle of all breeds

24 Brown Swiss

25 Ayrshire  Smaller breeds (mature weight 1200 lbs)  4,763 registrations in 2008  Red and white  Imported early 1800s  Milk production midway of all breeds  Total solids % low  Originated Ayr district of Scotland

26 Ayrshire

27 Guernsey  Developed Island of Guernsey (coast of France)  Imported early 1800s  Medium sized red and white breed  Larger then Jerseys  Mature weight- 1100 lbs  Produce more milk than Jerseys  Golden Guernsey milk lower in total solids then Jersey milk  Deep yellow/golden milk due to beta carotene (precursor to vitamin A)  5,101 registrations in 2008

28 Guernsey

29 Milking Shorthorn  3,150 in 2008  Originated from base stock of beef shorthorns and may be red, white, red and white or roan.

30 Milking Shorthorn

31 Red and White  Open herd  Most genetically based in red mutation of the Holstein  4,020 in 2008

32 Red and White

33 ID Quiz : Piece of paper, Tell the breeds

34 Activity  Students will be given a packet on how to judge dairy cattle. They will answer the questions and then judge the pictures they are given.

35 Dairy Cattle Milking

36 Warm-up  How much milk do we get from a cow per day? 8-35 liters per day 2.11 to 9.25 gallons

37 Lesson Essential Question  How do you milk a cow?

38 Milking Parlors  Read the article about common types.  Answer the questions in the Dairy packet about the types of milking parlors.

39 Milking  Cows are milked 2 times a day, some 3 times  Fill in organizer as we go

40 The Milking Process  1. At milking time, wash the teats, wear gloves Disinfecting the teats and triggers the release of oxytocin, which initiates milk let-down

41 The Milking Process

42  2. Teats are then dried with individual paper towels

43 The Milking Process

44  3. One inflation of the claw of the milking machine is placed on each teat or quarter

45 The Milking Process

46  4. Vacuum applied to inflation, which draws the milk from the udder

47 The Milking Process

48  5. When milk stops, vacuum is removed

49 The Milking Process  6. Each teat is then dipped in Iodine to prevent bacterial invasion  Total time: 7 minutes

50 The Milking Process

51 Video : Milking a Cow  276-how-to-milk-a-cow-by-machine 276-how-to-milk-a-cow-by-machine

52 The Milking Process  Now lets practice!!

53 Dairy Cattle Parasites and Diseases

54 Warm-up  List the steps in the milking process.

55 Lesson Essential Question  What are the parasites and diseases for dairy cattle?

56 Mastitis  Infection and inflammation of the udder  Causes greatest economic loss to the industry  Acute-hot, swollen udder-drop in milk production  Treated with antibiotics

57 Ketosis  Metabolic disorder with a negative energy balance  Caused by underfeeding, stress, other infections  Treated by IV of glucose injections

58 Displaced Abomasum  “ twisted stomach”  When abomasum moves to an abnormal position  Caused by feeding too much silage or concentrate before calving  Veterinarian consulted for treatment

59 Milk Fever  Imbalance of calcium  muscle paralysis and prevents cows from standing  calcium and phosphorus supplements to prevent  Treated with infusion of calcium salts

60 Retained Placenta  Placenta not expelled after birth  Quickly become infected  Vet remove or allow it to hang and it will release  Caused by heat stress, low vitamin E, and selenium in bloodstream

61 Metritis  Resulting infection of a retained placenta  Abnormal discharge from vulva, go off feed, and stand with backs arched  Antibiotics treat

62 Activity: Staple to your Dairy Packet. Students will be assigned a disease/parasite They are to create a public service announcement on that disease. 30 minutes. On your own paper. Staple this to your packet. Include: Name, Cause, Symptoms, Prevention and Treatment You are making an advertisement to educate local farmers about these diseases

63 Dairy Cattle Housing

64 Warm-up  How must cattle be housed?

65 Lesson Essential Question  What is the proper housing for dairy cattle?

66 Newborn and Young Calves Housing  Individual stalls, inside or outside Better ventilation outside  Less respiratory disease Calf hutches popular after weaning

67 Newborn and Young Calves Housing  At 8 weeks, heifers normally grouped with other heifers of similar age  Separate heifer growing barn  Open front sheds are also popular

68 Traditional Housing Tie-stall barns- tied to individual stalls during milking and the rest of the day released into pasture at night in summer

69 Traditional Housing Free-stall housing- allow cows to enter and leave as they wish. Feed bunk at center. Milked in tie- stalls or a milking parlour

70 Traditional Milking Parlour System- cows come to the milker. Group enters at a time- udders at chest level for milker in a pit. All cows washed and milked at same time. Increase # of cows a person can milk per hour

71 Traditional Milking Robotic Milking system- reduce milking labor requirements. Allow cows access 24 hours a day. Sensors

72 Housing and Milking Draw a picture that represents the different types of housing and the different types of milking. Create 4 different pictures and be sure to label each one. Staple to your dairy packet.

73 Dairy Cattle Care/Nutrition

74 Warm-up What are the different types of housing for cattle?

75 Lesson Essential Question What is the proper care and nutrition needed for cattle?

76 Calf Care/Nutrition Starts within 24 hours of birth Calves are weaned immediately after receiving colostrum Colostrum- first milk

77 Calf Care/Nutrition Cows returned to the milking herd after parturition Parturition- giving birth in cows Calves raised by humans

78 Calf Care/Nutrition 6 to 8 pints of milk replacer fed to calf for first 5 to 8 weeks 1 week- access to small amounts of grain calf starter

79 Calf Care/Nutrition Weaned from milk when calf starter consumption reaches 4 pounds a day Replace milk with water gradually

80 Calf Care/Nutrition Not born with developed Rumen Develops during first 12 weeks

81 Calf Care/Nutrition 12 weeks to 1 year- fed a grain mix containing a feed additive (monensin or lasalocid) and high quality hay or silage Heifers should gain 1.5 to 1.8 pounds per day

82 Calf Care/Nutrition Heifers reach breeding size and puberty at 11 to 12 months

83 Heifer Feed After breeding, heifers fed free-choice, high-quality forage  Grain mix may be added to ensure proper development and provide minerals and vitamins

84 Heifer Feed Heifers should weigh 1200 pounds at 24 months of age, when they deliver their first calf Do not allow heifers to become fat

85 Lactating Dairy Cows Nutritional needs dependent on body size and milk production Cows are “dried off” (milking stopped) about 60 days before the next expected calf

86 Feeding Dairy Cattle Most dairy producers employ a professional nutritional consultant, feed company nutritionist, veterinarian or extension person to balance dairy diets

87 Dry Dairy Cattle Dry cows fed a diet of forages Often fed grain to provide vitamins, minerals and salt

88 Activity! Each student will use a Hoard’s Dairyman (pair if needed). Flip through your magazine and answer the questions in your packet.

89 Dairy Cattle Anatomy

90 Warm-up  How is a dairy cow able to produce so much milk?

91 Lesson Essential Question  What are the parts of a dairy cow?

92 Activity! Fill in the pictures as we go.

93 Anatomy

94 Cows udders have four compartments with one teat hanging from each Cells remove water and nutrients and convert it to milk The milk drips into a cistern When teat is squeezed, milk is released

95 Anatomy: Head and Jaw Mouth is adapted for grazing on grass  Top part of mouth is a hard dental pad  Bottom part is a row of flat-topped teeth  Grind food between upper and lower molars in the back of the mouth

96 Anatomy Ears can turn in any direction, they are used to hear signs of danger from any direction Tails are used to shoo insects

97 Anatomy Horns on Bulls Female cows may have small horns too Horns made of ‘Keratin’ Horns can be removed without discomfort

98 Anatomy

99 Stomach 4 parts Cows swallow their food and then regurgitate a “cud” which is then chewed well and swallowed

100 Stomach Rumen- largest part, holds up to 50 gallons of partially digested food Where ‘cud’ comes from Good bacteria here help soften and digest the cows food and provides protein

101 Stomach Reticulum- if cow eats something it shouldn’t have, it goes here Grass softened and formed into ‘cud’ here

102 Stomach Omasum- the filter. Filters through all the food the cow eats. Cud is pressed and broken down further

103 Stomach Abomasum- this part like the humans stomach Food is finally digested here Essential nutrients are passed to the bloodstream Remainder passed to the intestines

104 Book Work Page 50, True or False, Fill in the Blank, and the Discussion Questions SHARE BOOKS!

105 Dairy Cattle Breeding

106 Warm-up How many parts are there in the stomach of a cow? Which one is the most like ours?

107 Lesson Essential Question How do cattle breed?

108 Breeding Crossbreeding not common in dairy cattle Most dairy cows in the US are purebreds First to adopt artificial insemination on a large scale

109 Breeding Most dairy cows are a result of artificial insemination Artificial insemination (AI)- placing of sperm in the reproductive tract of the female by means other than that of the natural breeding process

110 Breeding Producers using AI release cows to watch for standing heat at least twice a day Standing heat- standing still when another cow attempts to mount

111 Breeding Standing heat is primary sign that a cow is ready to conceive

112 Breeding Secondary signs include- nervous bawling, restlessness, attempts to mount other cows, clear mucous discharge from vulva, and a sharp drop in milk production

113 Breeding Secondary signs include- nervous bawling, restlessness, attempts to mount other cows, clear mucous discharge from vulva, and a sharp drop in milk production

114 Test Review

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