Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint Learning Quest Biology 9 Unit 3: Nutrition and Biological Molecules Created by: Jeff Wolf and Mike Graff."— Presentation transcript:
PowerPoint Learning Quest Biology 9 Unit 3: Nutrition and Biological Molecules Created by: Jeff Wolf and Mike Graff
Objectives: After completing this Learning Quest the student will… Describe what a food pyramid is and how this pyramid can assist humans in acquiring the daily dietary requirements necessary for healthful living. Explain how carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids assist in maintaining a healthy human body. Apply the knowledge of the Food Pyramid and Bio- chemistry to the development of a healthy daily menu.
Directions 1.Follow the instructions in the Anticipation Guide found in this PowerPoint Presentation. 2.Follow the instructions and answer all questions found in the Learning Guide. 3.Follow the instructions in the Conclusion Guide. 4.ALL THREE GUIDES CAN BE FOUND IN THIS LEARNING POWERPOINT QUEST.
Anticipation Guide (Page 1) Nutrition is key in maintaining a healthy body. The Food Pyramid is a set of guidelines that can help people develop a healthy body.
Anticipation Guide (Page 2) Within this Food Pyramid exist five major food groups. All are important in the development of a healthy body. To find out more about the new food pyramid click on the picture to the right for a Internet video presentation.
Anticipation Guide (Page 3) The first group, at the bottom, is the Bread, Cereal, Rice, and Pasta group. It is important that each person receive at least 6 to 11 servings of this food group. Click on the picture to the right to receive a website with further information on the required food portion necessary to reach 6 to 11 servings.
Anticipation Guide (Page 4) For the the second food group, the Vegetable group, each person should receive 2-3 servings per day. These include raw, cooked and leafy vegetables. Again, you can click on the picture to find out more about this food group and the necessary portions in order to receive 2-3 servings per day.
Anticipation Guide (Page 5) The third group is called the fruit group. According to the The Food Pyramid it is necessary to receive 2 to 4 servings of fruits in either whole, can or juice form. Click on the picture for more information on portion sizes.
Anticipation Guide (Page 6) The fourth group of the Food Pyramid is the Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese group. Two to three servings from this group are required in order to maintain a healthy body. Click on the picture for more information.
Anticipation Guide (Page 7) The fifth food group of the Food Pyramid is known as the Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs and Nuts Group. According to the Food Pyramid it is important to receive 2 to 3 servings from this group. Click on the picture to the right to find out more about this group.
Anticipation Guide (Page 8) The final group of the Food Pyramid is the Fats, Oils, and Sweets group. According to the Food Pyramid, fats, oils, and sweets should be used in small amounts as a part of your daily food intake.
Anticipation Guide (Page 9) Assignment: Create a 1 day menu where you receive the correct portions and calories for all of the food groups within the Food Pyramid. Refer to and ories/index.htm for additional information. Keep in mind that your diet should be comprised of 55% carbohydrates, 10 – 15 % proteins and less than 30 % fats. Include a breakfast, lunch, and supper within your menu. Log all info.!www.mypyramid.gov ories/index.htm
Learning Guide (Page 1) The following slides will be dedicated to the study of the four classes of large macro- molecules that are used by your body. These four molecules include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Each of these molecules are important for the structure and function of the human body.
Learning Guide (Page 2) The first class of the large molecules that will be discussed are the carbohydrates. Carbohydrates can be found in a wide variety of foods. Carbohydrates, or “carbs” as many people call them, include small sugar molecules found in many soft drinks, fruits, and vegetables. As well as starch molecules found in pasta or potato dishes.
Learning Guide (Page 3) The first type of carbohydrate is called a monosaccharide. Monosaccharides are simple sugars that include glucose, galactose, and fructose. Glucose is often found in a variety of food sources, galactose is found in dairy products and fructose is often found in fruit.
Learning Guide (Page 4) Monosaccharides are the building blocks or monomers for larger sugars. Monosaccharides are also the simplest forms of sugars and can be digested easily. Finally, monosaccharides are an excellent source of energy. They are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio (see diagram to the right) and contain 4 calories of energy per gram. GlucoseFructose
Learning Guide (Page 5) From two monosaccharides the cells can construct a disaccharide or double sugar. The process of creating a disaccharide is called dehydration synthesis or a condensation reaction. Dehydration synthesis occurs when the cell removes a molecule of water from two mono- saccharides (see diagram to the right). An example of a disaccharide is Maltose, a common double sugar found in plants and used in the beer making process. Glucose Maltose
Learning Guide (Page 6) Refer to pages 42 – 45 in your textbook. As stated earlier, dehydration synthesis is responsible for the creation of these organic molecules, however, hydrolysis is responsible for the digestion or breakdown of these food molecules. Notice how water molecules are either removed or added to complete the bonding process. Observe figures 3.7 and 3.11
Learning Guide (Page 7) Other common disaccharides include Sucrose (table sugar) and lactose (dairy sugar). All disaccharides have the following formula C 12 H 22 O 11. Disaccharides are also very good sources of energy, but require to be digested.
Learning Guide (Page 8) Complex carbohydrates, those that contain many sugar units forming a long chain, are called polysaccharides. Polysaccharides can be found in many foods such as potatoes and corn. These foods are rich in starch. Starch is a storage polysaccharide that cells break down in order to obtain sugar.
Learning Guide (Page 9) Other forms of polysaccharides include Glycogen found in muscle cells, Cellulose or fiber found in plant cell walls, and chitin found in an insect’s exoskeleton. Note: Polysaccharides do not provide the quick boost of energy that come from monosaccharides or disaccharides. Muscle cellsPlant Cell Insect Exoskeleton
Learning Guide (Page 10) The second class of molecules, used by cells, are called lipids. Lipids are different than carbohydrates because they do not mix with water. The Lipid molecule contains a hydrophobic end (water fearing) hydrocarbon end and a hydrophilic end (water loving) carboxyl end/COOH. A perfect example of a lipid coming in contact with water is an unshaken bottle of Italian salad dressing. (Note:Where the oil and water come into contact with one another is the hydrophilic end of the lipid molecule.) The oil in the salad dressing, a type of a lipid, separates from the vinegar, which is mostly made up of water. Even when the salad dressing bottle is shaken, the two substances will be forced to mix. Yet, when the bottle is left alone, the oil (a lipid) and vinegar (a watery substance) will begin to separate once again.
Learning Guide (Page 11) Lipids are an important source of stored energy, keep you warm, provide protection and even store vitamins. Lipids also contain 9 calories of energy per gram and your body’s second source of energy. Lipids are also made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Lipids include fats, oils, waxes, and steroid hormones.
Learning Guide (Page 12) Saturated fats vs. Unsaturated fats: Saturated fats are found in animals. Solid at room temperature. Associated with heart disease (unhealthy). Unsaturated fats are found in plants. Liquid at room temperature. Do not promote heart disease (healthy).
Learning Guide (Page 13) A special class of lipids are called phospholipids. Phospholipids are important to the structure of cells because they make up the cell membrane’s of animal cells. As a result of these phospholipids, the cell membrane becomes selectively permeable, meaning that the cell can now regulate the passage of materials into and out of the cell’s interior. Cell (Plasma) Membrane Structure
Learning Guide (Page 14) The third class of molecules used by cells are called proteins. Proteins are are constructed from any combination of 20 common amino acids. Proteins are an important structural and functional component of the human body. Proteins also yield 4 calories of energy per gram. The protein shape determines its function. The Four Common Types of Proteins are: Structural proteins Contractile proteins Storage proteins Transport proteins
Learning Guide (Page 15) The diagram in the left is a perfect example of amino acids joining in order to become proteins. The diagram in the right is an example of a primary structure of a protein created by linking one amino acid to another. Note: In order for amino acids to be joined together to form a protein, a peptide bond is required to hold the amino acids together. Amino Acid
Learning Guide (Page 16) A unique type of protein is called an enzyme. Enzymes are important in all biological activities. Enzymes also allows for chemical reactions to occur in the human body and catalyze them. The diagram to the right is an example of how enzymes function. Enzymes work by lowering the amount of activation energy a reaction needs in order to function.
Learning Guide (Page 17) The fourth and final class of the large molecules used by cells and the human body are called nucleic acids. Nucleic acids provide the directions for building proteins. The two types of nucleic acids inside of the body are DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid).
Learning Guide (Page 18) The structure of a DNA molecule can be broken down into three specific parts. The first part, the nucleotide (a) consists of three parts: a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base. In these simplified diagrams, the three parts of a nucleotide are symbolized with shapes and colors.
Learning Guide (Page 19) The second part of the DNA molecule is the DNA strand (b) is composed of nucleotides linked into a backbone, with appendages consisting of the bases. A strand has a particular sequence of four bases abbreviated A, G, C, and T.
Learning Guide (Page 20) The third part of the DNA molecule is the Double helix (c ). A double helix consists of two DNA strands bonded together by strand bases. These bonds are hydrogen bonds and are therefore individually weak. However these bonds zip the two strands together with a strength to give the double helix stability.
Learning Guide (Page 21) When doctors talk about children inheriting certain traits such as blue eyes, or red hair, from their parents, the genetic material that these children receive from their parents consists of DNA. The directions for these proteins are actually a chemical code that must be translated from a “nucleic acid” language to a “protein” language. The cell’s RNA molecules is in charge of this translation.
Learning Guide (Page 22) The chemical code within the DNA consists of four bases. Adenine (A). Guanine (G). Thymine (T). Cytosine (C ). Genes can be pass along to offspring because inheritance is based on DNA code which is double stranded. In the core of the helix the bases mentioned above bond to create this double helix DNA molecule. In this code A can pair only with T, and G can only pair with C.
Conclusion Guide (Page 1) 1.Most organic compounds contain carbon and are. A.hydrophobic. B.Not important to life. C.Made by living organisms. D.Not made by living organisms. 2.The distinguishing feature of a polar compound is its (yellow biology textbook p. 32). A. even distribution of electrical charge. B. uneven distribution of electrical charge. C. even temperature. D. uneven temperature. Practice Assessment #1: Complete the following quiz on a piece of paper.
Conclusion Guide (Page 2) 3.Because the carbon atom has four electrons in its outer energy level carbon. (yellow biology textbook p. 40). A. Participates in a dehydration synthesis reaction. B. Participates in hydrolysis. C. Bonds easily to itself and to other elements. D. Adheres to solid surfaces. 4.The main source from which plants and animals get their energy is the monosaccharide A. glucose. B. fructose. C. galactose. D. glycogen.
Conclusion Guide (Page 3) 5. Plants store glucose in a polysaccharide called A. cellulose. B. maltose. C. lactose. D. starch. 6. When two amino acids bond, (yellow biology textbook pp , Figure 3-18 and 3-19). A. the carboxyl group of one amino acid joins to the amine group of the other in a condensation reaction. B. the carboxyl group of one amino acid joins to the amino group of the other during hydrolysis. C. A dipeptide is formed through intermediary metabolism. D. A polypeptide is formed through intermediary metabolism.
Conclusion Guide (Page 4) 7. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions in the cell by A. raising the activation energy. B. lowering the activation energy. C. releasing the products of the reaction. D. emerging from the reaction unaltered. 8. Lipids are distinguished from other organic molecules because they. A. contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1. B. do not dissolve in water. C. store energy. D. form structural and functional compounds of universal importance in cells.
Conclusion Guide (Page 5) 9.A nucleotide is composed of a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar, and a A. substrate. B. triglyceride. C. nitrogen base. D. macromolecule. 10. Compare and contrast a condensation reaction with hydrolysis. 11. Define disaccharide and give examples. 12. What factor determines the shape of a protein? 13. What are two nucleic acids and their functions?
Conclusion Guide (Page 6) Once you have completed the Practice Assessment please see your teacher for the final unit test.