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Products of Biochemical Engineering. How long ago? Sumerians and Babylonians were brewing before 6000 BC (evidence in pyramids) Egyptians “let my people.

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Presentation on theme: "Products of Biochemical Engineering. How long ago? Sumerians and Babylonians were brewing before 6000 BC (evidence in pyramids) Egyptians “let my people."— Presentation transcript:

1 Products of Biochemical Engineering

2 How long ago? Sumerians and Babylonians were brewing before 6000 BC (evidence in pyramids) Egyptians “let my people go” were baking before 4000 BC Distilleries? 14 th C.

3 Ancient biotechnologies vinegar for fries... acetic acid bacteria lactic acid to acidify milk... yogurt cheese to stabilize milk... bacteria and molds

4 Industrial age glycerol fermentation developed by german biochemist Carl Neuberg during WW1 butanol/acetone fermentation developed by chemist Chaim Weizmann using Clostridium acetobutylicum

5 Antibiotics folk medicine: moldy cheese, meat, bread, soybeans, grains Tyndall, Pasteur, Roberts noted antagonistic effects of one organism on another... 1870’s

6 Alexander Fleming noted that Penicillium notatum contaminant killed culture of Staphylococcus aureus (1928) penicillin production reality in 1941

7 Penicillin prepared in highly dilute, impure and unstable solutions prior to WWII up to 1943, batch purification process that inactivated up to 65% Shell chemical engineers build pilot plant that processed 750 L broth/day with 85% recovery

8 more on penicillin 1943 – 4,100 patients/month 1944 – 250,000 patients/month MIT chemical engineers built first production plant involving freeze drying technologies in 1942/43

9 Bugs on steroids? the superbug: t d = 10 to 15 min

10 Classes of industrial microbes bacteria molds (fungi) yeast (fungi) actinomycetes

11 Prowhat? Procaryotes – nuclear region, single strand of ds-DNA –bacteria, actinomycetes, blue- green algae Eucaryotes – nucleus, multiple chromosomes chromosomes

12 Other industrial cultures tissue culture: mammalian, insect... plant tissue culture

13 Classes of products Microbial cells Large molecules (10 4 – 10 6 daltons) Primary metabolites (essential for growth) Secondary metabolites (who knows why?)

14 Microbial cells single cell protein yeasts used in brewing, bakingyeasts

15 Microbial cells cells used in bioconversion, biotransformation reactions –ethanol --- acetic acid (Babylon, 5000 BC) –isopropanol --- acetone –sorbitol --- sorbose (manufacture of vit.C) –steroid transformations –fumarate --- malate

16 Large molecules enzymes as catalysts –amylases in brewing, baking, textiles –proteases in brewing, meat tenderizing, detergents, leather (rennin)

17 Enzymes as catalysts ambient T and P (low energy) water solvent few side reactions (no by-products) highly specific for substrate high yields possible costly and can be unstable difficult to separate and reuse

18 High fructose corn syrup corn starch (α1,4 glucose) soluble dextrins (oligosaccharides) glucose syrup fructose syrup (50/50) liquefaction (α-amylase) saccharifaction (glucamylase) isomerization (glucose isomerase)

19 Credit where credit is due!  -amylase: Aspergillus, Bacillus glucamylase: Aspergillus, Bacillus, Rhizopus glucose isomerase: Bacillus, Streptomyces

20 Polysaccharides Xanthan from Xanthomonas campestrisXanthan food additives as stabilizers, thickeners, emulsifiers drilling muds

21 Pullulan polysaccharide produced by Aureobasidium pullulans (fungus)polysaccharide edible and biodegradable films (low O 2 permeability)

22 Primary metabolites amino acids: L-glutamic acid, L-lysine purine nucleotides: IMP (inosine 5’monophosphate) vitamins: riboflavin, B 12 organic acids: citric, gluconic, fumarate, malate solvents: ethanol, 2,3 butanediol

23 plants in Ontario (3), USA (1) and Quebec (1)plants

24 Secondary metabolites antibiotics: bacitracin, erythromycin toxins: mycotoxins alkaloids growth factors pigments, flavours, fragrances

25 Were you paying attention? Big Mac sauce: soybean oil, pickles, vinegar, water, sugar egg yolks, high fructose corn syrup, mustard, salt, xanthan, potassium sorbate, spice, soy, corn and wheat protein, EDTA

26 water, glucose- fructose syrup, colour, phosphoric acid, natural flavours, caffeine

27 water, glucose-fructose, citric acid, tea, lemon flavour

28 chicken broth, egg noodles, water chicken, salt, chicken fat, corn starch monosodium glutamate, onion, yeast extract, spice, beta carotene, garlic

29 sorbitol, water, silica, glycerin, sodium alkyl sulfate, polyethylene glycol-6, flavour, xanthan, saccharin, triclosan, carbopol 956, titanium dioxide, sodium fluoride, tetrasodium pyrophosphate

30 skim milk, field berries, skim milk, modified corn starch natural and artificial flavours, gelatin, whey protein Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, pectin, potassium sorbate sucralose (splenda), calcium lactate, malic acid vitamin A, vitamin D3

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