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AP BIOLOGY Chapter 9 Metabolism. Tell which molecules are oxidized and which are reduced in this reaction Glucose is oxidized; oxygen is reduced Loss.

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Presentation on theme: "AP BIOLOGY Chapter 9 Metabolism. Tell which molecules are oxidized and which are reduced in this reaction Glucose is oxidized; oxygen is reduced Loss."— Presentation transcript:

1 AP BIOLOGY Chapter 9 Metabolism

2 Tell which molecules are oxidized and which are reduced in this reaction Glucose is oxidized; oxygen is reduced Loss of hydrogen atoms Gain of hydrogen atoms Energy

3 Krebs cycle is also called the ______________ cycle What is the equation for cellular respiration? How many carbons are in pyruvic acid? Citric acid Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA) 6 O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 → 6 CO H 2 O + energy 3

4 Name the 6 carbon molecule that forms when OAA picks up 2 carbons from acetyl CoA What happens to Coenzyme A after acetyl Co-A drops off its 2 carbons to the Krebs cycle? Citric acid (citrate) Recycles and picks up 2 more carbons from pyruvate

5 Which pathway generates the most energy from glucose? FERMENTATION CELLULAR RESPIRATION Cellular respiration Where does glycolysis take place? cytoplasm

6 Identify the part: A = ______________ B = ______________ C = ______________ D = ________________ E = ________________ Outer membrane inner membrane (cristae) Intermembrane space matrix ©Pearson Education Inc; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall; E cytoplasm

7 Give the chemical equation for Lactic acid fermentation Pyruvic acid + NADH → lactic acid + NAD + After glycolysis, which pathway will pyruvic acid follow if oxygen is present? It will enter the Krebs cycle

8 Identify the 3 stages of cellular respiration: #1 = _____________ #2 = _____________ #3 = _____________ glycolysis Krebs cycle Electron transport chain ©Pearson Education Inc; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall

9 True or False Only animal cells have mitochondria False; both plants and animals have mitochondria How many carbons are in a glucose molecule? 6; C 6 H 12 O 6

10 Give the chemical equation for alcoholic fermentation Pyruvic acid + NADH → alcohol + CO 2 + NAD + How many ATP’s are required to get glycolysis started? 2 ATP

11 After glycolysis, what determines which pathway pyruvic acid will follow? Presence or absence of oxygen Name the two kinds of fermentation Lactic acid and alcoholic

12 What is the net production of ATP during glycolysis? During ______________ fats can be broken down into 2 carbon units that enter the Krebs cycle to be burned for energy instead of glucose. Uses 2 ATP; produces 4 ATP Net gain of 2 ATP Beta oxidation

13 How is pyruvate different from pyruvic acid? Both are forms of same molecule Pyruvate is pyruvic acid that has lost an H.

14 Tell its location: Where Krebs cycle happens = ___ Where is the Electron Transport Chain found = ___ H + ions accumulate here during electron transport = ___ Place where glycolysis happens= ___ D B C E ©Pearson Education Inc; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall;

15 Which electron carrier produces the most ATP… NADH or FADH 2 ? WHY? Each NADH makes 3 ATP Each FADH 2 makes 2 ATP NADH releases its electrons at the beginning of ETC so 3 H+ are pumped across the membrane; FADH 2 drops off its electrons farther down the chain at cytochrome c so it misses the first proton pump and less H+ are pumped across the membrane. Return of H + through ATP synthase produces ATP

16 Name the 3 carbon molecule produced during glycolysis Type of fermentation used to make yogurt, cheese, saurkraut, kimchi, buttermilk, etc. Pyruvate (pyruvic acid) Lactic acid

17 Muscle fatigue is caused when the process of fermentation produces _____________ Lactic acid The energy produced by electrons passing down the Electron Transport chain are used to pump which ion into the intermembrane space? H + ions are pumped from the matrix and accumulate in the intermembrane space

18 Which parts of cellular respiration require oxygen? Krebs cycle & Electron transport chain Why is the Krebs cycle also called the citric acid cycle? Citric acid is the first compound formed during the Krebs cycle

19 Name this molecule Adenosine triphosphate

20 Which kind of fermentation puts the air holes in bread? Alcoholic fermentation releases CO 2 bubbles which pop and leave holes in the bread What is the final electron acceptor at the end of the Electron Transport Chain during cellular respiration? oxygen

21 If alcoholic fermentation is what makes bread rise, why don’t we get intoxicated from eating the bread? Alcohol evaporates during cooking During short term exercise muscle cells are using which pathway to provide energy? Lactic acid fermentation cellular respiration lactic acid fermentation

22 What happens to the CO 2 produced when pyruvic acid is broken down? It is released into the atmosphere What is the energy tally from 1 molecule of pyruvic acid completing the Krebs cycle? __ NADH__ ATP __ FADH 2 __ CO

23 The generation of ATP from a proton gradient that occurs in all living things is called _________________ chemiosmosis

24 Organisms that can use either fermentation or cellular respiration are called ________________ Where are cytochromes found? How do prokaryotes do cellular respiration if they don’t have mitochondria? Facultative anaerobes Part of electron transport chain ETC proteins are in plasma membrane; infolding to make pockets creates places to make H+ gradients and run ETC to make ATP

25 How do the levels of AMP and ATP play a regulatory role in the glycolysis pathway? High levels of AMP (means cell is low in ATP) stimulate phosphofructokinase in glycolysis pathway; High levels of ATP inhibit phosphofructokinase to shut off pathway (don’t run glycolysis if not needed)

26 MITOCHONDRION Using a proton gradient created by electron transport chain to make ATP = __________________________ OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION

27 Using energy from breaking a chemical bond to add a P directly from a phosphorylated molecule to ADP without a proton gradient = __________________ SUBSTRATE LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATION

28 Glycolysis is also called the ____________________ pathway. The enzyme cofactor that is part of Coenzyme A comes from vitamin __ __________ is an enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide. Embden-Meyerhoff Pathway B CATALASE

29 When you did this lab, what was the purpose of adding sulfuric acid? Acid denatures the catalase enzyme and stops the reaction

30 Name the cell part that contains catalase to break down peroxide. When hydrogen peroxide is broken down, what gas is produced? peroxisome oxygen

31 Name these molecules Pyruvic acid Lactic acid Alcohol (Ethyl)

32 Name this molecule NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)

33 Name this molecule NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)

34 Name this molecule FADH 2 (Flavin adenine dinucleotide)


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