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BIOL 260-General Microbiology Instructor: Christopher Thor Masters Degree, Bioengineering Bachelors Degree, Molecular Biology.

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Presentation on theme: "BIOL 260-General Microbiology Instructor: Christopher Thor Masters Degree, Bioengineering Bachelors Degree, Molecular Biology."— Presentation transcript:

1 BIOL 260-General Microbiology Instructor: Christopher Thor Masters Degree, Bioengineering Bachelors Degree, Molecular Biology

2 Welcome to BIOL 260: Microbiology! First day: –Review of Syllabus –Sign-in –Introduce the course, review course expectations –Begin with first lab Exercise 3: Microscope Lab

3 What is microbiology? The scientific discipline which studies microbes or microorganisms –Biology of microbes –The interaction of microbes with other microbes, the environment, and humans

4 The “Yotes” Definitions: Prokaryote: Single celled organism, no nucleus. Bacteria, Archaea Eukaryote: Single or multi-celled organism, membrane bound nucleus Algae, Protozoa, Fungi, people

5 What are examples of microbes? Algae Fungi Protozoa Bacteria Viruses Which are Prokaryotes are which are Eukaryotes?

6 Hierarchy

7 Types of Microbes: Algae

8 Types of Microbes: Protozoa

9 Types of Microbes: Fungi

10 Types of Microbes: Bacteria

11 Viruses, Viroids, Prions

12 Microorganisms are associated with Disease –Cause of many epidemics in history –Bubonic plague ( ) Killed 25 million people –Small pox Killed estimated 600 million people since 10,000 BC Eradicated in 1979 –HIV 3.1 million estimated new cases per year 5% of Sub-Saharan Population –Malaria Small Pox

13 Bacteria are associated with Normal microbiota (normal flora) –The bacteria that are present on our bodies

14 Bacteria are associated with The environment –Rhizobium (the greatest bacteria you’ve never heard of) Nitrogen fixation in the soil Food products –Beer! Or bread, wine, sauerkraut, yogurt, cheese… Medicines –Bacteria are “programmed” to make insulin

15 History of Microbiology It all started with the microscope! –Zacharis Janssen (1600) –Antoni van Leewenhoek ( ) –Robert Hooke (1665)

16 Zacharis Janssen’s microscope Modeled after the telescope Consisted of two lenses Magnified images 3- 10X

17 Leewenhoek’s microscope 20-30x magnification

18 Where do cells come from? Spontaneous generation –Francesco Redi (1668) Spontaneous Generation does not occur –John Needham (1745) Spontaneous Generation does occur –Lazzaro Spallanzani (1765) –Louis Pasteur (1861) Biogenesis –Rudolf Virchow (1858) Living things come from living things

19 Pasteur’s flasks

20 John Tyndall questions Pasteur’s experiments Could not reproduce Pasteur’s results –Specific growth media required –Found that there were heat resistant forms of microbes Same year (1876) Ferdinand Cohn discovers heat resistant forms of bacteria called endospores –Spores can survive in space (Apollo Program, 1960s) 1877 Robert Koch demonstrates that anthrax caused by Bacillus anthracis

21 Major Milestones in Microbiology

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23 New cells need to be placed in categories Aristotle-plant or animal kingdom Kingdom Protista (1866) Electron microscope (1940’s) Kingdom Procaryotae (1968) Carl Woese proposed 3 Domains (1978)

24 Three Domain System

25 Prokaryotes (Single Celled) Bacteria Domain (Eubacteria) –Peptidoglycan cell walls Gram negative Gram positive Archaea Domain (Archaebacteria) –Not a peptidoglycan cell wall –Extremophiles Methanogens Halophiles Thermophiles

26 Binomial system of nomenclature Genus and species –Escherichia coli, E. coli Both names are in italics or underlined and correctly spelled.

27 Relationship of size and resolution

28 Types of microscopes Brightfield Darkfield Phase Contrast Fluorescent Electron

29 Microscopy-Brightfield

30 Oil has same refractive index as glass

31 Microscopy Wet mount Stained specimen

32 Microscopy Wet mount Stained specimen

33 Microscopy Electron microscopes - maximum magnification  100,000X

34 Microscopy Electron microscopes - maximum magnification  100,000X “Color-enhanced”

35 Staining: key to visualization Simple Differential Special

36 Microscopic Techniques: Dyes and Staining Simple stains Stains everything Differential stains Stain based on cellular traits Gram stain - separates bacteria into two categories based on type of cell wall Acid Fast Stain – Stains non-peptidoglycan containing bacteria (Mycobacteria) Gram-positive Gram-negative

37 Microscopic Techniques: Dyes and Staining Differential stains Gram stain - separates bacteria into two categories based on type of cell wall Purple: Bacteria with high peptidoglycan containing cell walls Pink: Counter stain Simple stains

38 Differential Stain: Acid Fast

39 Microscopic Techniques: Dyes and Staining Fluorescent dyes and tags

40 Special stain: Capsule Stain

41 Special stain: Endospore Stain

42 Special stain: Flagella Stain

43 Morphology of Prokaryotic Cells: Cell Shapes

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45 Morphology of Prokaryotic Cells: Cell Groupings

46 Morphology of Prokaryotic Cells: Multicellular Associations Biofilm containing mixed species


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