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Peak Performance Eat to Compete Part 1 Gale Welter, MS, RD, CSCS Nutrition Counselor Campus Health Service University of Arizona This presentation was.

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Presentation on theme: "Peak Performance Eat to Compete Part 1 Gale Welter, MS, RD, CSCS Nutrition Counselor Campus Health Service University of Arizona This presentation was."— Presentation transcript:

1 Peak Performance Eat to Compete Part 1 Gale Welter, MS, RD, CSCS Nutrition Counselor Campus Health Service University of Arizona This presentation was adapted from “The Winning Edge – Nutrition for Fitness and Sport” workshop, fall 2004, University of Arizona, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Department of Nutritional Sciences.

2 You are an elite athlete You want to win!

3 You need every advantage you can get –You have to look for your edge –Your competition is looking for their edge, too.

4 Fundamentals of Athletic Performance Genetics Rest/ Sleep Coaching Training, Conditioning, Practice Nutrition and Hydration

5 Advantages of Optimizing the Fundamentals More and longer lasting energy Greater and longer lasting concentration Stronger immune function –less time “on the bench” Reduced potential for injury –Less time “on the bench” Better recovery –Between workouts/practices; between events Better growth and repair

6 Advantages of Optimizing the Fundamentals Fundamentals = More productive conditioning  better practices  stronger competition  more “wins”

7 Fundamentals of Athletic Performance Genetics Rest/ Sleep Coaching Training, Conditioning, Practice Nutrition and Hydration

8 Nutrition and Hydration Eat to Compete Fundamentals Four categories –1. Hydration – Fluids –2. Quantity –3. Quality –4. Timing

9 1. Hydration Drink fluids throughout the day

10

11 Physical fatigue Mental fatigue Cramping Slower recovery Drink as much as possible during exercise with the goal of trying to replace all sweat loss. Sweat =Dehydration = Fatigue Sweat = Dehydration = Fatigue

12 Even Low Levels of Dehydration Impairs Exercise Performance Athletes at only 1.8% dehydration (not enough to trigger thirst) reached fatigue 3 minutes sooner than fully hydrated athletes cycling at 90% VO 2 max ~ Walsh et al. Intl J Sports Med 15, 1994

13 Effects of Dehydration Reduction in stroke volume Reduced skin blood flow Increased core body temperature

14 Fluid Guidelines ounces every min During Exercise Within 2 hrs Before Exercise ounces cool fluid American College Sports Medicine, American Dietitian Association, Dietitians of Canada, 2000 Within min Before Exercise ounces cool fluid

15 Current Fluid Replacement Guidelines 16 to 24 ounces per pound weight loss After Exercise American College of Sports Medicine, American Dietitian Association, Dietitians of Canada, 2000 Before: 145 lbs After: 143 lbs Loss = 2 lbs Loss = 2 lbs

16 Practical Application Casa et al., J Athletic Training 35, 2000 Start Hydrated Cool beverage (50° - 59°F) Know signs of dehydration: –Thirst, irritability, fatigue, general discomfort – Headache, weakness, dizziness, cramps, chills, vomiting, head or neck heat sensations Heat acclimatization increases fluid needs, possibly sodium

17 Fluid Replacement Goals Prevent Dehydration! –Limiting factor in exercise performance –Everyone is different, know your needs based on Sweat rate Body size Specific activity Drink BEFORE you are thirsty –American College of Sports Medicine experts “ Thirst alone is not the best indicator of the body’s fluid status.” July 2003

18 Add Carbohydrate to Fluids ? Stop-&-Go Sports Study Research from U.K. using Shuttle Run test Action like that of baseball or football Sprinting ability: 2 min longer with sport drink vs. water trial Nicholas et al. J Sport Sci 13:283-90, 1995

19 Adding Carbohydrate during Activity High-intensity sports (intermittent or continuous activity) lasting longer than 60 min: –Drink/Eat g CHO ( calories) every hour oz Sports Drink (6 - 8% CHO) Or drink water and eat some high carb food –Ex: 1 Large banana or Fig Newtons

20 Nutrition and Hydration Eat to Compete Fundamentals Four categories –1. Hydration – Fluids –2. Quantity –3. Quality –4. Timing

21 CALORIE Needs Quantity CALORIE Needs Carbohydrate, Protein & Fat Goals

22 Estimating How Many Calories You Need Men Activity level –Light (≤1 hr / day) - 18 –Moderate(1-4 hrs/day) – 19* –Very Active (4+ hrs/day) – 21+ Women Activity level –Light (≤1 hr / day) - 15 –Moderate(1-4 hrs/day) – 16* –Very Active (4+ hrs/day) – 19+ Multiply your weight by the activity factor for your current level of training and conditioning *Some smaller/leaner athletes in “skill” sports like gymnastics and diving may not need this many calories

23 ATP Production

24 FATTY ACIDS AMINO ACIDS GLUCOSE Aerobic (with oxygen) Anaerobic (without oxygen) Cell Membrane Lots of ATP Some ATP Inside Cell

25 Glucose Fatty Acids Amino Acids High Intensity Activity Low Intensity Activity

26 Carbohydrates (CHO) Carbohydrates  Glucose  Glycogen

27 Small and Limited Glycogen Stores

28 Glycogen & Endurance Exercise

29 Inadequate Carbohydrate Intake

30

31 Carbohydrate Needs General rule of thumb: For general training needs: grams of carbohydrate x pounds of Body Wt (Up to 4.5 g / lb for endurance athletes) ex: 150 # x 3 g = 450 g carbs (1800 calories) –Carbohydrate foods include grains, cereals, starches, fruits and vegetables

32 Carbohydrate Intake Guidelines Bottom Line: Eat throughout the day Time (in relation to exercise) Carbohydrate 1 to 4 hrs before 0.5 – 1.8g per # body wt Every hr during g Within 30 min. after0.7g per # body wt (150# x 0.7g = ~100g) Within 2 hrs after0.7g per # body wt in a balanced meal Rosenbloom, Sports Nutrition: A guide for the professional working with Active People, 2000

33 PROTEIN

34 Major Roles of Protein Tissue Growth Tissue Repair and Maintenance Minor Protein Role Fuel Stores - Small Amounts

35 How Much Protein Do You Need? Depends on the type and intensity of your activity: –Endurance: 0.6 – 0.7grams / # body wt –Strength/power: 0.7 – 0.8 grams / # body wt (general population: 0.4 grams / # body wt) –Ex: 230# lineman ~ g/d ( g/d) –Ex: 125# distance runner ~ g/d (0.6 – 0.7 g/d)

36 What does 100g Protein look like ? 1C cereal, 1C milk ½ C blueberries Sports bar ( type) Sandwich, 2oz turkey,1oz cheese ½ C baby carrots 1 C milk 8 oz yogurt ¼ C nuts 4 oz chicken breast 1 C brown rice 1 C cooked veggies 1 C salad with 2T low fat dressing Total grams Protein (calories)109 (1925) Source: exchange system estimates

37 What does 180g Protein look like ? 2 C cereal, 1½ C milk 2 large bananas Sports bar ( type) 2 Sandwiches, each with 2oz turkey,1oz cheese 1 C baby carrots 2 C milk 8 oz yogurt ½ C nuts 6 oz chicken breast 2 C brown rice 2 C cooked veggies 2 slices of bread Total grams Protein (calories)186 (3400) Source: exchange system estimates

38 How Much Protein Do You Need When Adding Muscle Mass? Use the upper part of the range (0.6 – 0.9 g per # body weight) when you are working on adding muscle mass (first 3 to 6 months) After muscle mass gains have been reached, lower levels of protein will maintain the mass due to the training effect of increased protein metabolism The source of protein doesn’t seem to markedly effect higher muscle mass, but more research is warranted

39 Protein Before or After Workouts? Current research favors eating/drinking a protein/carb combination AFTER workouts, (especially weight workouts) –Ex: Meal replacement shakes (typically g protein) Turkey sandwich (~ g protein)

40 Protein Take-Home Points Most active people and athletes eat adequate protein for muscle growth Attention should be focused on adequate caloric intake (CHO mainly) to spare protein for muscle growth and repair Timing and quality of protein may be more important than quantity Nutrition is important, but does not replace a proper exercise training program for muscle growth

41 Fat  20 – 35% Calories  Concentrated Calorie Source  Efficiently Metabolized

42 Healthy Fats and Oils Have some every day 20 – 35% of calories –25% of 1400 calories ~ 40 g/d –25% of 2200 calories ~ 60 g/d –25% of 3500 calories ~ 100 g/d Use this Label Reading rule of thumb to determine whether there is a moderate amount of fat in a food –  3 g fat per 100 calories (~ 27% of calories)

43 Very Low Fat Diets Not Recommended Too little dietary fat affects mental function, immune function, hormone function, absorption of some vitamins, and energy levels

44 Healthy Fats and Oils Eat more –Monounsaturated fats: Nuts, seeds, nut butters, olives, olive oil, and avocados –Polyunsaturated fats: Vegetable oils: canola, safflower, sunflower, corn, soybean, etc Omega-3 fatty acids: fish (ex. tuna, salmon), fish oil, walnuts, flaxseed Eat less –Saturated fats: visible fat in animal products (meat, poultry skin), whole dairy products (cheese), palm / coconut oils –Hydrogenated oils: in packaged foods (cookies, crackers, mac ‘n cheese mixes)

45 Nutrition and Hydration Eat to Compete Fundamentals Four categories –1. Hydration – Fluids –2. Quantity –3. Quality –4. Timing

46 Timing is to success This could be your “Edge” Spread food & drink intake throughout the day Eat every 3-4 hours during the day, begin with breakfast Get your “edge” by planning your food more specifically to your conditioning, practices and games/competitions

47 2 - 4 Hours BEFORE Exercise Eat a high carbohydrate, low fat, moderate protein meal –Ex. 125 g CHO, low fat, moderate protein Turkey sandwich with 1 slice cheese, 2 slices turkey, 1 tsp. mayonnaise, lettuce and tomato. 1 cup pasta with vegetables and fat free Italian dressing. 1 banana Choose familiar foods Drink at least 16 fl.oz of fluids

48 Minutes BEFORE Exercise Eat about g CHO/ lb body weight –Example: 1 small banana or 16 oz sports beverage Choose familiar foods Choose foods low in fiber Drink 1-2 cups fluid 15 minutes before exercise

49 DURING Exercise Lasting Longer Than 1 hour Drink cups of fluid every 15 minutes Eat/Drink grams ( calories) CHO per hour: –Snack every 10 to 30 minutes (as allowed by sport) Goal: Consistent feeding schedule for steady flow of glucose into bloodstream Especially important for day-long competitions like tennis, swimming, golf

50 Timing of Food Intake Summary TimeCarb and Protein (g)/ # BW 1 to 4 hours before exercise Carbohydrate 0.5g (1 hr) – 1.8g (4 hrs) in a mixed meal with some protein During each hour of exercise after 60 minutes: Eat or drink 30 to 60 grams of carbohydrate Within 30 minutes after exercise 0.7g carbohydrate with ~10-40g protein (as part of daily goal, depending on overall needs) Within 2 hrs after exercise 0.5 – 0.7 g carbohydrate and ~ 30+ g protein as part of a meal

51 Be the best you can be Drink and Eat to Compete End of Part 1

52 Peak Performance Eat to Compete Part 2 Gale Welter, MS, RD, CSCS Nutrition Counselor Campus Health Service University of Arizona This presentation was adapted from “The Winning Edge – Nutrition for Fitness and Sport” workshop, fall 2004, University of Arizona, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Department of Nutritional Sciences.

53 Eat to Compete – Fundamentals Practical applications 4. Timing –1. Hydration – Fluids –2. Quantity –3. Quality

54 Timing is to success This could be your “Edge” Spread food & drink intake throughout the day Eat every 3-4 hours during the day, begin with breakfast Get your “edge” by planning your food more specifically to your conditioning, practices and games/competitions

55 Fluid Guidelines ounces every min During Exercise Within 2 hrs Before Exercise ounces cool fluid American College Sports Medicine, American Dietitian Association, Dietitians of Canada, 2000 Within min Before Exercise ounces cool fluid

56 Current Fluid Replacement Guidelines 16 to 24 ounces per pound weight loss After Exercise American College of Sports Medicine, American Dietitian Association, Dietitians of Canada, 2000 Before: 145 lbs After: 143 lbs Loss = 2 lbs Loss = 2 lbs

57 Practical Application Casa et al., J Athletic Training 35, 2000 Start Hydrated Cool beverage (50° - 59°F) Know signs of dehydration: –Thirst, irritability, fatigue, general discomfort – Headache, weakness, dizziness, cramps, chills, vomiting, head or neck heat sensations Heat acclimatization increases fluid needs, possibly sodium

58 How Much Protein Do You Need? Depends on the type and intensity of your activity: –Endurance: 0.6 – 0.7grams / # body wt –Strength/power: 0.7 – 0.8 grams / # body wt (general population: 0.4 grams / # body wt) –Ex: 230# lineman ~ g/d ( g/d) –Ex: 125# distance runner ~ g/d (0.6 – 0.7 g/d)

59 Healthy Fats and Oils Have some every day 20 – 35% of calories –25% of 1400 calories ~ 40 g/d –25% of 2200 calories ~ 60 g/d –25% of 3500 calories ~ 100 g/d Use this Label Reading rule of thumb to determine whether there is a moderate amount of fat in a food –  3 g fat per 100 calories (~ 27% of calories)

60 2 - 4 Hours BEFORE Exercise Eat a high carbohydrate, low fat, moderate protein meal –Ex. 125 g CHO, low fat, moderate protein Turkey sandwich with 1 slice cheese, 2 slices turkey, 1 tsp. mayonnaise, lettuce and tomato. 1 cup pasta with vegetables and fat free Italian dressing. 1 banana Choose familiar foods Drink at least 16 fl.oz of fluids

61 Minutes BEFORE Exercise Eat about g CHO/ lb body weight –Example: 1 small banana or 16 oz sports beverage Choose familiar foods Choose foods low in fiber Drink 1-2 cups fluid 15 minutes before exercise

62 DURING Exercise Lasting Longer Than 1 hour Drink cups of fluid every 15 minutes Eat/Drink grams ( calories) CHO per hour: –Snack every 10 to 30 minutes (as allowed by sport) Goal: Consistent feeding schedule for steady flow of glucose into bloodstream Especially important for day-long competitions like tennis, swimming, golf

63 Recovery AFTER Exercise Eat carbs within 30 minutes of exercise –Examples: Sports drinks Plain Bagel with jam Fresh Fruit Cheerios Replace fluid losses –Drink at least 3 cups fluid per lb of body weight lost

64 Recovery AFTER Exercise Maximum glycogen replacement rate occurs within 2 hours after exercise –Eat a high carbohydrate, low fat, moderate protein meal Have lean protein, vegetables, fruit, grains/starch, low fat dairy, some salad dressing Limit fried foods, cheese, sauces and gravies, soda/lemonade/punch, packaged foods, meal replacement products It takes hours to fully recover used glycogen

65 The Importance of Recovery Food and Fluids Reload glycogen stores – –For energy, concentration, and to spare protein for its primary functions Replenish fluids –Solute of optimal metabolism, regulate core temperature, delay fatigue Insure adequate protein for growth, repair and maintenance functions –Increase/maintain muscle mass, maintain immune function,

66 Timing of Food and Fluid Intake Summary Time Carb and Protein(g)/ # BW Fluids 1 to 4 hours before exercise 0.5g (1 hr) – 1.8g (4 hrs)2 hr before – oz min before-7-10 oz During each hour of exercise after 60 minutes: Eat or drink 30 to 60 grams of carbohydrate 6-12 oz every 15 to 20 minutes Within 30 minutes after exercise 0.7g carbohydrate with protein (as part of daily goal, usually g depending on overall needs) Replenish losses, 3C fluid for every pound of Body Weight lost during exercise. Continue rehydrating for clear, pale urine Within 2 hrs after exercise 0.5 – 0.7 g carbohydrate and protein (usually 30+ g as part of a meal) Bottom Line: Eat and drink throughout the day

67 Eat to Compete – Fundamentals Practical applications 4. Timing –1. Hydration – Fluids –2. Quantity –3. Quality

68 Example CHO Snacks to Carry (30-60 g) oz Sports Drink 1-2 Large bananas Most energy bars 9 graham cracker squares ¼ to ½ c raisins 1 large bagel w/ jam 20 saltines 2½ cups Cheerios 3-6 Fig Cookies

69 High Carbohydrate, Low-Fat Foods Bread, Cereal Rice, & Pasta Vegetables FruitMilk & Milk Products Bagel Kidney Beans Cereals Bran Muffin Popcorn Rice, brown Tortilla Pretzels Crackers, Graham Angel Food Cake Pancakes Pasta Carrots Corn Peas (sweet) Potatoes Sweet Potato Tomato Tomato Juice Apple Apricot Banana Fig Fruit Juice Peach Raisin Pear Grapes Milk Pudding Yogurt, Frozen Fruit Yogurt Plain Yogurt

70 Common Protein Foods (and grams of protein per serving) 1 egg or 2 egg whites-6g Cheese 1 oz - 8g Milk 8 oz - 8g Yogurt 8 oz - 8g Cottage cheese ½ c – 14g Tuna 61/2oz can – 31g Chicken breast 3oz – 26g Hamburger 4oz – 30g Pork loin 4 oz – 35g Fish 4 oz – 27g Almonds 1 oz (~24 nuts) – 6g Peanut butter 1T – 4g Kidney beans ½ c – 6g Hummus ½ c – 6g Refried beans ½ c – 7g Lentil soup Progresso 10.5oz – 11g Tofu, extra firm 4oz – 12g Baked beans ½ c – 7g Luna bar 1 – 10g Other sports bars – 12+g Source: Clark, N. Nancy Clark’s Sports Nutrition Guidebook, 2nd Ed, 1997, p132

71 Power Foods for Dorms Fresh/Canned fruit Fresh/Canned vegetables High fiber cereals Whole grain crackers Whole grain bread Corn tortillas Fig Newtons Ginger snaps, ‘nilla wafers Dark chocolate Canned beans Refried bean dip Hummus Peanut butter Nuts Jerky Yogurt Cottage cheese String cheese Canned tuna, chicken

72 Power Food Choices Eating Out Around Campus Fruit –Fresh, around S.U.s –Cut fruit in containers –“Fruit bar” Vegetables –Cooked in S.U.s –Salads and salad bars –Raw in containers Whole grains –ODD breads, tortillas –Cereals, boxes Lean protein –Chicken breast, grilled –Betty’s buffet meats and fish –Deli meats –Salad bar eggs, beans, seeds, tuna, ham, turkey –Bean, chicken burritos and wraps Low fat dairy –Non-fat and 1% milk –Yogurt –Cottage cheese

73 MODERATION

74 Use Moderation with the following foods that provide poor fuel for performance and may add unwanted weight Packaged / processed foods –don’t live on protein or energy shakes and bars, limit to 1or 2 per day –Reduce dependence on crackers, chips, gold fish, etc. Soda, lemonade, punch, frapaccinos, other sugary drinks, (fruit juice) Fried Foods Sugary cereals Candy, cookies, other sweets (banana, zucchini, etc breads) ALCOHOL and the foods that usually go with it

75 Supplements Take a multiple vitamin/mineral daily Take 1000 mg of a Calcium supplements in 2 doses of 500mg each if you do not eat 3 “servings” (8oz milk and yogurt, 1 oz cheese, ½ C cottage) a day. Consider taking 2000 mg of Fish Oil (in 2 doses of 1000mg each) or 1 T of ground Flaxseed, or 1 tsp of Flaxseed Oil) daily if you do not eat fish 2x/wk, nor eat walnuts frequently.

76 Supplements Other supplements –Consider carefully and get professional advice –Know the banned substances and the potential for contamination of seemingly safe supplements!

77 Have a GREAT year… …Go Wildcats! Be the best you can be Drink and Eat to Compete End of Part 2


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