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Presentation on theme: "MICRONUTIRENTS: VITAMINS & MINERALS UNIT 11 NUTRITION."— Presentation transcript:


2 YOU WILL BE ABLE TO… Micronutrients - with a brief summary of each element here – Show sources, RDA, Functions. o Vitamins o Minerals

3 VITAMINS Certain vitamins and minerals are needed for the body to function.  13 vitamins  22 minerals Two types of vitamins  Water-soluble  Fat-soluble

4 FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS Vitamin A, D, E and K Excess is stored in the liver and in body fat  It is possible to build up to a toxic level

5 VITAMIN A (RETINOL) Vitamin A: ◦ Promotes good vision ◦ Promotes healthy skin ◦ Helps with growth and maintenance of bones, teeth, and cell structure RDA: 900 micrograms for males; 700 micrograms for females Too much… May turn your skin orange May cause fatigue, weakness, severe headache, blurred vision, hair loss and joint pain. Toxicity:  May cause severe liver or brain damage  Birth defects

6 TOO LITTLE VITAMIN A May cause night blindness Lowered immune system

7 Foods  Only animal products  Liver  Eggs  Milk, butter and cheese Carotenoids  Orange/Yellow fruits and vegetables  Cantaloupes, carrots, sweet potatoes, winter squash  Leafy green vegetables  Spinach, broccoli FOODS RICH IN VITAMIN A

8 VITAMIN D – “THE SUNSHINE VITAMIN” Essential for building and maintaining bones and teeth Responsible for absorption and utilization of calcium Other health benefits:  May boost immune system  May also help decrease certain cancers RDA: 5 micrograms until age 50  10 micrograms / day until 70; 15 mcg 70+

9 TOO LITTLE VITAMIN D Vitamin D deficiency has been in the news a lot lately. Deficiency may occur from:  Inadequate diet  Vegetarianism, lactose intolerance, milk allergy  Body unable to absorb needed vitamin D  Limited exposure to sunlight

10 VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY May lead to osteomalacia and/or osteoporosis

11 GETTING VITAMIN D Sun exposure for 10 minutes a day Foods:  Fortified milk  Tuna  Salmon  May need a supplement  Check with doctor first though

12 VITAMIN E Important to red blood cells, muscles and other tissues Deficiency is rare Toxicity is rare  But Vitamin E acts as a blood thinner Foods:  Vegetable oils, salad dressings, whole grain cereals, green leafy vegetables, nuts, seeds, peanut butter and wheat germ.

13 VITAMIN K Important for blood clotting  Also has a role for bone health Mostly made in the intestines Foods:  Turnip greens, cauliflower, spinach, liver, broccoli, kale and cabbage

14 WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS Vitamins Bs and C Eight B vitamins: ◦ Thiamin (B-1) ◦ Riboflavin (B-2) ◦ Niacin (B-3) ◦ Pyridoxine (B-4) ◦ Cobalamin (B-12) ◦ Folic acid ◦ Pantothenic acid ◦ Biotin

15 THIAMIN OR B-1 Helps to convert carbohydrates to energy Deficiency:  Fatigue, nausea, depression, nerve damage Foods:  Pork, beef, liver, peas, seeds, legumes, whole-grain products, and porridge

16 RIBOFLAVIN OR B-2 Key to metabolism and red blood cells Deficiency:  Dry, scaly skin Foods:  Milk, yogurt, cheese, whole-grain breads, green leafy vegetables, meat, and eggs

17 NIACIN OR B-3 Also involved with energy production Also helps with skin, nerves and digestive system Deficiency:  Rare but causes: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia and death Foods:  Meat, poultry, liver, eggs, brown rice, baked potatoes, fish, milk, and whole-grain foods

18 PYRIDOXINE OR B-6 Involved in chemical reactions of proteins and amino acids Deficiency:  Skin changes, dementia, nervous system disorders and anemia Foods:  Lean meats, fish, green leafy vegetables, raisins, corn, bananas, mangos

19 COBALAMIN OR B-12 Helps with nervous system, red blood cells and DNA synthesis Deficiency:  Nervous system disorders and pernicious anemia Foods:  Only found in animal products  Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk products and clams

20 FOLIC ACID (FOLACIN, FOLATE) Key role in red blood cell formation and cell division Deficiency:  Anemia, digestive disorders Foods:  Leafy, dark green vegetables  Also found in liver, beans, peas, asparagus, oranges, avocados

21 PANTOTHENIC ACID AND BIOTIN Help with metabolism and formation of some hormones Deficiencies are rare Foods:  Almost any food, plant-based or animal-based

22 VITAMIN C Important to bone health, blood vessel health, cell structure and absorption of iron Deficiency: ◦ Rare Too much vitamin C Foods: ◦ Melons, berries, tomatoes, potatoes, broccoli, fortified juices, kiwi, mangos, yellow peppers and citrus fruits

23 MINERALS 22 minerals are needed by the body Two categories:  Major  Include calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and sulfur  Trace  Include iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, molybdenum, arsenic, nickel, silicon, boron and cobalt

24 SODIUM What does sodium do for you?  Helps maintain fluid balance  Helps transmit nerve impulses  Influences contraction and relaxation of muscles

25 SODIUM & HEALTH Too much sodium  Causes high blood pressure  May lead to fluid retention

26 SODIUM The human body requires about 500 mg of sodium per day, while the average male usually ingests between 2,300-6,900 mg each day. It is recommended to stay in a range of 1,500 to 2,400 mg / day.

27 CALCIUM The most abundant mineral in your body  99% is stored in the bones Known for bone health How much do you need?  Males 19-50 years old: 1,000 mg / day  Females 19-50 years old: 1,000 mg / day

28 CALCIUM & FOODS Dairy products, fortified juices, sardines FoodCalcium Yogurt, plain (low-fat) Yogurt, flavored (low-fat) 1 cup - 415 mg 1 cup – 345 mg Milk, skim Milk, 1-2% 1 cup – 302 mg 1 cup – 300 mg Ice cream½ cup – 88 mg Broccoli, cooked½ cup – 68 mg Salmon, canned3 oz – 165 mg Fortified orange juice8 oz – 300 mg

29 IRON Iron deficiency is the most widespread vitamin or mineral deficiency in the world.  70% of your body’s iron is in your hemoglobin  Too little iron = too little oxygen

30 IRON & FOODS  Found in animal products  Red meats, liver, poultry and eggs  Found in plant products  Beans, nuts, seeds, dried fruits, fortified breads and cereals


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