Presentation on theme: "Dairy Disputes in North America: A Case Study Tom Cox University of Wisconsin-Madison Danny Le Roy The University of Lethbridge Ellen Goddard University."— Presentation transcript:
Dairy Disputes in North America: A Case Study Tom Cox University of Wisconsin-Madison Danny Le Roy The University of Lethbridge Ellen Goddard University of Melbourne
2 Introduction n Analyses of three disputes n Comparison of US and Canadian dairy policy n Summary
3 Comparison of US and Canadian Dairy Policies: Similarities n Dairy versus Total Agricultural Producer Support: OECD PSE Measures. n Border Protection: –TRQ’s: Quotas, Within and Over Quota Tariffs. n Export Subsidies. n Intervention Prices/Price Supports. n Classified Pricing. –Provincial versus Federal/California MMOs. n Regionalism !!!
4 Comparison of US and Canadian Dairy Policies: Key Differences n Milk Production Quotas. –Basis for Two-Tiered Export Pricing via Class Vd/Ve. –Clever Way to “Buy Off” Pressure to Increase/Eliminate Quotas ??? But, via WTO Ruling, Not Clever Enough !!! –Difference with US Classified Pricing ??? US Pricing Not Targeted to Export Market !!! –Dynamic Growth versus Stagnant Quota Industry Implications ??? n Level of Protection and Domestic Pricing.
17 Tariffication n Background CUSTA, NAFTA, GATT and WTO Article XI.2.c n Action Import quotas converted to tariffs NAFTA challenge n Outcome Tariffication conformed fully with NAFTA
18 Tariffication n Evidence of costs 1$ billion (United States Dairy Export Council) Meilke, Sarker and Le Roy (1998) –Welfare gains (C$331 m) »gains to consumers and taxpayers larger than losses to producers
19 Canadian Classified Pricing n Background Levies to fund Canadian Exports Special Milk Classes Scheme n Action US, NZ claimed new CDN pricing system subsidizes exports (5d & 5e) WTO panel n Outcome Panel ruled in favour of the complainants 5d/5e in violation of WTO Agreement on Agriculture Articles 9.1(a) and 9.1(c)
25 Canadian Classified Pricing n Costs –Loss of millions in sales through exports domestic prices –Increase (maintain ???) US-Canada dairy trade tensions. –Increase quota management tensions Need to decrease production (enforce quotas) Or WTO legally increase exports Rock and a hard spot ??? US MMO relevance ???
31 Summary n Policies similarities, differences n Case studies Yogurt & Ice Cream Tariffication Special Class Pricing n Economic Evidence Full World Dairy Sector Deregulation; US MMO Deregulation. A US-Canada dairy trade liberalization: –work in progress ….