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Nutrition & Athletic Performance: Gaining Good Weight – The Right Way! Cathedral Catholic High School April 18, 2011 Katie Clark, MPH, RD, CDE Registered.

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Presentation on theme: "Nutrition & Athletic Performance: Gaining Good Weight – The Right Way! Cathedral Catholic High School April 18, 2011 Katie Clark, MPH, RD, CDE Registered."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutrition & Athletic Performance: Gaining Good Weight – The Right Way! Cathedral Catholic High School April 18, 2011 Katie Clark, MPH, RD, CDE Registered Dietitian University of San Diego High School ‘96

2 Overview  Relationship between nutrition & performance  Importance of carbohydrate & protein  Pre-workout & recovery nutrition & snack ideas  Dietary supplements: do’s & don’ts  Hydration & sports drinks

3 Why Should Athletes Care About Nutrition? Food fuels your body The better your fuel – the better your performance

4 Nutrition & Performance Poor Nutrition:  Cramping  Undesired weight gain  Undesired weight loss  Early fatigue Good Nutrition:  Ideal Weight → Speed  Improved Endurance  Increased Strength  Reduced Fatigue

5 Carbohydrate  Muscles store carbohydrates as glycogen  Depleted glycogen stores → fatigue  Carbohydrate in breads, fruits, milks, sugar & some vegetables  An athlete’s meals should be MOSTLY carbs with a lesser amount of protein and fat

6 Carbohydrate: Starches FoodServingGrams of CarbCalories Whole wheat bread1 piece1890 Brown rice1 cup cooked45215 Baked potato1 large50220 Tortilla1 10’ diameter38228 English muffin1 muffin25120 Pasta1 cup cooked40200 Pretzels10 twists25110 Oatmeal½ cup dry27150 Raisin Bran1 cup dry45190

7 Fiber Choose High Fiber Whole Grain Breads & Starches  Boys age 14-18 need 36 grams of dietary fiber per day  Girls age 14-18 need 26 grams of dietary fiber per day Choose breads, cereal, bars, pasta, crackers, etc. with ≥ 3 g fiber/svg

8 Carbohydrate: Fruits & Vegetables FruitServingGrams of CarbCalories Raisins1/3 cup40150 Apple1 medium2080 Banana1 8’ banana27100 Orange1 medium1870 Orange juice1 cup (8 oz.)25100 VegetableServingGrams of CarbCalories Broccoli½ cup520 Zucchini½ cup210 Spaghetti sauce½ cup22120 Peas½ cup1060

9 Carbohydrate: Dairy & Misc. Dairy FoodServingGrams of CarbCalories Nonfat milk1 cup1280 Whole milk1 cup12150 Lowfat yogurt¾ cup (6 oz)34200 Soy milk1 cup12120 Cheese1 slice½100 Lowfat ice cream½ cup20120 MiscellaneousServingGrams of CarbCalories Snickers bar134275 Powerbar145230

10 Carbohydrate Loading: Glycogen  For every 1 oz glycogen, muscles store 3 oz of water  Expect 2-4 pounds of water weight with carb loading  Increasing carbohydrates in the DAYS and WEEKS preceding athletic events can ↑ glycogen stores

11 Protein  Lifting weights builds muscles – eating protein does not  Adequate (but not excessive) protein promotes helps support growth of muscles  0.5-0.75 gram protein/pound body weight  Example: 165 pound athlete = 83-124 grams per day  Excessive protein and inadequate carbohydrate → :  Protein used for fuel instead of carbohydrate  Inadequate protein for muscle strength & building

12 Protein: Meat MeatServingPro (g)Fat (g)Calories Chicken Breast3 oz w/o skin223160 Ground beef (10% fat)3 oz2410200 Salmon3 oz2211155 Tuna fish, in water6 oz can435180 Sausage1 small item612130 Pepperoni15 slices612135

13 Protein: Nuts, Beans, Eggs FoodServingPro (g)Fat (g)Calories Almonds¼ cup819211 Lentils2 cups162250 Black beans½ cup82120 Refried beans½ cup710120 Peanut butter2 tbsp816188 Hummus½ cup1012200 Egg1 med. whole egg6.5578 Egg white1 med. egg white4017 Egg substitute½ cup154105 Tofu1 ½ inch cake62200 Soybeans½ cup w/o shell116125

14 Protein: Dairy DairyServingPro (g)Fat (g)Calories Nonfat milk1 cup8080 Whole milk1 cup88150 Lowfat yogurt¾ cup (6 oz)6.53200 Nonfat yogurt¾ cup (6 oz)60140 Soy milk1 cup74100 Cheese1 slice77100

15 Meeting Needs: Sample Menu Breakfast 1 cup raisin bran, 1 cup skim milk, 1 cup blueberries Snack 2 slices whole wheat bread, 3 slices turkey, mustard, lettuce, tomato, 1 apple Lunch 2 corn tortillas, 1 cup rice, ½ cup beans, ½ cup chopped chicken, salsa Pre-Workout Snack 20 pretzels, 1 carton yogurt Dinner 2 cups cooked pasta, ½ cup spaghetti sauce, 1 cup broccoli, 2 Tbs cheese, 1 c ice crm Recovery Snack 2 graham crackers, 2 tablespoons peanut butter

16 Meeting Needs: Sample Menu Source: USDA Nutrient Database

17 Pre-Workout Nutrition  Focus is on carbohydrate  Intake 1-2 hours prior to workout  Avoid high fat and excessive protein before workouts  Stick with familiar foods  Breakfast is essential before morning workouts

18 Pre-Workout Snack Ideas  Egg or bean burrito  Fruit smoothie  Fruit + granola + yogurt  Banana, apple, orange, pears, etc.  Cereal or oatmeal with milk, fruit & nuts  Bagel with an egg or egg sandwich  Banana with peanut or almond butter  English muffin with peanut butter  Bran muffin  Graham crackers and milk

19 Recovery Nutrition Post Workout Timing  Eating within 30 minutes is good…15 minutes is better Protein + Carbohydrate is Key  Creates better muscle refueling & building  Reduces cortisol – hormone that breaks down muscle  4:1 ratio of carbohydrate : protein for optimal recovery  Carb/Pro drinks are no better for recovery than carb/pro foods Sodium, Potassium, Electrolytes & Fluid  Soups, potatoes, yogurt, OJ, bananas, cheese, breads, pasta  Water, sports drinks, high-water fruits (grapes, oranges, watermelon), fruit juices Green MS, Corona BT, Doyle JA, Ingalls CP. Carbohydrate-protein drinks do not enhance recovery from exercise-induced muscle injury. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2008;18(1):1-18.

20 Recovery Snacks  Yogurt & fruit  PB&J sandwich  Turkey sandwich  Cheese quesadilla  Cereal & milk  Pita & hummus  Dried fruit & nuts  High fiber granola bar & fruit

21 Recovery Snack Shake Homemade Shake:  1 cup 1% milk  ¼ cup instant pudding  ¼ cup powdered milk  4-5 ice cubes  ½-1 cup frozen fruit chunks 1 serving = 300 calories, 60 g carb, 15 g protein

22 What About Bars?  Nothing magical about bars: focus on food first!  All calories give you “energy”; 200-300 calories pre-workout  Bars are not “more digestible” than whole foods  Important to ↑water if eating bars

23 Dietary Supplements: Steroids  July 2009: two OTC supplements popular among high school football players contain steroids  Tren Xtreme & Mass Xtreme marketed as “potent legal alternative to” steroids; found at Max Muscle retail stores  Illegal steroids concerning for HS boys as artificially high levels of testosterone can stop bones from growing  Short term effects: acne, breast development, irritability, aggression  Longer term effects: liver failure, higher-than-normal hormone levels, CVD (including heart attacks in those under 30), ↑cholesterol, stroke, blood clots

24 Dietary Supplements: Cont.  Food is sufficient for obtaining 100% of nutrients for most healthy adolescents & teenagers  If you’re not getting all of your nutrients from food…you’re not trying hard enough!  Those with an imbalanced diet may benefit from a standard, generic daily multi-vitamin  Focus on modular proteins (whey) can displace other healthy food and lean protein food intake  Dietary supplements are a highly unregulated, multi-billion dollar/yr industry

25 Dietary Supplements: Creatine  One supplement that studies indicate intake can increase muscle mass, lean body mass, strength & total work  Most useful in short-burst activities: sprint, Olympic weight lift  2000 NCAA banned creatine for college player distribution from coaches but players can use  Creatine has been associated with asthmatic symptoms, may experience GI upset and/or loss of appetite

26 Hydration  Sports drinks only if exercising more than 1 hour  Larger body mass = greater sweat losses  Can lose up to 0.5 – 2.0 liters per hour  Sweat = water loss = body’s evaporative cooling mechanism  Monitoring color of urine is best indicator of hydration

27 Hydration Guidelines Water  Drink extra 4-8 cups of water the day before event  Drink 2-3 cups of water two hours before the event  Drink 1-2 cups of water 5-10 minutes before the event Snacks  If exercising 4-6 hours in the heat, consume salty foods (pretzels, chips, crackers)

28 Replenishing Fluids  Weigh yourself before & after 1 hour of strenuous exercise  For every 1 lb lost (16 oz.), replenish with 80-100% of that loss  Spread needs out in 15 minute increments during exercise Example  If you lost 2 pounds (32 oz.) during 1 hr run, replenish that with 2 X 16oz = 32 oz. over 1 hr of exercise  Drink 8 ounces of water every 15 minutes during exercise (8 ounces times 4 15-minute increments = 32 oz.)

29 Final Tips  Never try an untested food close to performance time  Craving sweets may indicate you are under-eating  Small, frequent meals with pre & post workout snacks  Milk is the closest thing to a super-food: protein + carbohydrate + calcium + hydration  B Vitamins do not give you energy but insufficient B vitamin intake will lead to problems with energy metabolism  You can and SHOULD be getting 100% of your nutrient needs from foods and not supplements

30 For More Information         

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