Presentation on theme: "The Dairy Industry An Introduction to the Animal Industry."— Presentation transcript:
The Dairy Industry An Introduction to the Animal Industry
Name at least twenty food items butter goes great with. Warm-up 2
Why Dairy? high nutritional value: high in protein and essential vitamins and minerals milk comes from the cow as processed food and requires very little additional processing other dairy products include cheese, butter, yogurt, and ice cream
How much dairy do we eat? In the U.S., every year the average person consumes: 29 gallons of milk 24 pounds of cheese 16 pounds of ice cream 4 pounds of butter 4 pounds of yogurt
Where does milk come from? every state produces milk but most milk comes from California, Wisconsin, New York, Pennsylvania, and Minnesota Holsteins (think Chick-Fil-A cows) make up most of the dairy population Jerseys (the Mayfield cow) rank 2nd
Don’t Forget about Goats! can survive and produce milk on a lower quality forage and less land than is needed for cows very important in developing countries and are a dual-purpose animal (can be used for milk and meat) In the U.S., most dairy goats are kept by hobbyists but goat milk is becoming more popular.
Milk Production must produce a calf each year to produce milk colostrum : the first milk after giving birth, high in nutrients and antibodies for the calf grazed on pasture and fed silage (chopped green corn and other crops that are fermented to help preserve the feed) in the past, cows had to be milked by hand now milking machines are used
Dairy Products all originate at the dairy farm 8
Most Dairy Products in the US come from Dairy Cows with Holsteins being the most prominent breed. 9
The Farm 10 The cows are placed in the holding pen while they are waiting to be milked.
The Farm 11 Next, the cows are placed in the milking parlor. This is where the actual milking takes place. Cow’s view of the parlor Worker’s view of the parlor
The Farm 12 The cows are lined up one behind the other at an angle so that the utters are facing the milking units Milking unit
The Farm 13 The teats have been sprayed with teat dip in order to clean them before milking and will be wiped off with a clean paper towel before the milker is placed on the teats. Cow’s teat (1 of 4)
The Farm 14 After the teats are cleaned the milking unit is then placed on the cow. The average milking time for a cow is five minutes.
The Farm 15 Pulsator- provides suction for the milking units. Automatic wash system- runs sanitation wash through all pipes and milking units to sanitize after each milking. Main control to the milking system.
The Farm 16 The milk from the cows will finally end up in the bulk tank. When the milk truck driver arrives it is his responsibility to take samples of the milk from the bulk tank.
From the Cow to Your Table milk harvested from the cows in the parlor fluid milk is rapidly cooled in a holding tank (the bulk tank) a tanker truck picks up the milk and hauls it to the processing plant milk is tested for bacteria and drug residues after filtering and removing the cream, the milk is homogenized so it will not separate out pasteurization (heating and cooling the milk) kills harmful bacteria packaged and sent to retail stores
BST bovine somatotropin (BST) a naturally occurring hormone used to stimulate increased milk production (all milk contains BST) it is digested and does not get into the human bloodstream the FDA has determined that it is safe for both cows and humans
Grades of Milk Grade A : the only milk that can be used for beverage or fluid milk - farms are held to strict regulations for cleanliness and other standards to be able to sell Grade A milk - Grade A milk is also used for manufactured products Grade B : can only be used for manufactured products not fluid products
Cheese Production a “starter culture” of bacteria is added to pasteurized milk fermentation changes the sugars to acids which causes the milk to form a solid called curd rennet (an enzyme) is added to speed up the process liquid is drained off (called whey ) the curd is then heated to contract and get rid of any remaining whey the cheese is then salted, pressed into a form, and cured or aged
Yogurt a processed milk product that is eaten frozen or in soft form concentrated milk is heated and then rapidly cooled bacterial cultures are added to cause the milk to ferment this causes the acidity to increase (helps preserve the yogurt) and produces the flavor packaged with fruit or other flavorings