Presentation on theme: "Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary"— Presentation transcript:
1Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Canons of Rhetoric:InventionArrangementStyleMemoryDelivery
2Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Rhetoric at Work: Context and the three appealsText always has a contextText uses appeals to convey information and to influence thinking.Logos: “embodied thought”Ethos: “good-willed credibility”Pathos: “feelings (sympathy and empathy)”
3Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Rhetoric at Work: Context and the three appealsCanons suggest strategies to be used in making appeals.Invention: generate material that is clear, forceful, convincing, and emotionally appealingArrangement, Style, Delivery: put material into structures, patterns, and formats that are understandable; help reader see you as credibleMemory: tap into memories and cultural associations; show the reader you are one of them
4Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary InventionLatin “invenire” – to findConducting an inventory:readers “take inventory” of what is presentedwriters “take inventory” of what is available and put together text
5Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Invention Strategy #1: Journalist’s QuestionsWho was involved?What happened?When did it happen?Where did it happen?Why did it happen?How did it happen?Look beyond the text for larger issues and significance of the eventsActivity on page 38
6Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Consider the following:“For developing a concept of securing small loans to new businesses in developing countries, the Bangladeshi economist Mohammed Yunus yesterday was awarded the 2006 Nobel Peace Prize.”Given this lead, what details is the news story that follows obligated to unpack for readers?6
7Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Invention Strategy #1: Journalist’s QuestionsWho was involved?What happened?When did it happen?Where did it happen?Why did it happen?How did it happen?Look beyond the text for larger issues and significance of the eventsActivity on page 387
8Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Invention Strategy #2: EnthymemePeople usually write about issues with multiple viewpoints.Argument: a carefully constructed, well-supported representation of one perspective.Enthymeme: a logical argument with an unstated premise.
9Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Invention Strategy #2: EnthymemeSyllogism: two premises and a conclusionMajor premise = generalizationMinor premise = particularConclusion follows logicallyA syllogism is airtight if the premises are true
10Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Invention Strategy #2: EnthymemeSyllogism examples:All humans are mortalSocrates was humanTherefore, Socrates was mortalWomen are wiseKate is a womanTherefore, Kate is wise
11Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary (additional material) Deductive Arguments (more about Syllogisms)Deduction: true premises = true conclusions.Proper deduction = a valid ( but not necessarily true) argument.Conclusion does not go beyond the premises.Deduction offers effective organization
12Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary (additional material) Deductive Arguments (more about Syllogisms)Modus PonensIf p, then q.p.Therefore q.Example:If optimists are more likely to succeed than pessimists, then you should be an optimist.Optimists are more likely to succeed.Therefore, you should be an optimist.Be sure to explain and defend premises.
13Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary (additional material) Deductive Arguments (more about Syllogisms)Modus TollensIf p, then q.Not q.Therefore not p.Example:If the visitor was a stranger, then the dog would have barked.The dog did not bark.Therefore, the visitor was not a stranger.
14Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary (additional material) Deductive Arguments (more about Syllogisms) Hypothetical SyllogismIf p, then q.If q, then r.Therefore if p, then r.Example:If you study other cultures, then you realize the variety of human customs.If you realize the variety of human customs, then you question your own customs.Therefore, if you study other cultures, then you question your own customs.
15Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary (additional material) Deductive Arguments (more about Syllogisms) Disjunctive Syllogismp or q.Not p.Therefore q.“or” can be inclusive or exclusiveExample:Either we hope for progress by improving morals, or we hope for progress by improving intelligence.We can’t hope for progress by improving morals.Therefore, we must hope for improvement by improving intelligence.
16Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary (additional material) Deductive Arguments (more about Syllogisms)Dilemmap or q.If p, then r.If q, then s.Therefore r or s.Two options, both have equally good or bad consequences.Example:Either we say John’s baptism is from heaven or that it is from men.If we say it is from heaven, we will be blamed for not believing him.If we say it is from men, we will be stoned for insulting the popular belief about him.
17Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary (additional material) Deductive Arguments (more about Syllogisms)Reductio ad absurdum.Indirect ProofTo prove p, assume the opposite (not p).Argue that from this assumption, we’d have to conclude q.Show that q is false or absurd, therefore p can’t be true.
18Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary (additional material) Deductive Arguments (more about Syllogisms)Reductio ad absurdum.To prove:The world does not have a Creator in the way a house does.Assume the opposite:The world does have a Creator in the way a house does.Argue that from the assumption we’d have to conclude:The Creator is imperfect (because the world is imperfect).But:God (the Creator) cannot be imperfect.Conclude:
19Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Invention Strategy #2: EnthymemeEnthymeme vs. Syllogismthe major premise is unstated, but understood and accepted[Women are wise]Kate is a woman.Of course she gave me good advice.
20Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Invention Strategy #2: EnthymemeBut, what if readers don’t accept major premise?[All creatures of the earth play a natural role in maintaining the ecological stability of an area]Animals such as… contribute to the ecological stability of an area near rural property by feeding on vegetation and smaller animalsAnimals such as…, as creatures of the earth, deserve a stable ecological habitat in which to live, as humans do.Begging the Question – writer must convince the readerActivity on page 46
21Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Enthymeme Exercises“Mark’d ye his words? He would not take the crown. Therefore ‘tis certain he was not ambitious.”If he were ambitious, then he would take the throne.He did not take the crown.Therefore he is not ambitious.Modus Tollens21
22Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Enthymeme Exercises“Because I’m worth it.”Those who are worth it (being beautiful) use L’Oreal cosmetics.I am worth it.Therefore I use L’Oreal cosmetics.Modus Ponens22
23Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Enthymeme Exercises“One of Soviet Georgia’s senior citizens thought Dannon was an excellent yogurt. She ought to know. She’s been eating yogurt for 137 years.”Soviet Georgia’s senior citizens eat excellent yogurt.This senior citizen has been eating Dannon yogurt for 137 years.Therefore, Dannon yogurt is excellent yogurt.Modus Ponens23
24Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Enthymeme Exercises“This is your brain. This is your brain on drugs. Any questions?”If drugs are like a frying pan, then your brain is like an egg.If your brain is like an egg, then doing drugs is like frying an egg.Therefore doing drugs fries your brain like a frying pan fries an egg.Hypothetical syllogism24
25Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Invention Strategy #3: TopicsBasic Topics:Possible & Impossible: if x is possible, so is y; if x is impossible, so is y.Past Fact: given all known facts, x probably happenedFuture Fact: given all known facts, x will probably happenGreater & Less: if x is possible, so is greater than x; if y is possible, so is less than yActivity on pages 50-5125
26Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Invention Strategy #3: TopicsPossible & Impossible:Since the scientific community has found cures for diseases that were once thought to be a death sentence for the victim (such as typhoid, diphtheria, or polio), it’s possible that they will one day find a cure for cancer.Since extreme geographical regions of our planet (such as the polar ice caps or barren deserts) show little ability to support life, it’s improbable that we will find life on other planets that also have extreme physical conditions.26
27Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Invention Strategy #3: TopicsPast Fact:After examining all the evidence, such as inconclusive accounts and information about Babe Ruth’s bold personality, you conclude that he did indeed “call his shot” by pointing to the outfield fence before hitting a homerun.Given all the historical accounts and interpretations surrounding the events, Truman’s true intention in ordering the drop of atomic bombs on Japan was to end the war as quickly as possible.27
28Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Invention Strategy #3: TopicsFuture Fact:Given that history shows that innovative defense systems have been constructed for purely defensive purposes, you argue that the new Star Wars Defense System will be used for defensive, rather than offensive, purposes.28
29Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Invention Strategy #3: TopicsGreater and Less:The fact that Texas, a very large and populous state, has been successful in implementing a rigorous program of testing to increase overall student performance shows that the same program will be successful in smaller states as well.The fact that one school in the district has been successful in implementing a math intervention program shows that the program will be successful district-wide.29
30Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Invention Strategy #3: TopicsCommon Topics:Definition: distinguish one thing from all othersDivision: divide subject into smaller partsCompare/Contrast: similarities & differencesRelationships: relationships between partsCircumstances: “Basic Topics”Testimony: use of experts, authorities, etc.
31Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Invention Strategy #3: TopicsDefinition:In arguing that students with learning disabilities should be exempt from taking standardized tests, you would need to explain what you mean by “learning disability” by describing as fully as possible what you mean generally by the word disability, then clarify which disabilities specifically hinder a person’s learning.31
32Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Invention Strategy #3: TopicsDivision:In writing a paper about how an actor can successfully perform a major role in a play, you might divide this topic into two parts: how to rehearse and how to perform. You might then subdivide each of these parts; for the “how to rehearse” part, you might divide it into three sections: how to prepare for rehearsal, how to act during rehearsal, and how to debrief with your fellow actors after the rehearsal.32
33Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Invention Strategy #3: TopicsCompare & Contrast:In preparing a presentation on community service opportunities at a particular college, you might look at each opportunity and its relation to students’ majors, its relation to college education in general, and its proximity to campus and accessibility for students.33
36Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Invention Strategy #3: TopicsTestimony:Research and use primary source documents, and interview experts and eyewitnesses to build your case.36
37Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Intuitive Invention Strategies: PreviewFree Writing: non-stop for a set timeturn off internal editorrevise later2. Journaling: reading response / promptsbasis for formal writing3. Conversation: know your partners welllisten well, speak up37
38Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary MemoryHow we analyze a text is shaped by prior knowledgeTap into cultural memoryAdvancements in collective knowledge come through writingUse mnemonic devices (house analogy)38
39Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Cultural MemoryCultural Memory: What Every American Should Knowby E.D. HirschWhat do you know about the following:Lord KelvinKentucky DerbyKnock on WoodKangaroo CourtKent State UniversityKGBNikita KruschevKnee jerkMartin Luther King, Jr.For the want of a nail, the kingdom was lost39
40Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary Chapter 2 ReviewFive traditional canons of rhetoric:Invention, Arrangement, Style, Memory, DeliveryInvention is both systematic and intuitiveUse Cultural Memory40