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Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary

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1 Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary
Canons of Rhetoric: Invention Arrangement Style Memory Delivery

2 Everyday Use Chapter 2 Summary
Rhetoric at Work: Context and the three appeals Text always has a context Text uses appeals to convey information and to influence thinking. Logos: “embodied thought” Ethos: “good-willed credibility” Pathos: “feelings (sympathy and empathy)”

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Rhetoric at Work: Context and the three appeals Canons suggest strategies to be used in making appeals. Invention: generate material that is clear, forceful, convincing, and emotionally appealing Arrangement, Style, Delivery: put material into structures, patterns, and formats that are understandable; help reader see you as credible Memory: tap into memories and cultural associations; show the reader you are one of them

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Invention Latin “invenire” – to find Conducting an inventory: readers “take inventory” of what is presented writers “take inventory” of what is available and put together text

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Invention Strategy #1: Journalist’s Questions Who was involved? What happened? When did it happen? Where did it happen? Why did it happen? How did it happen? Look beyond the text for larger issues and significance of the events Activity on page 38

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Consider the following: “For developing a concept of securing small loans to new businesses in developing countries, the Bangladeshi economist Mohammed Yunus yesterday was awarded the 2006 Nobel Peace Prize.” Given this lead, what details is the news story that follows obligated to unpack for readers? 6

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Invention Strategy #1: Journalist’s Questions Who was involved? What happened? When did it happen? Where did it happen? Why did it happen? How did it happen? Look beyond the text for larger issues and significance of the events Activity on page 38 7

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Invention Strategy #2: Enthymeme People usually write about issues with multiple viewpoints. Argument: a carefully constructed, well-supported representation of one perspective. Enthymeme: a logical argument with an unstated premise.

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Invention Strategy #2: Enthymeme Syllogism: two premises and a conclusion Major premise = generalization Minor premise = particular Conclusion follows logically A syllogism is airtight if the premises are true

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Invention Strategy #2: Enthymeme Syllogism examples: All humans are mortal Socrates was human Therefore, Socrates was mortal Women are wise Kate is a woman Therefore, Kate is wise

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Deductive Arguments (more about Syllogisms) Deduction: true premises = true conclusions. Proper deduction = a valid ( but not necessarily true) argument. Conclusion does not go beyond the premises. Deduction offers effective organization

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Deductive Arguments (more about Syllogisms) Modus Ponens If p, then q. p. Therefore q. Example: If optimists are more likely to succeed than pessimists, then you should be an optimist. Optimists are more likely to succeed. Therefore, you should be an optimist. Be sure to explain and defend premises.

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Deductive Arguments (more about Syllogisms) Modus Tollens If p, then q. Not q. Therefore not p. Example: If the visitor was a stranger, then the dog would have barked. The dog did not bark. Therefore, the visitor was not a stranger.

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Deductive Arguments (more about Syllogisms) Hypothetical Syllogism If p, then q. If q, then r. Therefore if p, then r. Example: If you study other cultures, then you realize the variety of human customs. If you realize the variety of human customs, then you question your own customs. Therefore, if you study other cultures, then you question your own customs.

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Deductive Arguments (more about Syllogisms) Disjunctive Syllogism p or q. Not p. Therefore q. “or” can be inclusive or exclusive Example: Either we hope for progress by improving morals, or we hope for progress by improving intelligence. We can’t hope for progress by improving morals. Therefore, we must hope for improvement by improving intelligence.

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Deductive Arguments (more about Syllogisms) Dilemma p or q. If p, then r. If q, then s. Therefore r or s. Two options, both have equally good or bad consequences. Example: Either we say John’s baptism is from heaven or that it is from men. If we say it is from heaven, we will be blamed for not believing him. If we say it is from men, we will be stoned for insulting the popular belief about him.

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Deductive Arguments (more about Syllogisms) Reductio ad absurdum. Indirect Proof To prove p, assume the opposite (not p). Argue that from this assumption, we’d have to conclude q. Show that q is false or absurd, therefore p can’t be true.

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Deductive Arguments (more about Syllogisms) Reductio ad absurdum. To prove: The world does not have a Creator in the way a house does. Assume the opposite: The world does have a Creator in the way a house does. Argue that from the assumption we’d have to conclude: The Creator is imperfect (because the world is imperfect). But: God (the Creator) cannot be imperfect. Conclude:

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Invention Strategy #2: Enthymeme Enthymeme vs. Syllogism the major premise is unstated, but understood and accepted [Women are wise] Kate is a woman. Of course she gave me good advice.

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Invention Strategy #2: Enthymeme But, what if readers don’t accept major premise? [All creatures of the earth play a natural role in maintaining the ecological stability of an area] Animals such as… contribute to the ecological stability of an area near rural property by feeding on vegetation and smaller animals Animals such as…, as creatures of the earth, deserve a stable ecological habitat in which to live, as humans do. Begging the Question – writer must convince the reader Activity on page 46

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Enthymeme Exercises “Mark’d ye his words? He would not take the crown. Therefore ‘tis certain he was not ambitious.” If he were ambitious, then he would take the throne. He did not take the crown. Therefore he is not ambitious. Modus Tollens 21

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Enthymeme Exercises “Because I’m worth it.” Those who are worth it (being beautiful) use L’Oreal cosmetics. I am worth it. Therefore I use L’Oreal cosmetics. Modus Ponens 22

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Enthymeme Exercises “One of Soviet Georgia’s senior citizens thought Dannon was an excellent yogurt. She ought to know. She’s been eating yogurt for 137 years.” Soviet Georgia’s senior citizens eat excellent yogurt. This senior citizen has been eating Dannon yogurt for 137 years. Therefore, Dannon yogurt is excellent yogurt. Modus Ponens 23

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Enthymeme Exercises “This is your brain. This is your brain on drugs. Any questions?” If drugs are like a frying pan, then your brain is like an egg. If your brain is like an egg, then doing drugs is like frying an egg. Therefore doing drugs fries your brain like a frying pan fries an egg. Hypothetical syllogism 24

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Invention Strategy #3: Topics Basic Topics: Possible & Impossible: if x is possible, so is y; if x is impossible, so is y. Past Fact: given all known facts, x probably happened Future Fact: given all known facts, x will probably happen Greater & Less: if x is possible, so is greater than x; if y is possible, so is less than y Activity on pages 50-51 25

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Invention Strategy #3: Topics Possible & Impossible: Since the scientific community has found cures for diseases that were once thought to be a death sentence for the victim (such as typhoid, diphtheria, or polio), it’s possible that they will one day find a cure for cancer. Since extreme geographical regions of our planet (such as the polar ice caps or barren deserts) show little ability to support life, it’s improbable that we will find life on other planets that also have extreme physical conditions. 26

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Invention Strategy #3: Topics Past Fact: After examining all the evidence, such as inconclusive accounts and information about Babe Ruth’s bold personality, you conclude that he did indeed “call his shot” by pointing to the outfield fence before hitting a homerun. Given all the historical accounts and interpretations surrounding the events, Truman’s true intention in ordering the drop of atomic bombs on Japan was to end the war as quickly as possible. 27

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Invention Strategy #3: Topics Future Fact: Given that history shows that innovative defense systems have been constructed for purely defensive purposes, you argue that the new Star Wars Defense System will be used for defensive, rather than offensive, purposes. 28

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Invention Strategy #3: Topics Greater and Less: The fact that Texas, a very large and populous state, has been successful in implementing a rigorous program of testing to increase overall student performance shows that the same program will be successful in smaller states as well. The fact that one school in the district has been successful in implementing a math intervention program shows that the program will be successful district-wide. 29

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Invention Strategy #3: Topics Common Topics: Definition: distinguish one thing from all others Division: divide subject into smaller parts Compare/Contrast: similarities & differences Relationships: relationships between parts Circumstances: “Basic Topics” Testimony: use of experts, authorities, etc.

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Invention Strategy #3: Topics Definition: In arguing that students with learning disabilities should be exempt from taking standardized tests, you would need to explain what you mean by “learning disability” by describing as fully as possible what you mean generally by the word disability, then clarify which disabilities specifically hinder a person’s learning. 31

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Invention Strategy #3: Topics Division: In writing a paper about how an actor can successfully perform a major role in a play, you might divide this topic into two parts: how to rehearse and how to perform. You might then subdivide each of these parts; for the “how to rehearse” part, you might divide it into three sections: how to prepare for rehearsal, how to act during rehearsal, and how to debrief with your fellow actors after the rehearsal. 32

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Invention Strategy #3: Topics Compare & Contrast: In preparing a presentation on community service opportunities at a particular college, you might look at each opportunity and its relation to students’ majors, its relation to college education in general, and its proximity to campus and accessibility for students. 33

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Invention Strategy #3: Topics Relationships: Cause & Effect Antecedent-Consequent Contradictions 34

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Invention Strategy #3: Topics Circumstances: Possible & Impossible Past Fact Future Fact “Basic Topics” 35

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Invention Strategy #3: Topics Testimony: Research and use primary source documents, and interview experts and eyewitnesses to build your case. 36

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Intuitive Invention Strategies: Preview Free Writing: non-stop for a set time turn off internal editor revise later 2. Journaling: reading response / prompts basis for formal writing 3. Conversation: know your partners well listen well, speak up 37

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Memory How we analyze a text is shaped by prior knowledge Tap into cultural memory Advancements in collective knowledge come through writing Use mnemonic devices (house analogy) 38

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Cultural Memory Cultural Memory: What Every American Should Know by E.D. Hirsch What do you know about the following: Lord Kelvin Kentucky Derby Knock on Wood Kangaroo Court Kent State University KGB Nikita Kruschev Knee jerk Martin Luther King, Jr. For the want of a nail, the kingdom was lost 39

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Chapter 2 Review Five traditional canons of rhetoric: Invention, Arrangement, Style, Memory, Delivery Invention is both systematic and intuitive Use Cultural Memory 40


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