Presentation on theme: "Nutrition and Your Body Health Education -TPI-. Content Goal: TSWBAT: educate and advocate better nutrition and increased physical activity through demonstrating."— Presentation transcript:
Nutrition and Your Body Health Education -TPI-
Content Goal: TSWBAT: educate and advocate better nutrition and increased physical activity through demonstrating an understanding of key concepts related to proper nutrition and maintenance of healthy body weight. Content Objectives: TSWBAT: describe factors that influence eating behaviors and food choices. define each of the six main classes of nutrients, their functions in the body, and the sources for obtaining them. explain the health risks related to overweight, obesity, underweight, and certain disordered eating habits. summarize basic nutritional principles including the "food guide pyramid" and the “7 dietary guidelines.” break down food labels and compare and contrast between multiple labels. evaluate the effectiveness and safety of fad diets point out misleading health claims and beneficial possibilities of health foods and supplements. discuss special problems related to the American lifestyle and nutrition. identify the impact of food on overall health.
Today n Lifestyle or Non- Communicable diseases n Nutrition & Diet n Sedentary n ^ Smoking, Alcohol “Back Then” n Infectious or Communicable Diseases n Environmental Conditions n Lack of Resources
Life Expectancy n “It would be the first time in the modern era we would actually see one generation experiencing a shorter life span than the previous generation." n The drop will occur when the current generation of obese and overweight adults reaches old age, and will worsen when obese and overweight children hit middle age.
An American Issue
Factors Influencing Food Choices
Why do we really eat today? n Hunger vs. Appetite n Hunger: a natural drive to prevent starvation. n Appetite: a desire for food n Want vs. Need n Emotional Eating
Combating Emotional Eating n Learn to recognize true hunger. n Know your triggers. n Look elsewhere for comfort. n Don't keep unhealthy foods around. n Snack healthy. n Eat a balanced diet. n Exercise regularly and get adequate rest.
SUPER-SIZE ME Wrap-Up n Super-Size Me assignment n Graded Discussion n Fast Food Analysis Webquest
SuperSize Me Graded Discussion (Out of 5) n 1 person at a time (Facilitator?) +1 Point n Everyone speaks once (1 Freebie) + 1 Point n (At least) 5 subtopics related to nutrition + 1 Point n Time (At least 15 minutes) & No lapse in speaking (>15 seconds) + 1 Point n Side chatter (nada) +1 Point
McDonald's to Offer Nutrition Labels
Does the ‘typical’ American utilize/understand the Dietary Guidelines?
Starting Simple: Recommendations n Where should your calories come from
Calories… (=Unit of Energy) n 1,600 calories is about right for many sedentary women and some older adults. n 2,200 calories is about right for most children, teenage girls, active women, and many sedentary men. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding may need somewhat more. n 2,800 calories is about right for teenage boys, many active men, and some very active women.
Practical vs. Technical n Should you know: –Fat grams –Sodium –Protein –Calories –Etc. Per day?
The Key to Nutrition Nutrient Density: n High Nutrients per Caloric Content n VERSUS: Empty Calories The Key to proper nutrition is: n Variety n Balance n Moderation (What does this mean?)
There are no “good” foods or “bad” foods n Foods are not good nor bad n Moderation and variety are key to enjoying all foods n Anytime foods n Sometimes foods n Seldom foods n Too many seldom foods and few anytime foods = a bad diet
10 Tips for Healthy Eating n Eat a variety of nutrient-rich foods n Enjoy plenty of whole grains, fruits and vegetables n Maintain a healthy weight n Eat moderate portions n Eat smaller regular meals vs. one or two large meals. n Reduce, don't eliminate certain foods n Know your diet pitfalls. n Make changes gradually. n Remember, foods are not good or bad.
Pyramids Guide Our Choices
Understanding proper portion sizes is an important part of maintaining healthy nutrition. But many of us really don’t know how big our portions should be.
Pick Your Favorite Snack Discover your own Snack Food Personality Profile
n (1) Potato chips: "Potato chip lovers are successful, high achievers who enjoy the rewards and trimmings of their success—both in business and in family life." n (2) Tortilla chips: "Perfectionists in regards to their own actions and to the community at large, people who crave tortilla chips are humanitarians who are often distressed by the inequities and injustices of society." n (3) Snack crackers: "Contemplative and thoughtful, people who prefer snack crackers base their decisions on logic rather than emotions." n (4) Pretzels: "Lively and energetic, pretzel fans seek novelty and thrive in the world of abstract concepts. They often lose interest in mundane, day-to-day routines." n (5) Cheese curls: "Formal, conscientious and always proper, the cheese curl lover can be described with one word—integrity. They will always maintain moral high ground with their family, work and romantic partners." n (6) Meat snacks: "Gregarious and social, those who reach for a savory bag of pork rinds or crave beef jerky and other meat snacks are often the life of the party. They are loyal and true friends who can always be trusted.“ n Did you notice that with this test everyone is a winner? That’s because the research for this personality test was "conducted on behalf of the Snack Food Association and the National Potato Promotion Board."
Essential Nutrients n Needed by the body; must be present in the diet –Nonessential- your body can manufacture from other nutrients in the diet n Requirements depend on age, sex, growth status, body size, genetics n Requirements influenced by conditions like pregnancy, breastfeeding, illnesses, drug use, and others
THE BASICS:.. n Nutrients Define: Substances in food that… n Build and repair cells. n Regulate body processes. n Provide energy. n Nutrients that have Calories: –Proteins 1 Gram = 4 calories –Carbohydrates 1 Gram = 4 calories –Fats 1 Gram = 9 calories
Vitamins Minerals Water Protein Carbohydrates Fats Starches Cellulose
Sources of Energy in the Diet
Carbohydrates-4 cal/g n Are the body’s main source of energy (FUNCTION). n Supply fiber, and aid in digestion of fat. n Are broken down into sugars, starches and fiber.
Complex Carbohydrates “Slow-Burning” n Are starches. n Provide vitamins, minerals and fiber as well as carbohydrates. n Include dry beans, starchy vegetables like potatoes, corn, and peas; rice, pasta, oatmeal; bread and cereal.
Refined Carbs (Fast Burning): n The calorie content of refined white flour actually increases about 10% because of everything else that has been taken out. n An average of 66% of the B vitamins have been removed. n An average of 70% of all minerals have been removed. n 79% of the fiber has been removed. n An average of 19% of the protein has been removed.
Low0 – 55 Moderate56 – 69 High 70 or more A scale that ranks carbohydrates by how much they raise blood glucose levels compared to a reference food. What is the glycemic index? Glycemic Index (GI)
Glycemic Index (GI): Sample Graphs Adapted from Good Carbs Bad Carbs Reprinted courtesy of Marlowe & Company.
Simple Sugars and an Epidemic n Obesity n Malnutrition n TYPE 2 Diabetes
Read the Nutrition Facts Label For Total Sugars Plain YogurtFruit Yogurt
Look at the Ingredient List for Added Sugars Plain Yogurt INGREDIENTS: CULTURED PASTEURIZED GRADE A NONFAT MILK, WHEY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE, PECTIN, CARRAGEENAN. Fruit Yogurt INGREDIENTS: CULTURED GRADE A REDUCED FAT MILK, APPLES, HIGH FRUCTOSE CORN SYRUP, CINNAMON, NUTMEG, NATURAL FLAVORS, AND PECTIN. CONTAINS ACTIVE YOGURT AND L. ACIDOPHILUS CULTURES
Carbohydrates Review n Function n Fast Burning n Slow Burning n How can you tell??? n Type 1 Vs. Type 2 Diabetes n Demo n Article Ave 20 males 34
Protein-4 cal/g n 2 major functions (working proteins & structural) n Working-enzymes, antibodies, hormones, O carriers n Structural-tendons, ligaments, core of bone/teeth n Supplies energy when there is not enough fat or carbohydrate for the body to use.
Protein n Composed of amino acids (building blocks). n There are 22 amino acids; –9 of which the body cannot manufacture (ESSENTIAL), – and 13 which the body can produce (NON- ESSENTIAL).
Protein n Complete proteins contain all 9 essential amino acids. They are foods which come from animals. n This includes steak,pork,chicken, turkey, fish, eggs and dairy products.
Protein n Incomplete proteins lack one or more of the essential amino acids. n This includes pinto beans, kidney beans,split peas, lentils, rice, corn tortillas, peanut butter, and nuts.
Protein Recommendations n The RDA for protein is 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight per day (.364 gr/lb/bw/d).1 n That's about 9 grams of protein for every 20 pounds n RDA levels may be inadequate and may impede recovery or limit muscle growth for athletes? –Endurance athletes 1.2 to 1.4 grams per kg b/w. –Strength and power athletes 1.4 to 1.8 grams per kilogram of body weight per day.
Fats, Cooking Oils and Fatty Acids n Fat should account for 30% or less of the calories consumed daily n Saturated fats accounting for no more than 10% of the total fat intake. n Function: –Maintain body temperature –Protect body tissues and organs –Plays an essential role in carrying the four fat- soluble vitamins: A, D, E, and K. Excess calories from protein and carbohydrates are converted to and stored as fat. Even if you are eating mostly "fat free" foods, excess consumption will result in additional body fat.
Animal vs. Plant Foods and Heart Disease in Pictures-- n …….Saturated Unsaturated……
Trans Fat n Trans fat is a type of processed fat that does not occur in nature n Also called hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated fat/oil n Used in baked goods like doughnuts, breads, crackers, potato chips, cookies and many other processed food products like margarine and salad dressings. n Research suggests a correlation between diets high in trans fats and diseases like atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease
Fat & the Body n The fats can be stored in any cell in the body but are mostly stored beneath our skin. n These fat tissues are called adipose tissue where the fat cells join together, depositing under our skin to make us fat. –In women, the adipose tissue is mostly found in the hips, buttocks, and thighs; –while in men, it is found in the abdomen causing big bellies.
Vitamins n Major Functions –Convert fat and carbohydrate into energy. –Work as catalysts for chemical processes in the body- jump start reactions. –Assist in the formation of tissue and bone.
Vitamins n Fat Soluble vitamins are carried in fat and can be stored in your body. n It is possible to overdose on fat soluble vitamins. n Water soluble vitamins are carried in water and cannot be stored in your body. n Excess water soluble vitamins are disposed of in the urine.
Vitamins (DEMO) Do you need to take a multivitamin?DEMO
Quiz: Should you take a multivitamin? n Eat 2 or more svgs of dairy foods? YES = 3 NO = 0 n Eat 3 or more svgs of veg each day? YES = 3 NO = 0 n Eat 6 to 11 servings of grains? YES = 3 NO = 0 n Eat at least 2 servings of fruit? YES = 3 NO = 0 n Eat 2 to 3 svgs of protein-rich food? YES = 3 NO = 0 n Frequently skip meals or miss out on one or more food groups? YES = 0 NO = 3 n Generally eat the same foods every day? YES = 0 NO = 3 n SCORE: n 0-6 points: You could use a multivitamin. 7 or more points: Congratulations! You're a healthy eater.
Review n Carbohydrates- –simple vs. complex –slow vs. fast burning, Glycemic Index n Basic Glycemic Index Understanding n Type 1 vs. Type II Diabetes n Proteins-amino acids, complete vs. incomplete n Fats-Saturated vs. Unsaturated, % from Saturated? Which promotes HD? n Vitamins-Fat vs. water soluble, basic function n Minerals-basic function, Name 2 n Fiber-function n Water-function, how do you know if enough?
Carbs Review: Simple or Complex? n Fast-Burning n Tend to be Nutrient Dense n Over the long run promotes Type II diabetes n Tend to be Empty Calories n Slow-Burning n Candy Bar or Soda n
Minerals Minerals act as: n catalysts for many biological reactions within the body (function) –1-muscle response –2-the transmission of messages through the nervous system –3-the production of hormones –4-digestion, and the utilization of nutrients in foods.
Fiber (Recommended 25 grams/day) n Plant materials that are not digested completely by the body. n Keeps the digestive system healthy. n Reduces the risk of cancer and heart disease.
Water n Essential to life. –Regulate body temperature –Transports Nutrients –Shock Absorption n Your body is 85% water. (40-60% of body weight) n How Much… n Source- Water, Fruits & veggies, and fruit juices n How do you know if enough? n Homework for tomorrow…
If you were stranded on a deserted island…. Which one would you want? n 1.Sugar, corn syrup, wheat flour, molasses, caramel color, licorice extract cornstarch, salt, artificial colors (Yellow 6), resinous glaze, anise oil, canaba wax, artificial flavors __________________________________________________________________ n Corn Syrup solids, partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (may contain one or more of the following oils: coconut, cottonseed, palm, palm kernel, safflower, or soybean), sodium caseinate, mono- and diglyerides (to prevent oil seperation), dipotassium phosphate, artificial flavor, annato color __________________________________________________________________ n Tuna, water sufficient for processing, vegetable oil, dicalcium phosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, tricalcium phosphate, sodium chloride, vitamin A, B1, B6, E, and D3 supplements, zinc sulfate, menadione, sodium bisulfide, manganous sulfate, sodium nitrate, folic acid __________________________________________________________________
Key Label Questions n How many calories am I actually eating? Is that number low, medium, or high? n What nutrients should I limit or get enough of and why? n What’s relevant about the footnote? n How can I tell if a %DV is high or low? n Which nutrients have no %DV?
One or Two Servings? Single%Double% ServingDVServingDV Serving Size1 cup (228g)2 cups (456g) Calories Calories from Fat Total Fat12g18%24g36% Trans Fat1.5g 3g Saturated Fat3g15% 6g30% Cholesterol30mg10%60mg20% Sodium470mg20%940mg40% Total Carbohydrate31g10%62g20% Dietary Fiber 0g 0% 0g 0% Sugars 5g10g Protein 5g10g Vitamin A 4% 8% Vitamin C 2% 4% Calcium20%40% Iron 4% 8%
Examples of DVs versus %DVs*
The Percent Daily Value The % DV is based on 100% of the daily value for each nutrient.
What’s High? What’s Low? Do You Have to Calculate to Know? Footnote
The % DV Does the Math for You Look here for highs and lows!
Quick Guide to % DV 5% DV or less is Low Limit these Nutrients Get Enough of these Nutrients 20% DV or more is High
No % Daily Value n Trans Fat n Sugars n Protein
Read the Nutrition Facts Label For Total Sugars Plain YogurtFruit Yogurt
Reminder: Look at the Ingredient List for Added Sugars Plain Yogurt INGREDIENTS: CULTURED PASTEURIZED GRADE A NONFAT MILK, WHEY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE, PECTIN, CARRAGEENAN. Fruit Yogurt INGREDIENTS: CULTURED GRADE A REDUCED FAT MILK, APPLES, HIGH FRUCTOSE CORN SYRUP, CINNAMON, NUTMEG, NATURAL FLAVORS, AND PECTIN. CONTAINS ACTIVE YOGURT AND L. ACIDOPHILUS CULTURES What are other ways to say sugar on a food label?
Calcium In Your Daily Diet Calcium
Calcium Calculation 100% DV = 1,000mg calcium 30% DV = 300mg calcium = one cup of milk 130% DV = 1,300mg calcium = daily goal for teens
n How many total servings are in your product package? __________________ n What is a serving? ______How many calories are in one serving? ___________ n How many total calories are from fat? ____ What % of DV of fat? __________ n What % of the calories from one serving are from fat? (HINT: Divide total calories from fat by total calories from product): _________________________ n How many grams of total carbohydrates: ____fiber:______ %DV Carbs:_____ n Is the product refined carbohydrates, complex or both? ___________ How do you know?__________________________ ________________________________ n Are there any sugars in the ingredients listing? n How many calories from protein?_______ Total grams: ______ n What % DV of Vitamin A____ C _____ Calcium _____ Iron _____ in product? n So would your product be classified as nutrient dense, empty calories or neither? ______________Explain why.____________________________ ______________