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Chapter 4. Intro to Biochemistry Element: Element: NA+, Cl-, S, O, H, C  Atom: Atom:

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4. Intro to Biochemistry Element: Element: NA+, Cl-, S, O, H, C  Atom: Atom:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4

2 Intro to Biochemistry Element: Element: NA+, Cl-, S, O, H, C  Atom: Atom:

3 Intro to biochem. Continued.. Compounds: (chemically bounded) Compounds: (chemically bounded) NaCl- sodium chloride *salt* H 2 O- water HCl- Hydrochloric Acid Mixture: (physically combined) Mixture: (physically combined) –can be seperated

4 Covalent Bond: 1e- 6e- 8e- “Marriage”

5 Ionic Bonding: Give/Take “Partnership” 1e- 7 e-

6 Substances can be divided up into acids, bases & neutral

7 pH ScaLe! pH- pH- measure of how acidic or basic a solution is STRONG ACIDS: STRONG ACIDS: corrode metals, buildings, living issue STRONG BASES: STRONG BASES: dissolve fats, grease, oil, clean drains, and are damaging to skin

8 Organic compound composed of C, Hydrogen (H) & Oxygen (O) Polymer: Polymer: any large molecule formed when smaller molecules combine. POLY: POLY: Many ISOMER: ISOMER: 1 molecule

9 StruCture oF CarBoHydrATes! Structure: Carbohydrates are used to store and release energy in cells Monosaccharide- simple sugar. EX: glucose & Fructose Mono=1, saccharide= sugar Disaccharid-2 sugar carbohydrate. EX: glucose + Fructose = sucrose(table sugar) Polysaccharide- largest carbohydrate molecules. EX: starch  potato, bread Cellulose  plants

10 LiPiDs… Organic compounds with C-H bonds and less oxygen EX: Fats, oils  insoluble in water, does not dissolve Cells use lipids for energy storage, insulation and protective coating EX:

11 Large, complex polymer made of C, H, O and Nitrogen Provide structure and important for most functions in the body

12 ¤ProTeiNs contin…¤ AMINO ACIDS: PROTEINS are made up of AMINO ACIDS: basic building blocks of proteins Amino Acids bond together by peptide bonds EX: EX:

13 Stores Cell information! Nucleic acids are made up of Nucleotides (building blocks) Structure: 3 main parts 1: a base 2: sugar 3: phosphate group


15 Enzymes Most important type of protein found in all living things Enzymes speed up chemical reactions in digestion of food, storage, synthesis of molecules and much more! Catalysts: make reaction faster Catalysts: make reaction faster

16 How They work: Substrate Each enzyme acts on a molecule called a Substrate. Substrate The Substrate fits into an area of the enzyme called the active site. substrate Enzyme LOCK KEY Active site ->

17 How they work contin. The enzyme holds the substrate in a position where a reaction can occur easily Enzyme/substrate Complex

18 After the reaction, the enzyme releases the products and can go on to carry out another reaction (rxn)  Product Enzyme (unchanged)

19 Wine: grapes & yeast : wine! ^^ causes the sugar in the grapes to FERMENT-sugar is changed to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) & Alcohol (OH) Yeast contain enzymes ^^ Greek word means “in yeast” If you have: Milk + BacTerIa = Yogurt ^^ enzyme

20 YoGurT L A B! In Lab: Milk + EnZymEs in = YoGurT (bactobacillus) What happens? -Enzyme converts sugar in milk to lactic acid & Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) ^ acid will cause milk to curdle & change into yogurt

21 Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy steroid metabolite found in the cell membranes and transported in the blood plasma of all animals.[2] It is an essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes, where it is required to establish proper membrane permeability and fluidity. In addition, cholesterol is an important component for the manufacture of bile acids, steroid hormones, and Vitamin D.steroidmetabolitecell membranesblood plasmaanimals[2]membrane permeabilityfluiditymanufacturebile acidssteroid hormonesVitamin D

22 Major dietary sources of cholesterol include cheese, egg yolks, beef, pork, poultry, and shrimp cheeseegg yolksbeefporkpoultry shrimp

23 Hemoglobin Hemoglobin in the blood is what transports oxygen from the lungs or gills to the rest of the body (i.e. the tissues) where it releases the oxygen for cell use, and collects carbon dioxide to bring it back to the lungs.bloodlungsgillscarbon dioxide

24 ©OpYriGht Chapter 4 By: Candi Marshburn

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