ASK YOURSELF Pesticides rank as the number one hazard in the U.S. food supply. The most frequent cause of foodborne illness in homes & restaurants is improper cooling. Imported foods may contain residues of pesticides that are illegal in the U.S. Most foods that cause food poisoning are contaminated by the manufacturer or processor Food additives are a major cause of cancer in U.S Most viral-based foodborne illness can be avoided by hand washing.
SOME DEFINITIONS Contamination. The presence of harmful organisms or substances. Contaminants can be physical, chemical or biological Direct Contamination. Contamination of raw foods, plants, or animals in their natural setting or habitat. Cross-Contamination. Contamination that is transported from one source to another. Cross-contamination can occur during the handling, processing, preparation, cooking and storage of food. Foodborne Illness. An illness that occurs from ingesting contaminated food. Sanitation. The creation and maintenance of conditions that will prevent food contamination or foodborne illness
Foodborne Illnesses Increasing Large Scale Food Production Centralized Kitchens More People Eating Out More Imported Foods Better Reporting
PHYSICAL CONTAMINATION Glass Hair Insects Dirt Metal Will not likely cause illness, but some physical contaminants can present a safety hazard.
Chemical Contamination Antibiotics Insecticide Food service or cleaning chemicals Soap residue Chemical contamination can cause mild to severe illness. Use of antibiotics in animals can lead to global health consequences.
Bacteria Bacteria are single celled microorganisms that can be harmful or beneficial. Probiotics. Helpful bacteria. Found in yogurt and some other dairy products. Putrefactives. Can spoil food, but is not harmful. Pathogenic Bacteria. Causes illness 3 ways: Infection Intoxication Toxin-mediated infection (combination of the first two) Pathogenic bacteria must be destroyed or controlled by sanitation methods.
Bacteria Bacteria need certain conditions to grow Temperature Time Moisture PH Atmosphere
Bacteria grow best in temperatures ranging from 40-140 F “The Danger Zone”
Food can be kept in the temperature “danger zone” for only 2 hours. At this time, the Bacteria is in the “Lag” phase. By 4 hours, the bacteria will be well into the Logarithmic phase and the food should be considered unsafe to eat.
Bacteria need water to live. Foods with a high water content are most likely to become contaminated. Meat Cheese Salads Fruit
PRESERVATION Salt and Sugar bind to water, making food less likely to be contaminated by bacteria.
Bacteria prefer a neutral environment. A PH between 6.6 – 7.5 is ideal. Strong acids and bases will kill bacteria. Bacteria also need an appropriate atmosphere in which to breed. Aerobic bacteria need oxygen Anaerobic bacteria cannot survive in oxygen Facultative Bacteria can adapt to their environment. Most bacteria are facultative.
VIRUSES Viruses are the smallest forms of life. A protein coat with a strand of DNA or RNA Viruses need a “host” to multiply, but can survive on food. Unlike bacteria, viruses can contaminate ANY food. It is unaffected by PH, oxygen, water content. Viruses can survive freezing Transmitted to food via poor hygiene. Most common: Hepatitis A and Norwalk virus
PARASITES Tiny organisms that depend on nutrients from a living host. Animals, fish and humans play host to parasites. Trichinella. Undercooked game and pork Anisakis. Raw fish Tapeworm. Raw beef, pork, fish Cyclospora. Carried to food by contaminated water.
FUNGI Simple parasitic life forms that live on dead or decaying organic matter. Mold. Produce toxins Mildew Yeast. Usually not harmful Mushrooms. Can be very toxic. Causes liver failure Chief food sources: beans and grains.
PRIONS Proteins that maintain nerve cells. Can “invert” and become infectious Cooking will NOT destroy prions Found in ground meats, spinal and brain tissue of animals that are infected. Is spread to animals by contaminated feed. Avoid ground meat, brains, and spinal tissue.
Intext Figure Pae 661 Wash your hands with warm water and soap before preparing or eating food to reduce the chance of microbial contamination.
To Prevent Foodborne Illness: Avoid cross-contamination Thaw meats or poultry in the refrigerator… Refrigerate leftovers promptly… Keep hot foods hot (140°F or above). Keep cold foods cold (40°F or below). Mix foods with utensils. When in doubt, throw it out. Do not prepare food if you have a skin infection or infectious disease. Discard food from cans that leak or bulge. Cook all meat and poultry to 160°F or higher. Avoid raw milk or potentially contaminated water or fresh unpasteurized apple cider. Wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly before eating.
Recommended Safe Temperatures (Fahrenheit) Poultry breast, well-done meats Whole poultry Medium-done meats, raw eggs, egg dishes, pork, ground meats Stuffing, ground poultry, reheat leftovers Hold hot foods Medium-rare beef steaks, roasts, veal, lamb DANGER ZONE: Do not keep foods between 40˚ F and 140˚ F for more than 2 hours. Freezer temperatures 180 ˚ 170 ˚ 165 ˚ 160 ˚ 145 ˚ 140 ˚ 40 ˚ 0 ˚ Refrigerator temperatures Bacteria multiply rapidly at temperatures between 40 ˚ and 140 ˚ F.
Figure 19-1(1) Page 662 FARMS Workers must use safe methods of growing, harvesting, sorting, packing, and storing food to minimize contamination hazards. Food Safety from Farms of Consumers PROCESSING Processors must follow FDA guidelines concerning contamination, cleanliness, and education and training of workers and must monitor for safety at critical control points (use HACCP, see text). TRANSPORTATION Containers and vehicles transporting food must be clean. Cold food must be kept cold at all times.
OTHER FACTS Food additives such as BHA and BHT are evaluated by the FDA and are GRAS. Pesticides used in the US are used in accordance with EPA guidelines and are not present on produce in harmful quantities. Food have natural toxins which in high quantities can make you ill. Cabbage Spinach Potatoes Apricot and apple seeds