1Section 9.1 Choosing Food Wisely Objectives Summarize three main reasons why you eat.Analyze the information contained on food labels.
2Why You Eat You eat to meet your nutritional needs to satisfy your appetiteto supply your body with energyHunger is a feeling of physical discomfort that is caused by your body’s need for nutrients.Appetite is a desire for food that is based on emotional and other factors rather than nutritional need.Unlike hunger, which is an inborn response, appetite is learned. For example, your appetite may make you want to eat popcorn because you have learned to associate its aroma with a delicious taste. Your appetite can make you eat even when you are not hungry.
3The Foods You ChoosePersonal Preferences: Whatever your personal preferences are, they have a huge impact on your food choices every day.Cultural Background: Cultural background, or heritage, may influence your eating habits.Time and Convenience: A busy schedule might lead you to choose foods that can be prepared quickly or that can be easily carried.Friends: Friends might influence you to try new foods or to change your eating habits.Of course, you choose many of the foods you eat simply because they taste good. You might love the taste of peanut butter, for example, while your sister might not. You might dislike fish, or choose not to eat red mean. What every your personal preferences are, they have a huge impact on your food choices everyday.For example, one family might eat a traditional Korean breakfast of soybean soup and rice. Another family might eat a typical Mexican meal of tortillas with beans and rice.The Media: Advertising messages can influence your decisions about what foods to eat or to avoid.
4Evaluating Food Choices When choosing foods, it is important to read and evaluate the information on the food label.The information includesnutrition factsnutrient and health claimsDaily Valuesfreshness dates
6OK; Now for the first question: How Many Calories Am I actually Eating? Many people answer this question by simply looking at the calories listed on the label ? (Not you of course)So the first thing you want to tell consumers is to look at the serving size AND the number of servings per container: then determine the calories actually consumedServing size is the listing of the amount of food that is considered a serving. The serving size might not be the normal amount you might eat. Uniform in similar products, given in familiar measurements such as cups or pieces.Servings per container is the listing of the number of servings in that package. *A box of orange juice (90calories) but the box contains two servings, the person who drink the whole box will be consuming 180 calories.Listed amount of calories and nutrients must be multiply by the number of serving per container to determine the total number of calories/ nutrients
7In this example, one serving of macaroni and cheese equals one cup In this example, one serving of macaroni and cheese equals one cup. If you ate the whole package, you would eat two cups, which doubles the calories and other nutrient numbers, including the % DVs.As you can see-The number of servings you consume will determine the number of calories and nutrients you actually eat.BOTTOM LINE: YOU NEED TO COMPARE HOW MUCH YOU ACTUALLY EAT—NOT ONLY TO THE SERVING SIZE ON THE LABEL BUT ALSO TO THE # OF SERVINGS YOU EAT, TO FIGURE OUT HOW MANY CALORIES (AND NUTRIENTS) YOU ARE CONSUMING.……………………………………………………………………………….Next Question: IN TERMS OF CALORIES, WHAT AMOUNT IS LOW, MODERATE OR HIGH?
8General Guide to Calories* 40 Calories is low100 Calories is moderate400 Calories is highHere’s our GENERAL GUIDE TO CALORIES. Notice how it gives consumers a context for determining calorie amounts based on 2000 calories.40 calories is low-- is actually a nutrient content claim.100 calories is moderate is--5% of 2000 calories400 calories is high-- is 20% of 2000 calories.Next question: Which nutrients should I limit and why?*Based on a 2,000-calorie diet.
9Limit These NutrientsThe goal is to stay BELOW 100% of the DV for each of these nutrients per day.In answer to the question: Eating too much fat, saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol, or sodium may increase your risk of certain chronic diseases, like heart disease, some cancers, or high blood pressure.So when we say, “Limit These Nutrients,” the goal is to stay BELOW 100% of the DV for each one of these nutrients per day.Note: Trans fat doesn’t have a %DV: message: Health experts recommend that you keep your intake of saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol as low as possible as part of a nutritionally balanced diet.……………………………………………………………………So, which nutrients do I need to get in adequate amounts?
10Get Enough of These Nutrients Try to get 100% of the DV for each of these nutrients each day.Consumers can USE the food label not only to help them limit those nutrients they want to cut back on, but also to help them increase those nutrients they need to consume in adequate or greater amounts.We get enough dietary fiber, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron in their diets.EATING ENOUGH OF THESE NUTRIENTS CAN BENEFIT YOUR HEALTH AND HELP REDUCE THE RISK OF SOME DISEASES AND CONDITIONS.For example, getting enough calcium may REDUCE THE RISK OF OSTEOPOROSIS, a condition that results in brittle bones as one ages (More on this later). You can also address the benefits of a HIGH-FIBER DIET: FOR EXAMPLE, IMPROVED LAXATION, INCREASED SATIETY, AND THE POSSIBILITY OF REDUCED RISK OF HEART DISEASE , particularly when the fiber is soluble and the diet is low in saturated fat and cholesterol.…………………………………………………………………………………………………Now let’s look at the footnote—Why is it relevant? You don’t have to know this information but frankly, understanding what the %DV is based on increases the chance people will use it.
11The FootnoteThis is the footnote that you see on the bottom of larger food packages.Can you tell which column lists the Daily Values? Maybe you can tell, but most people can’t.What are these DVs? They represent expert advice for upper daily limits (for total fat, sat fat, cholesterol, and sodium), based on a 2,000 calorie diet.— But for Total Carbohydrates and dietary fiber, they represent lower daily limits— Public health experts advise us to stay within these limits, dietary recommendations, per day for a 2,000 calorie.Still confused?
12Examples of DVs versus %DVs* Here’s another way of looking at the footnote.Hopefully, it’s now easier to see which column represents the Daily Value for each nutrient listed; how the DVs relate to the %DVs; and what is the dietary advice, i.e., the daily goal for each of these nutrientsThe first 4 nutrients, which are in yellow, represent upper daily limits—that means your goal is to stay BELOW the amount for the day. Example: look at saturated fat: the DV is 20g= 100%DV. The goal for Sat fat, is to stay below 20g per day (100%DV) whereas for Total fat the DV is 65g.Now look at dietary fiber, in blue—the DV is 25g, which represents the minimum for the day. Therefore the goal is to get at least 100%DV every day. The DV for Carbohydrates ( in white) is 300g or 100%DV. This amount is recommended for a balanced 2,000 calorie daily diet but can vary, depending on your daily intake of fat and protein.______________________________________________Now let’s talk more about the %DV– What is the %DV and how do you know if it’s high or low??
13What’s High? What’s Low? Do You Have to Calculate to Know? FootnoteLook at the example on the left, we’ve listed the metric amount but not the %DV.. Can you tell if 12g of Total Fat is high or low? What about the 3g of saturated fat? What about the 470mg of sodium?Without the %DV can YOU QUICKLY ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS WITHOUT GUESSING?Do you have to calculate to know?
14The % DV Does the Math for You Look here for highs and lows!No, THE % DV DOES THE MATH FOR YOU BY PUTTING ALL THE NUMBERS (GRAMS AND MILLIGRAMS) ON THE SAME SCALE ( %).On this sample label: 12g fat equals 18% DVIs 18% DV for Total fat or 20% DV for Sodium high or low? Do these nutrient amounts contribute a lot or a little to the daily limit of 100% DV?……………………………………………………………………………….Here’s an easy way to know: Check the Quick Guide to % DV for context.
15Quick Guide to % DV 5% DV or less is Low Limit these Nutrients Get Enoughof theseNutrientsNow take a look at the The Quick Guide--it gives you a FRAME OF REFERENCE for deciding if a food is high or low in a nutrient.5% DV or less is low and 20% DV or more is high for all nutrients, including those you want to limit (e.g., fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium) or those you want to get enough of, like fiber and calcium.Notice how easy it is to apply the 5/20 Quick Guide to % DV for determining highs and lows.________________________________________________YOU CAN USE THE %DV NOT ONLY FOR HIGHS AND LOWS, but also TO COMPARE CLAIMS and to MAKE DIETARY TRADE-OFFS so that if you like a food that’s high in a nutrient like saturated fat, you can balance your remaining choices for the day with foods low saturated fat.We come to the last question: Which nutrients have no %DV?20% DV or more is High
16No % Daily Value Trans Fat Sugars Protein As you can see, there are three nutrients that have no % DV (for TRANS & SUGARS, THERE ARE NO DAILY VALUES RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THEM.)For Protein: Unless a claim is made, or the food is meant for use by infants and children under 4 years old, there is no requirement for a % DV for protein. Current scientific evidence indicates that protein intake is not a public health concern for adults and children over four years old.Trans fat: Scientific reports link trans fat (saturated fat and cholesterol) with raising LDL (“bad”) blood cholesterol, which increases your risk of coronary heart disease, a leading cause of death in the US. However, experts could not provide a reference value for trans fat nor any other information that FDA believes is sufficient to establish a DV or % DV.***************************************Now let’s discuss sugars, including added sugars.
17Read the Nutrition Facts Label For Total Sugars Plain YogurtFruit YogurtAlthough sugars have no % DV, you can know how to limit your intake by comparing two products and choosing the one with the lowest amount.To compare, look at the Nutrition Facts label to determine the TOTAL amount of sugars in a food. THE TOTAL AMOUNT INCLUDES BOTH NATURALLY-OCCURRING SUGARS AND THOSE SUGARS ADDED TO THE FOOD.In this case, the plain yogurt on the left has 10g of sugar in one serving; the fruit yogurt on the right has 44g of sugars, 2-3 times the amount of sugar found in most candy bars.……………………………………………………………………………………..So how can you tell if either of these yogurts has added sugars?
18Look at the Ingredient List for Added Sugars Plain YogurtINGREDIENTS: CULTURED PASTEURIZED GRADE A NONFAT MILK, WHEY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE, PECTIN, CARRAGEENAN.Fruit YogurtINGREDIENTS: CULTURED GRADE A REDUCED FAT MILK, APPLES, HIGH FRUCTOSE CORN SYRUP, CINNAMON, NUTMEG, NATURAL FLAVORS, AND PECTIN. CONTAINS ACTIVE YOGURT AND L. ACIDOPHILUS CULTURESTo find if sugars and caloric sweeteners have been added, you need to look at the ingredient list. Notice that ingredients are listed in descending order, so that those ingredients listed first weigh the most, while those weighing the least come last.What is the difference between these two lists of ingredients regarding sugars? For the plain yogurt listed on top, No added sugars or sweeteners are listed in the ingredients, yet 10g of sugars were listed on the Nutrition label. This is because, there are no added sugars, only naturally-occurring ones in plain yogurt.If you are concerned about your intake of sugars, especially added sugars, make sure that they are not one of the first two or three ingredients listed. Some other NAMES FOR ADDED SUGARS INCLUDE: corn syrup, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit juice concentrate, maltose, dextrose, sucrose, honey, and maple syrup.The last nutrient I would like to bring to your attention is calcium.
19Calcium In Your Daily Diet NOTICE CALCIUM IS AN EXAMPLE OF A NUTRIENT THAT HAS A %DV BUT NO WEIGHT AMOUNT LISTED. Experts advise consumers to get adequate amounts of calcium in their daily diet – at least 1,000 milligrams daily. But this advice is most often given in milligrams (mg), and the Nutrition Facts panel does not list mg, only a % DV for calcium.For consumers who want to know how the calcium they consume in mg relates to expert advice, they need to Know the following
20Calcium Calculation 100% DV = 1,000mg calcium 30% DV = 300mg calcium = one cup of milk130% DV = 1,300mg calcium = daily goal for teensExpert advice on calcium consumption varies:For adolescents, especially girls, experts advise consuming 1,300mg of calcium—this corresponds to 130%DVFor post-menopausal women it’s 1,200mg of calcium daily—120%DV.(The DV for calcium on food labels is 1,000mg).It is important to look at the % DV for calcium on Facts panel so you know how much one serving contributes to the total amount of calcium you need for the day.--Don't be fooled -- always check the label for calcium because you can't make assumptions about the amount of calcium in specific food categories. Example: the amount of calcium in milk, whether skim or whole, generally is the same per serving, whereas the amount of calcium in the same size 8 oz yogurt container can vary from %DV.Remember, a food with 20% DV or more contributes a lot of calcium to your daily total, while one with 5% DV or less contributes a little.
22Daily ValuesDaily Values are recommendations that specify the amounts of certain nutrients that the average person should obtain each day.Daily Values are only a general guide because they are calculated for the average person who consumes a total of 2,000 calories a day.
23Open Dates The labels on prepared foods also include open dates. The “sell-by” date tells you the last date the product can be sold.The “best-if-used-by” date tells you how long the product will be at peak quality.The “do-not-use-after” date is the expiration date.