3The Good and Bad of Microorganisms Harmful effects:Food borne diseasesFood infectionsFood poisoningViral borne infectionsFood spoilageBeneficial effects:FermentationCheeseYogurtFermented sausagesWineSauerkrautProbiotics
4Let’s start with the GOOD bacteria…….. https://www.google.com/search?q=picture+of+yogurt+being+eaten&rls=com.microsoft:en-us:IE-Address&rlz=1I7ADSA_enUS482&tbm=isch&imgil=o5qYjm1PEqRF_M%253A%253Bhttps%253A%252F%252Fencrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com%252Fimages%253Fq%253Dtbn%253AANd9GcRwMHbsQngIULwGzHuSQlX93jdsZs2xsmiikPz2Ln7AKTonwaI4%253B460%253B360%253BXiVKLAXG2JDIXM%253Bhttp%25253A%25252F%25252Fhealthyoffspring.com%25252Fpage%25252F2%25252F&source=iu&usg=__z61PRCjckyV3due-HkUDC2w-OSo%3D&sa=X&ei=bgMOU5-BGfG_sQT09oKoDw&ved=0CC0Q9QEwAw&biw=1366&bih=599#facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=OeBZHHcAL2Y5mM%253A%3Bc8pZa3XH0XmPHM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fstatic6.depositphotos.com%252F %252F557%252Fi%252F950%252Fdepositphotos_ Little-Boy-Is-Eating-Yogurt..jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fdepositphotos.com%252F %252Fstock-photo-Little-Boy-Is-Eating-Yogurt..html%3B1024%3B834
5PRO- & PRE- BIOTICSFOR THE COLONThe friendly bacteria for fermentation are called the probiotics (pro-life)Certain fibers in food, called prebiotics, specifically support these probiotic bacteria.
6Probiotics: Live bacteria Foods for Colon HealthProbiotics: Live bacteriaImprove intestinal microbial balanceYogurt – ‘live with active cultures’Probiotic Therapy: Consuming products with beneficial bacteria and supplements
7Probiotics Means ‘for life’ Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the hostBifidobacterium adolescentis is found in healthy human and animal intestine. Isolated from feces of breast-fed newborns and was later use to treat infant diarrhea and is used to manufacture probiotic dairy foods.L. rhamnosus was isolated from intestines of a healthy human subject and used in yogurt-based products.S. boulardii is a strain of yeast discovered in southeast Asia. It grows in high temperature (98.6F) and mostly sold in capsules.BifidobacteriumadolescentisSaccharomyces boulardiiLactobacillus rhamnosusSource: FAO/WHO Report October 2001
8Stimulate growth of beneficial bacteria in colon Foods for Colon HealthPrebiotics: FiberStimulate growth of beneficial bacteria in colonInulin, Polydextrose, Resistant starchSources: yogurts fortified with prebiotics, wheat, whole grain and dairy products, legumes, leafy greens, artichokes, bananas, berries, chicory, garlic, honey, leeks, onions…………… to name a few
9Why abnormal gut microflora? FactorsHealth ConditionsSmokingWestern type dietAgePhysical activity levelPublic health practicesSmaller FamiliesPremature deliveryCesarean sectionPerinatal antibiotic useLack of breastfeedingType 2 diabetesCancerCoronary heart diseaseCholesterolObesityDigestive disorders (IBD)AllergiesCommon coldInfectionsDiarrheaLactose intoleranceImpaired immunityAbnormalgutmicrobiotaProbiotic bacteria offer many health benefits ranging from disease prevention via strong immune response to treatment of diseases.-Public health practices include sanitation, antibiotic use and vaccination.In clinical research, selected probiotic strains were shown to prevent certain types of cancers in gastrointestinal tract.L. plantarum PH04 and L. reuteri showed cholesterol-lowering activity which is linked to cardiovascular disease.Infections include respiratory, diarrhea, urinary track infection and gastrointestinal infections.
10The Good Microorganisms: Probiotics Human probiotics: where?• Gastro-intestinal• Skin• Scalp• Oral cavity• Underarm and feet• Urogenitalincluding vaginalExpected Benefits with ConsumptionIncreased tolerance to infections• Control of diarrhea• Reduction of blood pressure• Cholesterol reduction• Allergy control• Immunomodulation• Cancer reduction
12Global Probiotic Market The market is currently valued at $22.6 billion and projected to reach $28.8 billion in 2015Target consumers are mainly located in Japan, Europe and USAGrowth factors include:Consumer understanding of the effect of nutrition on healthRising healthcare costsProbiotic products fall under the category of functional foods.Source: “Global Probiotic Market to Grow – Analyst.” FLEXNEWS. 27 Sept Web. 27 Sept 2010.
13Probiotic Products Dairy foods Beverages, yogurt, kefir, ice cream, cheeseNon-dairy foodsBeverages, bars, chocolate, cereal, pizza, condimentsDietary supplementsInfant formula, drops, tablets, capsules, powdersClinical therapeuticsNon-dairy segment is growing partly to the need for convenience and dietary restrictions such as lactose intolerance and concern over cholesterol.Yakult – L casei ShirotaActivia - Bifidobacterium lactis DNLiveActive cheese – Bifidobacterium lactus and Lactobacillus rhamnosusProLife ice cream Amul – naAttune chocolate bar - Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, Lactobacillus casei Lc-11 and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019.Zukay – salsa, relish, dressing - lacto-fermented vegetable based productsGood Start Protect Plus – B. lactis BB-12Florastol capsules – Saccharomyces boulardii
14Rapid Emergence of Probiotics • The reported health benefits of probiotic bacteria found in cultured and dairy products include:improving digestive absorptioncleaning the intestinal tractproduction of enzymesincreasing the availability of vitamins and nutrients- especially vitamin B, vitamin K, lactase, fatty acids and calcium
16Probiotic Market Overview The total international probiotic market in yogurts, kefirs and fermented dairy beverages translates to $10 billion with growing annual sales*US Sales of probiotics was estimated to be approximately $764 million and was expected to rise to $1.1 billion in 2010 – an average annual growth rate (AAGR) of 7.1%**The appeal of such benefits served to bolster yogurt sales significantly in a number of markets and made probiotic yogurt the second fastest growing dairy products category, with CAGR growth of more than 16%, between 1998 and 2005****Dairy Field, 2006; **Business Communications Company (BCC) Research, 2005; ***EuromonitorSource: Nexis - Dairy Field, March 2007, Euromonitor Industry Profile – Global Dairy Products Market, October 2006
18The Not-So-Beneficial Microorganisms The ones that cause:Food borne IllnessesFood infectionsFood Poisoning/ IntoxicationsFood Spoilage
19A pathogen is a microorganism capable of producing a disease Pathogens in FoodsBacteriaParasitesA pathogen is a microorganism capable of producing a diseaseVirusesPrionsMolds
20Foodborne IllnessIllness occurring as a result of ingesting food or water contaminated with:Infectious agentsBacteria, molds, yeastsViruses, prionsParasitesA toxin or chemicalBacterial toxinPesticides, Heavy metalsOther chemical contaminantsFoodborne Illness is a broad term.
21Harmful: Food Infection vs. Food Poisoning Live cells delivered by contaminated food; organism multiply once food is ingestedSalmonella; E. coliFood poisoning (intoxication)Caused by preformed toxin in the food; organism may or may not be alive and growingClostridium botulinum ( in canned foods); Staphylococcus aureus
22FINDINGS: CDC Estimates of Food borne Illness in the United States- 2011 CDC estimates that each year roughly 1 in 6 Americans (or 48 million people) gets sick, 128,000 are hospitalized, and 3,000 die of food borne diseases.
23CDC has estimates for two major groups of foodborne illnesses: Known foodborne pathogens— 31 pathogens known to cause foodborne illness.Many of these pathogens are tracked by public health systems that track diseases and outbreaks.
24Unspecified agents—Agents with insufficient data to estimate agent-specific burden; known agents not yet identified as causing foodborne illness;microbes, chemicals, or other substances known to be in food whose ability to cause illness is unproven; and agents not yet identified.Because you can’t “track” what isn’t yet identified, estimates for this group of agents started with the health effects or symptoms that they are most likely to cause—acute gastroenteritis.
25CDC Estimated Data on Foodborne Disease in the United States- 2011 Top 5 PathogensEstimated number of hospitalizationsSalmonella, nontyphoidal19,336Norovirus14,663Campylobacter spp.8,463Toxoplasma gondii4,428E.coli (STEC) O1572,138From : W_Fanaselle FDA, CFSAN
26CDC Estimated Data on Foodborne Disease in the United States- 2011 Top 5 PathogensEstimated number of deathsSalmonella, nontyphoidal378Toxoplasma gondii327Listeria monocytogenes255Norovirus149Campylobacter spp.76From : W_Fanaselle FDA, CFSAN
282006 Nationwide Outbreak of E. coli Source: SpinachIllness in 26 states204 cases of illness reported to the CDC31 cases involving a type of kidney failure104 hospitalizations and 3 deathsFour implicated fields on Four ranchesCause: Cattle and pig feces
292008-9 Peanut Salmonella Recall More than 31 million pounds 125 items affected in salmonella probe Case count is 677 in 45 states with latest confirmed, most recent reported illness beginning on February 8, 2009The outbreak is continuing, though the numbers of new cases have declined modestly since December.FDA and CDC are concerned that illness will continue to occur if people eat recalled peanut-containing products that are still on their shelves at home.Consumers should check at home for recalled peanut butter containing products and discard them.Major national brands of jarred peanut butter found in grocery stores are NOT on the Peanut Corporation of America (PCA) recall list.
30Listeria outbreakIn 2011, a Listeria outbreak in cantaloupe caused 30 deaths and 146 illnesses across 28 states.Listeria is particularly dangerous because it lives in soil, infecting the inside of cantaloupe as well as the outside.Additionally, it thrives in cold temperatures (such as refrigerator).
31Outbreaks Involving Raw Milk Outbreaks from dairy products was studied from 1993 to 2006 in all 50 statesCDC Reports: The rate of outbreaks caused by unpasteurized milk (often called raw milk) and products made from it was 150 times greater than outbreaks linked to pasteurized milk
32Safety Concerns over Raw Milk Raw milk product outbreaks led to much more severe illnesses, and disproportionately affected people under age 20.60 percent of patients were younger than age 20; children are more likely thanadults to get seriously illfrom the bacteria in raw milk.Consuming raw milk is notworth the risk
33Safety Concerns over Raw Milk 13% of patients in raw milk outbreaks were hospitalized compared to 1 percent in pasteurized milk outbreaks.Raw milk outbreaks were all caused by bacteria, such as E. coli O157, which tend to produce more severe illnesses, according to the study.Pasteurized milk and cheese outbreaks were often caused by relatively mild infections like norovirus and Staphylococcus aureus. www.cdc.gov/eid ;
34Spoilage Microorganisms in Foods Food Spoilage Microorganisms: bacteria, yeasts, molds (yeasts and molds are fungi)It is important to be able to distinguish food borne illness from food spoilageSpoiled food may not normally cause food poisoning because it is rejected by the consumer before ingestionFood borne illness occurs when food is eaten which looks normal, smells normal and tastes normal: you eat enough to make you ill from the ingested pathogens or toxins
35Microbial Food Spoilage = Changes in Food Quality Odordue to production of volatile end compoundsColorpigment production or oxidationTexturesoftening due to the breakdown of pectin in vegetables or the tissues by proteinasesAccumulation of gascarbon dioxide, sulfur compoundsSlime formationproduction of dextrans and/or amount of microorganisms
36Microbial foodborne illness Symptoms:Mild: abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, vomitingSevere:spontaneous abortionhemolytic uremic syndromearthritiskidney failure and death
37Timeline of Foodborne Illness Best case: 6 daysWorst case: 23 days
38Where from microorganisms come into foods? CONTAMINATIONSoil, contaminated waterOral-fecal routeWASH HANDS AFTER VISITINGTHE BATHROOM!!!!Improper food handlingFOOD HANDLERS WHO AREUNWELLImproper temperature of food storageImproper cooking temperatures
39Harmful: Bacterial Pathogens of Public Health Concern Escherichia coliClostridium botulinumSalmonella speciesCampylobacter speciesListeria speciesStaphylococcus aureusAeromonas hydrophilaBacillus cereusShigella speciesVibrio spp.Yersinia enterocolitica
40Viruses in Foods Do not grow on foods When consumed in foods, they can multiply in the human bodyCause food-borne illnessAre smaller in size than bacteria
41Norovirus: gastroenteritis or stomach flu Viruses in foodsNorovirus: gastroenteritis or stomach fluDestroyed by cookingWater, salads, raw shellfish: potential carriersHepatitis AContagious viral disorderInflammation of liver, jaundice, abdominal painContaminated water, shell fishVaccine available
42Molds in Foods Grow on breads, cheese, fruits Produce toxins, leading to food intoxicationIf a food appears suspiciously moldy, simply discard it!Moldy bread
43Parasites in foods Some are single-celled and tiny Example: Toxoplasma Some are wormsTape-wormscitihealth.com Flat-wormsanimalcorner.co.uk
44Prions in Foods sussex.ac.uk An infectious protein particleFolding of proteinsis abnormalNot a microorganism
45PRIONS IN FOODS Prions are the cause of mad cow disease BSE : Bovine Spongiform EncephalopathyCaused by eating cow infected with this prionMood swings leading to dementia and death
46Prevention of Deleterious Microbes Knowledge and Action Food Handling and Food Processing
47Prevention of microbial illnesses of foods Prevent contaminationKnowledge of howcontamination occursHandle, store, preparefoods safely
48Preventive measures for Outbreaks At the fieldIrrigation waterProximity to cattle, pig, and other animal ranchesFarm worker access to portable toilets and hand washing facilitiesAt the processing plantDecontamination stepsDistributionMaintaining appropriate temperaturesConsumer education
49HACCP (hah- sup) Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points A tool useful in the prevention of food safety hazardsHACCP is not a stand alone program.HACCP program also includes:good manufacturing practicessanitation standard operating procedurespersonal hygiene program.A flow diagram of the complete process is important in conducting the hazard analysis.
502. identify critical control points 3. establish critical limits Principles of HACCP:1. Hazard analysis2. identify critical control points3. establish critical limits4. monitor critical control points5. establish corrective action6. Record- keeping7. Verification
51Not a standalone program Identifies critical control points HACCP: Summing upNot a standalone programIdentifies critical control pointsSpecific to a particular food service operation and establishmentContinuous and systematic approach to assure food safety.Both FDA and USDA are proposing umbrella regulations which will require HACCP plans of industry.
55Proper food storage starts at the store Shop for shelf-stable items such as canned and dry goods firstBuy refrigerated and frozen foods and hot deli items lastDon't choose meat, fish, poultry or dairy products that feel warm to the touch or have a damaged or torn packagePlace leaking packages in plastic bagsChoose only pasteurized dairy productsChoose only refrigerated eggsCheck "sell-by" and use by dates on packagesBuy intact cans that are not bulging, leaking or dented on the seam or rim
60REMEMBER THE PRINCIPLE: FATTOM Food: medium for microorganism to growAcidity: lower pH of food; prevents bacterial growth in foodsTime: cook and store for recommended timeTemperature: high temperature kills bacteria; low temperatures stop their growthOxygen: packaging eliminates oxygen, so few or no bacteriaMoisture: dry the food and prevent bacterial growth
62Methods of food preservation Heating to kill, slow and stop bacteria in foods:1. Pasteurization: kills pathogenic bacteria, reduces number of microbes, but some bacteria survive; refrigeration storage needed heating the milk briefly to 161 °F for about 20 seconds, to kill disease-causing microbes (e.g., Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157,Campylobacter) that can be found in raw milk.
63PasteurizationPasteurization does not significantly change the nutritional value of milk – pasteurized milk is rich in proteins, carbohydrates, and other nutrients.Heat slightly affects a few of the vitamins found in milk-- thiamine, vitamin B12, and vitamin C.Foods that can be pasteurized: eggs, milk, juices, spices, ice creams
64Methods of Food Preservation Heating to kill, slow and stop bacteria in foods: (examples: juices, milk, eggs)2. Aseptic processing: sterilize food in a sterilized package using sterile process; longer shelf life than pasteurized foods; room temperature storage3. Canning: Foods sealed into cans and then heated to a high temperature (above 100°C). Microbes in the food killed; sealed can prevents fresh contamination; Spores may survive
65Methods of food preservation 4. Irradiation: cold pasteurizationFood exposed to x-rays, high-energy electrons to kill microorganisms, insects, inactivate enzymesGermination and ripening delayedPoultry, red meats, flour, spices, potatoes, fruits, vegetables, grains can be irradiatedIncreases safety and shelf-life of foodsDoes not produce radioactive foods; no potential risks
66Reducing the growth of microbes Many methods of food preservation are used.Processes such as fermentation, drying, pickling, all attempt to remove one or more of the factors necessary for the growth of food-spoiling microbes.FATTOM
67Fermentation preserves & produces foods like CheeseYogurtFermentedsausagesWine& many more………..