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Complexity Computational Environment, integrating data and simulation on the Grid: Multiscale computing JPL June 18 2003 Geoffrey Fox, Marlon Pierce Community.

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Presentation on theme: "Complexity Computational Environment, integrating data and simulation on the Grid: Multiscale computing JPL June 18 2003 Geoffrey Fox, Marlon Pierce Community."— Presentation transcript:

1 Complexity Computational Environment, integrating data and simulation on the Grid: Multiscale computing JPL June Geoffrey Fox, Marlon Pierce Community Grids Lab Indiana University

2 Grid Backdrop from CT Project Grid Computational Environment (GCE) for SERVOGrid based on Web services (WS) Job submission Job management, simple security (to be addressed), File processing Support as WS key simulation and Pattern recognition codes (DISLOC*, SIMPLEX*, VC, PARK, GEOFEST*, DAHMM, PDPC) –*Current Support databases and visualization Simple workflow, notification, metadata services Initial Schema for GEM specific (meta-)data Portlet based Interfaces Extend to ACES (Japan, Australia) for distributed computers, software, databases, clients Collaboration and other useful portlets Can inherit Globus support from Alliance Portal, NMI efforts

3 AIST Additions Compatibility with Grid Services Use of OGSA-DAI XML and SQL database standards –Including extensions for streaming (sensor) data –Including extensions for integration with simulations Optimization for parallel simulations (e.g. parallel IO) (?) Better workflow, notification, metadata services –openGIS/GML compatibility (fault etc. Schema) –Semantic Grid Autonomic (Robust Reliable Resilient) services (?) Support multi-scale simulations and data assimilation ServoPSE Problem Solving Environments (?) –GeoLanguage (ServoML specializing CCEML) integrating workflow and multi-scale support –Interactive portlet based front end with Matlab and/or Mathemetica style interface

4 Database Closely Coupled Compute Nodes Analysis and Visualization Repositories Federated Databases Sensor Nets Streaming Data Loosely Coupled Filters SERVOGrid Caricature

5 Sources of Grid Technology? Grids support distributed collaboratories or virtual organizations that support People, Computers, Observational Data and results of thought and data processing The Web and Web Services –Most important for Information Grids as these are naturally service-based Distributed Objects (CORBA Java/Jini COM) –Distributed Object same as a Service Globus Legion Condor NetSolve Ninf and other High Performance Computing activities –Compute/File Grids that need to be made into services (Globus GT3) and integrated with Information Grids for Geocomplexity Peer-to-peer Networks

6 Taxonomy of Grid Functionalities Name of Grid TypeDescription of Grid Functionality Compute/File Grid or Data File Grid Run multiple jobs with distributed compute and data resources (Global “UNIX Shell”) Desktop Grid e.g. “Internet Computing” and “Cycle Scavenging” with secure sandbox on large numbers of untrusted computers Information Grid or Data Service Grid Grid service access to distributed information, data and knowledge repositories Complexity or Hybrid Grid Hybrid combination of Information and Compute/File Grid emphasizing integration of experimental data, filters and simulations: Data assimilation Campus Grid Grid supporting University community computing Enterprise Grid Grid supporting a company’s enterprise infrastructure

7 Approach Build on e-Science methodology and Grid technology Geocomplexity (and Biocomplexity) applications with multi-scale models, scalable parallelism, data assimilation as key issues –Data-driven models for earthquakes Use existing code/database technology (SQL/Fortran/C++) linked to “Application Web/OGSA services” –XML specification of models, computational steering, scale supported at “Web Service” level as don’t need “high performance” here –Allows use of Semantic Grid technology AIST builds on CT Typical codes WS linking to user and Other WS (data sources) Application WS

8 HPC Simulation Data Filter Data Filter Data Filter Data Filter Data Filter Distributed Filters massage data For simulation Other Grid and Web Services Analysis Control Visualize SERVOGrid (Complexity)Computing Model Grid OGSA-DAI Grid Services This Type of Grid integrates with Parallel computing Multiple HPC facilities but only use one at a time Many simultaneous data sources and sinks Grid Data Assimilation

9 Data Assimilation Data assimilation implies one is solving some optimization problem which might have Kalman Filter like structure As discussed by DAO at Earth Science meeting, one will become more and more dominated by the data (N obs much larger than number of simulation points). Natural approach is to form for each local (position, time) patch the “important” data combinations so that optimization doesn’t waste time on large error or insensitive data. Data reduction done in natural distributed fashion NOT on HPC machine as distributed computing most cost effective if calculations essentially independent –Filter functions must be transmitted from HPC machine

10 Distributed Filtering HPC Machine Distributed Machine Data Filter N obs local patch 1 N filtered local patch 1 Data Filter N obs local patch 2 N filtered local patch 2 Geographically Distributed Sensor patches N obs local patch >> N filtered local patch ≈ Number_of_Unknowns local patch Send needed Filter Receive filtered data In simplest approach, filtered data gotten by linear transformations on original data based on Singular Value Decomposition of Least squares matrix Factorize Matrix to product of local patches

11 Grid Politics There is a Global Grid Forum meeting 3 times per year with about 700 attendees per meeting –Exchange information and define standards for “everything” not done in W3C and OASIS –e.g. Grid Service, Security, What is a Job, Database, Computer, How to build portals …. There is a large project called Globus developing software largely for “compute/file” Grids There are some 50 Grid projects (mainly in Europe and USA) developing software and applications as well as installing infrastructure –Some are “deployment”: EDG NMI VDT ….. There are related initiatives called CyberInfrastructure (NSF USA) and e-Science (UK) There is a proposed OMII (Open Middleware Infrastructure Institute) – an international Alliance of separately funded projects with common coordination

12 OGSA OGSI & Hosting Environments Start with Web Services in a hosting environment Add OGSI to get a Grid service and a component model Add OGSA to get Interoperable Grid “correcting” differences in base platform and adding key functionalities OGSI on Web Services Broadly applicable services: registry, authorization, monitoring, data access, etc., etc. Hosting Environment for WS Models for resources & other entities More specialized services: data replication, workflow, etc., etc. Domain- specific services Other models Network OGSA Environment Possibly OGSA Not OGSA Given to us from on high

13 OGSI Open Grid Service Interface It is a “component model” for web services. It defines a set of behavior patterns that each OGSI service must exhibit. Every “Grid Service” portType extends a common base type. –Defines an introspection model for the service –You can query it (in a standard way) to discover What methods/messages a port understands What other port types does the service provide? If the service is “stateful” what is the current state? A set of standard portTypes for –Message subscription and notification –Service collections Each service is identified by a URI called the “Grid Service Handle” GSHs are bound dynamically to Grid Services References (typically wsdl docs) –A GSR may be transient. GSHs are fixed. –Handle map services translate GSHs into GSRs.

14 OGSA-DAI (Malcolm Atkinson Edinburgh) UK e-Science Grid Core Programme Development of Data Access and Integration Services for OGSA - Access to XML Databases - - Access to Relational Databases - - Distributed Query Processing (DB Federation) - - XML Schema Support for e-Science -

15 DAI Key Services GridDataServiceGDSAccess to data & DB operations GridDataServiceFactoryGDSFMakes GDS & GDSF GridDataServiceRegistryGDSRDiscovery of GDS(F) & Data GridDataTranslationServiceGDTSTranslates or Transforms Data GridDataTransportDepotGDTDData transport with persistence Integrated Structured Data Transport Relational & XML models supported Role-based Authorisation Binary structured files (later)

16 Client Relational database Grid Data Service Director y / File system XML databas e Interface transparency: one GDS supports multiple database types

17 Integration of Data and Filters One has the OGSA-DAI Data repository interface combined with WSDL of the (Perl, Fortran, Python …) filter User only sees WSDL not data syntax Some non-trivial issues as to where the filtering compute power is –Microsoft says filter next to data DB Filter WSDL Of Filter OGSA-DAI Interface

18 Info Grid Multi Scale Parallel Computing Experiments GeoInformatics Extended/Integrated VA+PARK+GEOFEST Large System Simulations General Complex Systems Simulations Load BalancingAlgorithms Integrated CCE Sensors/Satellites Other Fields X-Complexity Infrastructure e-Science Collaboration Grid Computer Science Modeling Geology Clusters Grid Visualization Field Complex Fluids Stock Market Grid Portals Databases BioComplexity

19 Database Service Sensor Service Compute Service Parallel Simulation Service Middle Tier with XML Interfaces Visualization Service Application Service-1 Users Database Application Service-2 Application Service-3 CCE Control Portal Aggregation SERVOGrid Complexity Computing Environment XML Meta-data Service Complexity Simulation Service

20 SERVOGrid Requirements Seamless Access to Data repositories and large scale computers Integration of multiple data sources including sensors, databases, file systems with analysis system –Including filtered OGSA-DAI Rich meta-data generation and access with SERVOGrid specific Schema extending openGIS standards and using Semantic Grid Portals with component model for user interfaces and web control of all capabilities Collaboration to support world-wide work Basic Grid tools: workflow and notification

21 Grid Computing or Programming Environments “Core” Grid Resources Portal such as “Jetspeed” Application/User Framework supporting development and deployment of OGSI compliant AWS (Application Web Services) AWS Database Web Services Hosting EnvironmentHosting Environment Resource Grid Services Generic Application Services OGSA Interoperability Layer “Sophisticated” System Services OGSA Interoperability Layer e.g. DAI compliant database Hosting EnvironmentHosting Environment

22 Taxonomy of Grid Operational Style Name of Grid StyleDescription of Grid Operational or Architectural Style Semantic GridIntegration of Grid and Semantic Web meta-data and ontology technologies Peer-to-peer GridGrid built with peer-to-peer mechanisms Lightweight GridGrid designed for rapid deployment and minimum life-cycle support costs Collaboration GridGrid supporting collaborative tools like the Access Grid, whiteboard and shared applications. R3 or Autonomic Grid Fault tolerant and self-healing Grid Robust Reliable Resilient R3

23 Paradigms Protocols Platforms and Hosting We can start from the Web view where the basic Grid paradigm is Meta-data rich Web Services communicating via messages These have some basic support from some runtime such as.NET, Jini (pure Java), Apache Tomcat+Axis (Web Service toolkit), Enterprise JavaBeans, WebSphere (IBM) or GT3 (Globus Toolkit 3) –These are the distributed equivalent of operating system functions as in UNIX Shell Called Hosting Environment or platform

24 Permeating Principles and Policies Meta-data rich Message-linked Web Services as the permeating paradigm “User” Component Model such as “Enterprise JavaBean (EJB)” or.NET. Service Management framework including a possible Factory mechanism High level Invocation Framework describing how you interact with system components. –This could for example be used to allow the system to built from either W3C or GGF style (OGSI) Web Services and to protect the user from changes in their specifications. Security is a service but the need for fine grain selective authorization encourages Policy context that sets the rules for each particular Grid. –Currently OGSA supports policies for routing, security and resource use. The Grid Fabric or set of resources needs mechanisms to manage them. This includes automatic recording of meta-data and configuration of software. Quality of service (QoS) for the Network and this implies performance monitoring and bandwidth reservation services. –Challenging as end-to-end and not just backbone QoS is needed. Messaging systems like MQSeries from IBM provide robustness from asynchronous delivery and can abstract destination and allow customization of content such as converting between different interface specifications. Messaging is built on transport mechanisms which can be used to support mechanisms to implement QoS and to virtualize ports

25 Virtualization The Grid could and sometimes does virtualize various concepts Location: URI (Universal Resource Identifier) virtualizes URL Replica management (caching) virtualizes file location generalized by GriPhyn virtual data concept Protocol: message transport and WSDL bindings virtualize transport protocol as a QoS request P2P or Publish-subscribe messaging virtualizes matching of source and destination services Semantic Grid virtualizes Knowledge as a meta-data query Brokering virtualizes resource allocation Virtualization implies references can be indirect

26 Interfaces and Functionality and Semantics I The Grid platform tries to minimize detail in protocols and maximize detail in interfaces to enhance scaling However rich meta-data and semantics are critical for correct and interesting operation –Put as much semantic interpretation as you can into specific services –Lack of Semantic interoperation is in fact main weakness of today’s Grids and Web services Everything becomes a service whether system or application level There are some very important “Global Services” –Discovery (look up) and Registration of service metadata –Workflow –MetaSchedulers

27 Interfaces and Functionality and Semantics II There are many other generally important services OGSA-DAI The Database Service Portal Service linked to by WSRP (Web services for Remote Portals) Notification of events Job submission Provenance – interpret meta-data about history of data File Interfaces Sensor service – satellites … Visualization Basic brokering/scheduling

28 Categories of Worldwide Grid Services to be exploited by SERVOGrid 1) Types of Grid –R3 –Lightweight –P2P –Federation and Interoperability 2) Core Infrastructure and Hosting Environment –Service Management –Component Model –Service wrapper/Invocation –Messaging 3) Security Services –Certificate Authority –Authentication –Authorization –Policy 4) Workflow Services and Programming Model –Enactment Engines (Runtime) –Languages and Programming –Compiler –Composition/Development 5) Notification Services 6) Metadata and Information Services –Basic including Registry –Semantically rich Services and meta-data –Information Aggregation (events) –Provenance 7) Information Grid Services –OGSA-DAI/DAIT –Integration with compute resources –P2P and database models 8) Compute/File Grid Services –Job Submission –Job Planning Scheduling Management –Access to Remote Files, Storage and Computers –Replica (cache) Management –Virtual Data –Parallel Computing 9) Other services including –Grid Shell –Accounting –Fabric Management –Visualization Data-mining and Computational Steering –Collaboration 10) Portals and Problem Solving Environments 11) Network Services –Performance –Reservation –Operations

29 Two-level Programming I The paradigm implicitly assumes a two-level Programming Model We make a Service (same as a “distributed object” or “computer program” running on a remote computer) using conventional technologies –C++ Java or Fortran Monte Carlo module –Data streaming from a sensor or Satellite –Specialized (JDBC) database access Such nuggets accept and produce data from users files and databases The Grid is built by coordinating such nuggets assuming we have solved problem of programming the nugget Nugget Data

30 Two-level Programming II The Grid is discussing the linkage and distribution of the nuggets with the only addition runtime interfaces to Grid as opposed to UNIX data streams Familiar from use of UNIX Shell, PERL or Python scripts to produce real applications from core programs Such interpretative environments are the single processor analog of Grid Programming and this tends to be called workflow Workflow is the composition of multiple services (programs) together to make a new service –Includes “Software Bus”, “Application Integration”, “Co- ordination Languages” etc. Nugget1Nugget2 Nugget3Nugget4

31 Workflow Workflow has at least 4 parts –“Programming Environment” – typically GUI to drag and drop services and their linkages (familiar from AVS etc. which was workflow for visualization) –Language – from XML to extended Python –Compiler – converting Language into executable –Runtime controlling flow of information and notification events Can use Python, Mathematica, Matlab, JavaSpaces, IBM BPEL4WS, DoE CCA etc. –Don’t think current systems are very near “what we will want” but expect much progress over next 3 years and plenty of systems to work with Metadata critical to tell you how to combine services in a sensible way – so workflow engines must interface with metadata service

32 Workflow GCEs and Problem Solving Environments (PSEs) There is some confusion between fields of workflow (Grid Computing Environments GCE) and PSEs To extent PSEs “just” allow manipulation of “nuggets”, they are indistinguishable from a domain specific GCE They are distinct if they support intra nugget operations such as –Integration of mesh and simulation –Closely coupled code linkage –Generation of code from high level interface like Mathematica Even in latter case, a new generation of PSEs should be built with Grid architecture – e.g. message based – and using Grid services like metadata and notification

33 Database SERVOGrid Complexity Simulation Service XML Meta-data Service JobsTools SERVOPSE Programs using CCEML (SERVOML) MultiScale Ontologies Job MetaData Tool MetaData Selected GeoInformatics Data Complexity Scripts Importance of Metadata Service; how should this be implemented? Workflow

34 Metadata Approaches Specialized services like UDDI and MDS (Globus) –Nobody likes UDDI –MDS uses LDAP –RGMA is MDS with a relational database backend “By hand” as in current GEM Portal which is roughly same as using service stored SDE’s (Service Data Elements) as in OGSI Some new MDS coming from Globus GT3? –Current MDS has both a Schema (insufficient for us) and a “database technology” Semantic Grid technologies Some basic XML database (Oracle, Xindice …) If “OGSA compliant” (not defined yet), then doesn’t matter that much

35 Workflow and SERVOGrid CCE SERVOGrid should workflow technology to support both –“code and data coupling” (DISLOC with SIMPLEX etc.) –Multiscale features Implementing multiscale model requires –building Web services for each model, –describing each model with metadata and –Describing linkage of models (linkage of ports on web services) –And describing when to use which scale model So workflow and multiscale depend on web services described by rich metadata This analysis isn’t correct if scales must be “tightly coupled” as current workflow won’t support this (CCA from DoE claims to address this but not clear if general) –We should focus on multiscale models with loose “nugget” coupling –Hopefully we will learn how to take same architecture, compile away inefficiencies and get high performance on tighter coupling than conventional distributed workflow

36 Technologies under development at Indiana Portal Infrastructure and Portlets integrating with rest of Globus/OGSA-DAI Community –Including job submission, management of modest meta-data and linkage to databases –Should package as “application web service toolkit” and test on ACES world wide iSERVOGrid “Some” core portal Metadata (Semantic Grid) services Messaging system between Web services that is useful for –“Service Management”/Autonomic Grids –Security –Notification service Collaboration infrastructure and portlets

37 Web Services as a Portlet Each Web Service naturally has a user interface specified as “just another port” –Customizable for universal access This gives each Web Service a Portlet view specified (in XML as always) by WSRP (Web services for Remote Portals) So component model for resources “automatically” gives a component model for user interfaces –When you build your application, you define portlet at same time Application or Content source WSDL Web Service S R W P Application as a WS General Application Ports Interface with other Web Services User Face of Web Service WSRP Ports define WS as a Portlet Web Services have other ports (Grid Service) to be OGSI compliant

38 Online Knowledge Center built from Portlets Web Services provide a component model for the middleware (see large “common component architecture” effort in Dept. of Energy) Should match each WSDL component with a corresponding user interface component Thus one “must use” a component model for the portal with again an XML specification (portalML) of portal component A set of UI Components

39 Sample page with several portlets: proxy credential manager, submission, monitoring

40 Provide information about application and host parameters Select application to edit Administer Grid Portal


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