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Presentation on theme: "PREPARED BY PEACE ACTION MONTGOMERY WWW.PEACEACTIONMC.ORG The Militarization of America At What Cost?"— Presentation transcript:


2 Topics The Federal Budget How Are We Spending the Military Part of the Budget? What Does American Militarism Mean for You? The Threat to Democracy What You Can Do 2

3 The Federal Budget 3

4 Total Federal Budget, FY 2010 Both Discretionary & Mandatory 4 Source: National Priorities Project Mandatory: Required by law. Examples: Social Security Interest on Debt Medicare Unemployment Discretionary: Negotiated each year. Examples: Military Education Research & Development

5 Discretionary Budget Authority Proposed: FY 2010 5 Source: National Priorities Project “All other” includes: Environment Science Transportation International affairs Everything else except entitlements and debt.

6 Discretionary Budget By Category, 2009 6 Source: Center for Arms Control and Nonproliferation, Briefing Book

7 U.S. Military Spending vs. Other Countries, In Rank Order, FY 2009 Source: Center for Arms Control and Nonproliferation 7

8 Growth in Military Spending Sources: Friends Committee on National Legislation; William Hartung 8 Military spending grew an average of 9% per year above inflation during the Bush years. Total increase in the Pentagon budget 2001-08: 73% - NOT INCLUDING spending on Iraq and Afghanistan.

9 Obama’s Projected DOD Budgets 9 2009 2019 $800 $100 War costs not included in this chart Source: National Priorities Project Security Spending Primer Billions of Dollars

10 U.S. Job Creation with $1 Billion Spending Number of Jobs Created Education Health Care Clean Energy Consumption Military Source: Pollin & Garrett-Peltier, 2009 10

11 Obama Military Budget, 2011 11 Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation

12 Montgomery County Citizens’ Share of Military Expenditures, FY2010 Budget  About $3 billion or  $2,000 per person Source: National Priorities Project 12

13 Where Does the Money Go? War costs Foreign military bases War profiteers 13

14 Extraordinary War Costs Total U.S. defense spending in Afghanistan, FY 2010: $101 billion.  $400 per gallon: US military’s cost of gasoline in Afghanistan  $1 million: cost to send one soldier to Afghanistan for one year  Reliance on expensive contractors Source: Congressional Research Service Report RL 33110 14

15 Afghanistan War Funding Notes: FY 01 & 02 combined; FY 10 assumes $33 bn supplemental Source: Congressional Research Service Report RL33110 15

16 Afghanistan War vs. World Military Spending In 2010, the United States will spend more on the war in Afghanistan alone than every other country in the world but China spends on its own defense. Source: Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation 16

17 Total War Costs Iraq and Afghanistan Through 2010 Total direct cost of both wars by 2010: over $1 trillion 17

18 $1 Trillion is a Thousand Billion Imagine that you spent $1 million/day beginning with the birth of Jesus—to spend a trillion dollars, you’d need to keep spending $1 million/day until mid-way through the 28 th century. If you laid out $1 trillion end-to-end in $100 bills, you could circle the Earth at the equator 39 times. 18

19 Let’s Tell Congress End the occupations of Iraq and Afghanistan We can’t afford this! 19

20 20 U.S. Foreign Military Bases

21 The US maintains about 1,000 foreign military bases Foreign bases cost taxpayers about $250 billion per year These bases generate anger all over the globe and are a recruitment tool for our enemies Source: Foreign Policy in Focus 21

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23 Floating Bases The U.S. has 11 nuclear powered aircraft supercarriers—the only nation on earth to have even one. The U.S. maintains over 100 deployed ships and submarines at any given time—with 30,000 sailors afloat. Each supercarrier has 90 fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters and can operate continuously for twenty years without refueling. 23 Source: United States Navy

24 Military Bases as the New Imperialism U.S. bases constitute 95% of all the military bases any country in the world maintains on any other country's territory. “Once upon a time, you could trace the spread of imperialism by counting up colonies. America's version of the colony is the military base.” Chalmers Johnson Source: Chalmers Johnson 24

25 The Movement to End Foreign Bases 25 Source: International Network for the Abolition of Foreign Military Bases International Network for the Abolition of Foreign Military Bases:

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27 War Profiteers Definition: Any person or organization that improperly profits from warfare or by selling weapons and other goods to parties at war. How do we define “improperly”? 27

28 War Profiteers Are huge profits improper? Is it acceptable for some people to make literally millions of dollars because thousands of others die? Is it improper if contractors lobby for wars that they benefit from financially? Is it improper if contractors’ products are shoddy? If contractors engage in fraud and highly wasteful practices? 28

29 War Profiteers Example: Lockheed Martin 84% Percent of L/M profits derived directly from US tax payers, 2008 $4.4 billion Amount of tax-payer money distributed as profit, 2008 $36,560,000 Total compensation of Lockheed Martin CEO, 2007 $28,253,165 Total compensation of 6 other executives, 2007 29

30 Lockheed Martin Paid $577.2 million in fines because of contract fraud since 1995 Found guilty of 50 instances of various kinds of misconduct (including contractor kickbacks, nuclear safety violations, fraud, etc.) Source: Wikipedia 30

31 Lockheed Martin: Forms of Influence Political donations to Dem and Repub parties, 1997- 2009: $2,346,300 Donations to individual politicians: averages almost $1 million/year Paid lobbying, 2008: $15,821,506 Source: Right Web 31

32 Lockheed Martin: Forms of Influence Geographic distribution of subcontractors “The ideal weapons system is built in 435 Congressional districts and it doesn’t matter whether it works or not.” Alain C. Enthoven, economist and former Pentagon official. In 2009, Lockheed Martin placed full-page ads in the Washington Post showing the number of jobs for F-22 construction, by Congressional district, throughout the nation. 32

33 Lockheed Martin: Forms of Influence—The Revolving Door Lockheed's former vice-president, Bruce Jackson, organized and chaired the “non-profit” Committee for the Liberation of Iraq (2002-03): It lobbied hard for the Iraq war—a war that dramatically increased Lockheed Martin profits 8 other senior Bush Administration members had similar ties to Lockheed Martin Source: Wikpedia 33

34 The War Profiteer Circle 34 Contracts: $$ Profits $$ Lobbying Political Donations Revolving Door

35 Gates of Lockheed Martin in January, 2009: We award Lockheed Martin the “War Profiteer of the Year Award” 35

36 What do Military Contractors Do? Feed troops Maintain facilities and equipment Transport cargo Wash clothes Provide security guards for bases and diplomats Engage in military actions through the CIA Contractors are doing everything that used to be done solely by the military—for a profit. 36

37 Contractors vs. U.S. Troops in Afghanistan Source: Congressional Research Service Report number R40764 & DOD December, 2009 37

38 Contractors vs. U.S. Troops in Iraq, 2009 November, 2009 Source: American Friends Service Committee 38

39 Outsourcing War: Paying for It Annual pay for an experienced corporal with three years of service: $19,980 Annual pay for some mercenaries: $150,000--$250,o00 39 Source: Huck Gutman

40 Outsourcing War: Contractors Are Not Cost-Effective Federal government pays: Training of many contractors At least double or triple daily rate for services Profits of firms “Indirect rates” of firms--can sometimes be as much as 90% of a contract 40 Sources: Alison Stanger;CNN

41 Outsourcing War: Contractors are Not Cost-Effective Federal government pays: Profits plus indirect rates for subcontractors, i.e. profits plus indirect rates on top of profits and indirect rates— 70% of costs of prime DOD contractors are subs Fraud, waste and abuse (at least 16% in Afghanistan) Clean-up after poor performance, bad behavior 41 Source: Commission on Wartime Contracting in Iraq and Afghanistan

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43 Who Are Mercenaries? Mercenaries are soldiers-for-hire or “private security contractors,” typically provided by a large firm, such as CACI or Blackwater/Xe. They come from all over the world. Companies like Blackwater/Xe recruit especially from repressive regimes with bad human rights histories.. 43

44 How Many Mercenaries? About 11% of DOD contractors in Iraq & Afghanistan are mercenaries: 13,924 in June, 09 This does not include State Dept. or CIA-funded mercenaries. Under Barack Obama, in second quarter, 2009: 23% increase in the number of “Private Security Contractors” in Iraq 29% increase in Afghanistan Sources: Congressional Research Service, DOD Contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan; Center for Globalization 44

45 Mercenary Contractors: Example Blackwater/Xe Killed 17 innocent Iraqi citizens in a massacre in 2007. Killed two Afghan civilians, in May 2009. How many more have they killed? We don’t know. Blackwater/Xe is still receiving millions of U.S. taxpayer dollars to provide security for Ambassador Karl Eikenberry, for CIA contracts for extralegal work in Pakistan, and for other services. Source: The Nation, Jeremy Scahill 45

46 Implications of Outsourcing War “The United States has created a new system for waging war... You turn the entire world into your recruiting ground. You intricately link corporate profits to an escalation of warfare and make it profitable for companies to participate in your wars.” “We live amidst the most radical privatization agenda in the history of our country.” Investigative reporter Jeremy Scahill Source: Bill Moyers Interview 46

47 Outsourcing War Powerful companies promote war because it is profitable, not because of the interests of the nation Oversight of contractors is negligible and contractors often do poor jobs—(e.g., defective KBR construction that caused electrocution of 12 US servicemen in Iraq) Cost-plus contracts, the most common DOD-type contract, encourage waste and unnecessary spending 47

48 Outsourcing War Contractors are generally outside of any law—they do what they want with total impunity (e.g., Blackwater massacre)—making a mockery of democracy or rule of law The profit motive is often counter to the military’s goals and the nation’s interest—e.g., contractors are paying protection money to war lords and the Taliban in Afghanistan 48

49 Outsourcing War & Democracy As a result of the war, corporations have been enthroned, and an era of corruption in high places will follow, and the money power of the country will endeavor to prolong its reign by working upon the prejudices of the people until all wealth is aggregated in a few hands and the Republic is destroyed. Abraham Lincoln, Nov. 1864 49

50 U.S.: Arms Dealer to the World Source: Congressional Research Service, Sept. 2009 Arms Transfer Agreements with The World, By Supplier, 2008 50

51 Sales to Other Countries: Example Israel Proposed U.S. Military Aid to Israel FY2009-FY2018 2009 $2.55 billion 2010 $2.70 billion 2011 $2.85 billion 2012 $3.00 billion 2013-2018 $3.15 billion a year Total 2009-2018: $30.15 Billion 51 Source: Congressional Research Service: US Foreign Aid to Israel

52 Sales to Other Countries Example: Israel All recipients of U.S. military assistance must spend the money they receive from U.S. taxpayers only on U.S. weapons dealers like Lockheed Martin. The only exception: Israel must spend 74% of our military aid on U.S. arms dealers ($22.3 B 2009- 2018), but is allowed to spend the remaining 26% on Israeli-made weapons. 52 Source: Congressional Research Service: US Foreign Aid to Israel

53 Sales to Other Countries Example: Israel Pentagon Seeks $15.2B Fighter Sale to Israel Sept. 30, 2008 “The Defense Department said today it wants to sell up to 75 fighter jets to Israel in a $15.2 billion deal for the aircraft expected to be the mainstay of air power in the US for decades. The Defense Security Cooperation Agency said it notified Congress on Friday that Israel has asked to buy 25 of the F-35s made by Lockheed Martin Corp., with an option to buy an additional 50 at a later date.” 53 Newser Online News Journal

54 Sales to Other Countries: Example Israel 1. US gives Israel billions of dollars in foreign aid. 2. US requires Israel to spend most of it by buying from US arms manufacturers. 3. Using this money, Israel buys planes from Lockheed Martin. 4. Lockheed Martin makes more profits. 54

55 Fragments of a US-made M155 white phosphorus carrier artillery shell fired by Israeli forces into Gaza White phosphorus: Causes deep burns through muscle and down to the bone, continuing to burn until deprived of oxygen. Can contaminate other parts of the body, poisoning and irreparably damaging internal organs. Is extremely painful and very lethal. White phosphorus was used extensively in the war on Gaza 2008-09 55 Source: Amnesty International

56 Remains of a US-made Hellfire missile that killed 3 paramedics and a child in Gaza. War on Gaza, ‘08-’09: American-made planes Dropping American- made bombs Paid for with American taxpayer funds 56 Source: Amnesty International

57 What Does the Militarization of America Mean for You? 57

58 A Weaker Economy The more a country spends on the military relative to its economy: The slower the economic growth The higher the unemployment The slower the productivity growth 58 Source: Council on Economic Priorities

59 A Weaker Economy Money to finance wars displaces productive investment, for example to rebuild infrastructure. As a result of not making these investments, future output in the U.S. will be smaller. Source: Stiglitz and Bilmes, The Three Trillion Dollar War 59

60 Financing Costs: Affect Future Economic Growth Money to finance the current wars is borrowed, largely from foreigners. This money has to be repaid, with interest. A huge national debt comes at the expense of domestic investment and future growth. Owing this debt to foreigners increases our vulnerability to foreign control of markets and policy. 60 Source: Stiglitz and Bilmes, The Three Trillion Dollar War

61 Interest Costs of Iraq War Source: Congressional Joint Economic Committee Majority Staff, Nov. 2007 Interest costs alone are so high that they will soon dwarf federal spending on other priorities 61

62 Future Costs Burden Our Economy Future significant costs of current wars, e.g., continuing treatment for those wounded, will help restrain economic growth 62 Source: Stiglitz and Bilmes, The Three Trillion Dollar War

63 Projected Costs of Wars Through 2017: $3.5 Trillion Almost $50,000 per Family Source: Congressional Joint Economic Committee Majority Staff, Nov. 2007 63

64 Total Estimated Costs of Iraq & Afghanistan: $3.5 Trillion With $3.5 trillion, for the next 133 years, we could send every 18-year-old in the U.S. to a state university. We could pay all their education expenses--tuition, fees, and room and board--for four years. 64

65 Environmental Costs The U.S. military is the biggest polluter in the world, generating an estimated 750,000 tons of toxic waste every year The military burns an estimated 20 million gallons of gasoline daily—about the same as the entire country of Iran 65 Sources: Graydon Carter; Barry Sanders

66 Environmental Costs Even if every person, every automobile, and every factory suddenly emitted zero emissions, the Earth would still be headed toward total disaster: The US military produces enough greenhouse gases, by itself, to place our species in imminent danger of extinction 66 Sources: Graydon Carter; Barry Sanders

67 Costs of Militarism We have less to invest in new businesses and new ways of doing things—our economy is weaker. We have less to spend on health, education, infrastructure, art and culture. We all have to work harder and longer hours, just to stay even. We endanger the climate and the ability of human beings to live on earth. 67

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72 Militarism: Threat to American Democracy 72

73 Threat to Democracy Militarism restricts freedom at home  Freedom of speech (e.g., Eugene Debs imprisoned for several years because of opposition to World War I)  People today fearful of protesting—might lose jobs Militarism expands government surveillance of citizens  Patriot Act  NSA data mining 73

74 Threat to Democracy Militarism involves immense amounts of money that corrupt the political system  Campaign contributions and election ads by war profiteers  Lobbying by war profiteers and other corporations (e.g., oil) Militarism leads to secrecy which is incompatible with democracy  The “State Secrets Privilege”: invoked 23 times by Bush & used to dismiss entire cases without regard to the merits—now used by Obama  The hiding of the “Pentagon Papers” during the Vietnam War 74

75 Threat to Democracy Militarism erodes fundamental rights  Denial of Habeas Corpus in “War on Terror”  Legalization of torture  Military Commissions Act of 2006, creating kangaroo courts Militarism demonizes certain citizens--who then lose basic rights  Japanese-Americans in WW II  Muslims and Arab Americans today 75

76 Threat to Democracy Militarism alters the balance of power in our form of government  One person now effectively declares war, not Congress  As “Commander in Chief,” all Presidents use “patriotism” to garner power—and today the presidency is more powerful than ever in our history 76

77 Threat to Democracy Militarism leads to powerful secret paramilitary organizations, illegal actions by government, and lack of accountability—destroying the rule of law  CIA – Illegal violence in Chile, Iran, Central America, Pakistan  “Extraordinary rendition”— kidnappings and disappearances  CIA Black Sites—secret prisons, beyond any law  Contractors—beyond oversight 77

78 Threat to Democracy Of all the enemies to public liberty war is... most to be dreaded because it comprises... the germ of every other... No nation could preserve its freedom in the midst of continual warfare. James Madison 78

79 What We Can Do 79

80 Policy Changes We Need Close foreign bases End war profiteering Dramatically reduce military contracting and the outsourcing of war Leave Iraq and Afghanistan--completely Cut the military budget 80

81 Close Foreign Bases The Declaration of Independence criticizes the British "for quartering large bodies of armed troops among us" and "for protecting them... from punishment for any murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these States.“ Foreign bases create enemies and make us less safe. 81

82 The Movement to End Foreign Bases 82 Source: International Network for the Abolition of Foreign Military Bases

83 End War Profiteering FDR, during World War II: "I don't want to see a single war millionaire created in the United States as a result of this world disaster.“ FDR: Supported broad increases in the corporate income tax; Raised the excess-profits tax to 90 percent; and Charged the Office of War Mobilization with the task of eliminating illegal profits. 83

84 Stop Using Mercenaries and Other Contractors No accountability Much more expensive Make war too easy 84

85 Get Out of Iraq and Afghanistan These wars: Are creating new enemies, making us less safe Are destroying our economy Are killing and maiming our young people—as well as hundreds of thousands of Iraqis, Afghans, and Pakistanis Leave no bases or contractors behind! 85

86 Cut the Military Budget We can cut the military budget substantially if we: Close foreign military bases End occupations and wars Stop war profiteering End use of mercenaries and other contractors 86

87 How Much Should We Cut the Budget? Rep. Barney Frank’s goal: Cut the military budget by 25% 87

88 How Much Should We Cut the Budget? 88 Andrew Bacevich: We should reduce the US military budget to a level that does not exceed the combined military spending of all ten of the next highest-spending countries in the world. Source: National Priorities Project—Security Spending Primer

89 Cut the Military Budget The annual “Unified Security Budget” specifies ways to cut the military budget and refocus spending for real security. Check it out: from Foreign Policy in 89

90 The Cost of Militarism Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired signifies in the final sense, a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and are not clothed. This world in arms is not spending money alone. It is spending the sweat of its laborers, the genius of its scientists, the hopes of its children. This is not a way of life at all in any true sense. Under the clouds of war, it is humanity hanging on a cross of iron. Dwight Eisenhower 90

91 LOBBYING ELECTORAL WORK PUBLIC EDUCATION MEDIA OUTREACH STREET ACTIVISM Join the movement. Peace Demands Action. 91 Foreign Policy in Focus Center for Arms Control National Priorities Project Peace Action Friends Committee on National Legislation American Friends Service Committee Veterans for Peace Pax Christi Jewish Voice for Peace Network of Spiritual Progressives Progressive Democrats of America etc, etc, etc.

92 92 Join Us: You Can Lobby

93 93 Join Us: You Can Help Us Elect Progressive Candidates

94 94 Join Us: You Can Help Us Inform Our Community

95 95 Join Us: You Can Help Us with Media Work

96 96 Join Us: In the Streets!

97 Be A One-Minute Activist Don’t feel like you can make that kind of time? There are other ways you can be part of the solution:  Sign up for Peace Action Montgomery’s bi-monthly email letter—and take the actions we suggest  Host an educational event through your church, community group, neighborhood  Contribute: money is power Find what you can do—and do that 97

98 Peace Action Montgomery 98

99 Sources American Forces Press Service, recruiting-cuts-reasonable recruiting-cuts-reasonable American Friends Service Committee, Amnesty International, Center for Arms Control and Non Proliferation, 2009 Briefing Book, Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, “Putting Afghanistan Troop Increases in Perspective,” Dec. 2. perspective/ perspective/ Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, “Analysis of 2010 Defense Authorization Agreement,” Oct. 21, 2009. Center for Arms Control and Nonproliferation: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Chalmers Johnson, America’s Empire of Bases. Commission on Wartime Contracting in Iraq and Afghanistan, Interim Report, June 2009: 99

100 Sources, continued CNN, Congress to Probe Private Military Contractors in Afghanistan: Congressional Joint Economic Committee Majority Report. War At Any Price?: 9af9-716c-d2ecbc191d33&Region_id=&Issue_id= 9af9-716c-d2ecbc191d33&Region_id=&Issue_id Congressional Research Service Report RL 33110, September 28, 2009 Congressional Research Service Report R40764, September 21, 2009, Congressional Research Service Report RL 33222, US Foreign Aid to Israel, Congressional Research Service: Anita Dancs, Mary Orisich, Suzanne Smith, The Military Costs of Securing Energy (National Priorities Project – October 2008) Foreign Policy in Focus: Friends Committee on National Legislation, “Keeping Military Spending in Balance with the Nation’s Priorities,” March 16, 2009. Huck Gutman, Iraq Coalition Casualties: Jeremy Scahill, interviewed by Bill Moyers, June 2009. 100

101 Sources, continued John Feffer, “Good War vs. Great Society,” Foreign Policy in Focus, Sept. 22, 2009. Joseph Stiglitz and Linda Bilmes, The Three Trillion Dollar War, Norton & Co., 2008. Just Foreign Policy: National Priorities Project: http://www.nationalpriorities.org Newser: Peace Corps Web Site, Refugees International: Right Web: Committee for the Liberation of Iraq: http://www.rightweb.irc- Robert Pollin and Heidi Garrett-Peltier, “The U.S. Employment Effects of Military and Domestic Spending Priorities,”, Oct. 9, 2009: U.S. Budget: United States Navy Fact File,, accessed November 15, 2009. War Resisters League: Widipedia: Lockheed Martin Ycharts: Lockheed Martin: 101

102 102 The following slides are extras, originally developed for this presentation, but which I decided not to use. Some people may want to use these, however, depending on specific needs.

103 U.S. Discretionary Budget, FY 09 Source: Budget of the U.S. Government, FY2009, Analytical Perspectives, Table 27-1Budget of the U.S. Government, FY2009, Analytical Perspectives, FY 2010 military spending is projected to be almost 9% greater than FY 2009. “National Defense” in chart does not include veterans’ benefits—4% more. 103

104 2010Budget: Military Recruitment vs. Peace Corps Dollars Sources: American Forces Press Service; Peace Corps Web Site 104

105 Federal Spending on War vs. Other Priorities, 2007 Source: Congressional Joint Economic Committee Majority Staff, Nov. 2007 105

106 With $3 Billion, Montgomery County Could Instead Have Paid For:  Renewable electricity for 2.8 million homes  Threat not addressed: global warming  16,338 affordable housing units  Threat not addressed: homelessness and poverty Source: National Priorities Project 106

107 Discretionary Budget, FY 09 Source: Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation 107

108 Outsourcing War: Contractors vs. Troops in Afghanistan Source: Congressional Research Service, DOD Contractors 108

109 U.S. Environmental Priorities In 2009, the U.S. will: Spend $100 billion on securing energy access through the military Invest $1.26 billion in renewable energy 109 Source: Dancs, Orisich, Smith

110 How Much? FY 2010 “national security budget” : $716 billion (including expected supplemental) Total is 8.8% higher than in FY 2009 “National security budget” includes: DOD, nuclear weapons and related defense activities, and Iraq and Afghanistan wars Source: Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation 110

111 How Else Could We Spend $1 Trillion? We could double funding for the National Cancer Institute—for 100 years We could pay for a new Marshall Plan--ten times over We could fund the UN Millennium Development Goals 16 times over 111

112 With $3 Billion, Montgomery County Could Instead Have Paid For:  Health care for 1.2 million children for one year  Threat not addressed: unnecessary death and illness of children  51,479 port container inspectors.  Threat not addressed: protection of borders 112 Source: National Priorities Project

113 Direct Plus Indirect Costs of Wars Through 2008 Total: $20,900 Per U.S. Family Source: Congressional Joint Economic Committee Majority Staff, Nov. 2007 Direct war costs include all estimated budgeted costs of the war to the federal government. Indirect costs are all other economic costs. 113

114 DOD Contracting: Procurement Budgets, FY 00 – FY 08 Source: Center for Arms Control and Nonprolieration 114

115 Comparative War Costs Source: National Priorities Project As of Oct. 2008 115

116 Jobs Created with $1 Billion Spending Total Jobs Created Number of Jobs with Annual Wages Between $32,000 and $64,000 Education Health Care Clean Energy Consumption Military Source: Pollin & Garrett-Peltier, 2009 116

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