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Splash Screen. Chapter Intro 1 This region has served as the crossroads for Asia, Africa, and Europe. As a result, the region has been home to many ethnic.

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Presentation on theme: "Splash Screen. Chapter Intro 1 This region has served as the crossroads for Asia, Africa, and Europe. As a result, the region has been home to many ethnic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Splash Screen

2 Chapter Intro 1 This region has served as the crossroads for Asia, Africa, and Europe. As a result, the region has been home to many ethnic groups and cultures.

3 Section 1-GTR North Africa The Sahara and access to water have profoundly affected the peoples of North Africa.

4 Section 1-GTR A.Egypt North Africa B.Morocco C.Algeria D.Tunisia E.Casablanca F.Algiers G.Tunis H.TripoliK.Suez Canal I.Libya J.Cairo

5 Section 1 Indigenous ethnic groups, migrations, and the dramatic climate have shaped population patterns in North Africa. Population Patterns The primary influence on the subregion is a mix of indigenous and Arab cultures.

6 Section 1 The people: –Berbers—indigenous to North Africa –Arab Population Patterns (cont.) North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia: Population Density

7 Section 1 Population Patterns (cont.) The Nile Delta region is one of the world’s most densely populated areas. Major urban population centers: –Casablanca –Algiers –Tunis –Tripoli –Cairo

8 Section 1 The Sahara, the Nile River Valley, and multiple invasions influenced different cultures throughout North Africa’s history. History and Government Early Peoples and Civilizations –6,000 B.C. — Farming communities along the Nile River and Mediterranean Sea –A.D. 6,000—The Egyptian civilization developed in the Nile River Valley.

9 Section 1 History and Government (cont.) Invasions and migrations: –Until 750s—Islamic invasions –Late 1400s—Jewish exiles from Christian Spain –1500s—Ottoman Empire –Early 1600s—Muslim exiles from Christian Spain –Early 1800s—France invades –WWII—U.S. and Britain North Africa: Invasions and Migrations

10 Section 1 The Muslim religion and the Arabic language define much of the culture of North Africa. Culture Religion–Islam Language–Arabic

11 Section 1 Culture (cont.) Education—most people attend school, but literacy rates range widely. Health care—this has improved, but doctor shortages mean limited care. The arts—pyramids; weaving, embroidery, and metalworking influenced by Islam

12 Section 2-GTR The Eastern Mediterranean Ancient civilizations and cultures continue to influence the subregion today.

13 Section 2-GTR A.Israel The Eastern Mediterranean B.Lebanon C.Palestine D.Syria E.Jordan F.Tel Aviv-Jaffa G.Beirut H.Jerusalem I.Makkah (Mecca)

14 Section 2 Migrations, claims to ancestral homes, and boundary disputes have influenced population in the eastern Mediterranean. Population Patterns The people: –About 7.1 million people in this region are Israelis living in Israel.

15 Section 2 Population Patterns (cont.) –80% of the Israelis are Jewish. –Tensions between Arabs and Jews resulted in six wars. Ethnic Groups in the Eastern Mediterranean

16 Section 2 Population Patterns (cont.) Density and distribution: –The majority of people live along coastal plains and in the Euphrates River valley. –This area has some of the highest population densities in Southwest Asia. –This subregion is predominantly urban—more than 75% of the people in Israel, Jordan, and Lebanon live in cities. –Just over 50% in Syria and Palestine live in cities.

17 Section 2 The eastern Mediterranean is home to three of the world’s major religions that have shaped politics and culture there for centuries. History and Government Early civilizations: –Ebla, Syria –Damascus, Syria

18 Section 2 History and Government (cont.) Three major religions that began in this subregion: –Judaism –Christianity –Islam The Old City of Jerusalem

19 Section 2 History and Government (cont.) Independence: –By the late 1800s, Western European powers controlled large areas in this subregion. –These countries gained independence around the time of WWII.

20 Section 2 History and Government (cont.) Conflict: –Arab-Israeli conflicts—in the 1948 and 1967 conflicts, victorious Israeli forces occupied Arab lands. –The status of Palestinian refugees is an ongoing dispute. Israel and Palestine

21 Section 2 The eastern Mediterranean’s religions and languages have influenced its art and everyday life for centuries. Culture Religion—Islam Language—Arabic

22 Section 2 Culture (cont.) Education—most young people attend school, but literacy rates vary widely. Health care—this has improved in recent decades. The arts—expression through arts and architecture; artists and writers found inspiration in religion.

23 Section 3-GTR The Northeast Religious traditions have shaped the history of this subregion.

24 Section 3-GTR A.Turkey The Northeast B.Iran C.Iraq D.Tehran E.Mesopotamia F.Fertile Crescent G.Persian Empire

25 Section 3 Ethnic diversity and the Muslim religion have profoundly shaped the population of the Northeast subregion. Population Patterns The people: –Turks –Iranians –Arabs –Kurds Ethnic Groups in the Northeast

26 Section 3 Population Patterns (cont.) Density and distribution: –The most populous countries are Turkey and Iran. –More than half of these people live in cities.

27 Section 3 Ancient empires and thriving civilizations influenced the early history of the Northeast, which today is being shaped by the oil industry and relations with the outside world. History and Government

28 Section 3 History and Government (cont.) Civilizations and empires: –Mesopotamia—the Sumerian civilization lived in this area. –The Phoenician civilization began along the eastern Mediterranean. –The Persian Empire extended across the region. –The Ottoman Empire was centered in present- day Turkey.

29 Section 3 History and Government (cont.) The modern era: –Iraq has experienced periods of turmoil since it gained independence in 1932. –Turkey was established as a country in 1923. –Iranians have experienced political and social upheavals over the years.

30 Section 3 History and Government (cont.) The era of oil: –Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela formed the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in order to regulate oil prices.

31 Section 3 Religion and language shape everyday life in the Northeast subregion. Culture Language—mostly Arabic; Turkish in Turkey and Persian in Persia Religion—mostly Shia Muslims in Iraq and Iran; Sunni Muslims in Turkey Early Civilizations and Empires

32 Section 3 Culture (cont.) Education—required through grade 6 in Iraq and grade 8 in Turkey; literacy rates are fairly high. Health care—this varies, but is struggling in most areas. The arts—early civilizations created sculptures, fine metalwork, and large buildings; literature is based on strong oral traditions, epics, and poetry.

33 Section 4-GTR The Arabian Peninsula The desert climate and coastal regions, along with the religion of Islam, have formed today’s Arabian Peninsula.

34 Section 4-GTR A.Kuwait The Arabian Peninsula B.Saudi Arabia C.Bahrain D.Oman E.Yemen F.United Arab Emirates G.Qatar

35 Section 4 A shared religion, a common language, and rapid modernization have formed today’s Arabian Peninsula. Population Patterns Most people in this region are Arabs.

36 Section 4 Population Patterns (cont.) Density and distribution: –Bedouin still roam the large Arabian Desert, but many have migrated to cities. –Population densities can be high in cities. –The discovery of oil in the early 1900s led to increased wealth, modernization, and immigration in many Arab countries. The Arabian Peninsula: Citizens and Foreign Nationals

37 Section 4 Conquering empires and unified governments have imposed cultures on the peoples of the Arabian Peninsula that remain influential to this day. History and Government Early cultures and conquests: –One of the oldest centers of civilization in the area existed in Yemen between the 1100s B.C. and the A.D. 500s. The Spread of Islam

38 Section 4 History and Government (cont.) –The region struggled against invasion by the Ottoman Empire and others. –The Unified Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was established in 1932.

39 Section 4 History and Government (cont.) Independence: –Countries throughout the region gained independence slowly. –Standards of living vary widely across the region and even within countries.

40 Section 4 Religious beliefs and a common language influence everyday life on the Arabian Peninsula. Culture Religion—Sunni and Shia Muslim Language—Arabic

41 Section 4 Culture (cont.) Education—most young people attend school and literacy rates are high in certain areas. Health care—this varies widely. The arts—architecture provides some of the best examples of art. Celebrations—Id al Adha, Ramadan

42 Section 5-GTR Central Asia Central Asia’s geography and climate have created challenges for the region that sits at the crossroads between continents.

43 Section 5-GTR A.Afghanistan Central Asia B.Turkmenistan C.Tajikistan D.Uzbekistan E.Armenia F.Georgia G.Kazakhstan

44 Section 5 Invasions, domination by numerous empires, and the rugged landscape have created challenges for Central Asia. Population Patterns The people: –Pashtun –Armenians

45 Section 5 Population Patterns (cont.) –Georgians –Turkic—Uzbeks and Kazakhs Ethnic Groups in Central Asia

46 Section 5 Population Patterns (cont.) Density and distribution: –The population is spread unevenly across its mountainous terrain. –Afghanistan, home to 29.9 million people, is the most populous country in the subregion.

47 Section 5 The location of Central Asia has left the region’s people vulnerable to centuries of invasion and to new challenges in the modern era. History and Government Ancient cities/cultures: –Georgia –The kingdom of Urartu –Samarqand

48 Section 5 History and Government (cont.) Conquests: –Genghis Khan –Alexander the Great –Persians –Arabs –Ottoman Turks –The Russian Empire The Silk Road

49 Section 5 The people of Central Asia share many cultural characteristics and experiences. Culture Language—the majority speak a form of the Turkic languages. Religion—Islam, mostly Sunni

50 Section 5 Culture (cont.) Education—it is universal across this region and mandatory through secondary schools in a few countries. Health care—these are lacking. The arts—they have a rich literary history.

51 VS 1 Ethnicity and Culture North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia has been a cultural crossroads for much of human history. The region has two important cultural hearths in Mesopotamia and the Nile Valley. The region has a large amount of ethnic diversity. Many customs, languages, and beliefs are represented here. This diversity of peoples has led to conflict in parts of the region.

52 VS 2 Location and Trade The region’s fertile rivers and central location made the land a valuable resource. Empires in the region grew rich from trade. As Europe grew more skilled at sea travel, the empires’ powers grew weaker. Oil has helped make the region wealthy again. It has also led to conflict as countries fight over the rights to oil reserves in the region.

53 VS 3 The Importance of Religion Religion is very important to the people of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia. It is the birthplace of three of the world’s major religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. It is also home to the holiest sights of these religions. Muslims must make a pilgrimage to Makkah (Mecca) in Saudi Arabia. Jerusalem is the Jewish capital and religious center. Christians also hold Jerusalem close, because many of Jesus’ acts took place there.

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