Presentation on theme: "Social Cycle Theory Predecessors"— Presentation transcript:
1 Social Cycle Theory Predecessors The theory of social evolutionism views the evolution of society and human history as progressing in some direction.Social cycle theory argues that events and stages of society and history are repeating themselves in cycles.PredecessorsHistory as repeating cycles of Dark and Golden Ages was a common belief in many ancient cultures.Polybius, Ibn Khaldun (Asabiyyah), and Giambattista Vico can be seen as precursors of the social cycle theory.
2 The Social Cycle Theory in modern times Russian philosopher Nikolai Danilewski (1822–1885) - in Rossiia i Europa (1869) differentiated between various smaller civilizations (Egyptian, Chinese, Persian, Greek, Roman, German, and Slav, among others). He wrote that each civilization has a life cycle, and by the end of the 19th century the Roman-German civilization was in decline, while the Slav civilization was approaching its Golden Age.Oswald Spengler (1880–1936) who in his The Decline of the West (1918) argued that the Western civilization had entered its final phase of development .Italian sociologist and economist Vilfedo Pareto (1848–1923) - Trattato di Sociologia Generale (1916).Pitirim A. Sorokin (1889–1968) -- Social and Cultural Dynamics (1937, 1943).
3 Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (29 May 1880 – 8 May 1936)A German historian and philosopher of history.
4 He is best known for his book The Decline of the West (Der Untergang des Abendlandes), published in 1918, covering all of world history.
5 Spengler's work became an important foundation for the social cycle theory.
6 Spengler's civilization model postulates that any civilization is a superorganism with a limited lifespan.Spengler argued that the Western civilization had entered its final phase of development and its decline was inevitable.
7 To His Coy Mistress – Andrew Marvell Had we but world enough, and time, This coyness, Lady, were no crime We would sit down and think which way To walk and pass our long love's day. Thou by the Indian Ganges' side Shouldst rubies find: I by the tide Of Humber would complain. I would Love you ten years before the Flood, And you should, if you please, refuse Till the conversion of the Jews.
8 My vegetable love should grow Vaster than empires, and more slow; A hundred years should go to praise Thine eyes and on thy forehead gaze; Two hundred to adore each breast, But thirty thousand to the rest; An age at least to every part, And the last age should show your heart. For, Lady, you deserve this state, Nor would I love at lower rate.
9 See the film on YouTube (11:25 min See the film on YouTube (11:25 min.) using the link below or entering ”Spengler the Decline of the West” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FsaieZt5vjk
10 But at my back I always hear Time's wingèd chariot hurrying near;And yonder all before us lieDeserts of vast eternity.Thy beauty shall no more be found,Nor, in thy marble vault, shall soundMy echoing song; then worms shall tryThat long preserved virginity,And your quaint honour turn to dust,And into ashes all my lust:The grave's a fine and private place,But none, I think, do there embrace.
11 Now therefore, while the youthful hue Sits on thy skin like morning dew, And while thy willing soul transpires At every pore with instant fires, Now let us sport us while we may, And now, like amorous birds of prey, Rather at once our time devour Than languish in his slow-chapped power. Let us roll all our strength and all Our sweetness up into one ball, And tear our pleasures with rough strife Through the iron gates of life: Thus, though we cannot make our sun Stand still, yet we will make him run.
12 You, Andrew Marvell By Archibald MacLeish And here face down beneath the sun And here upon earth’s noonward height To feel the always coming onThe always rising of the night:To feel creep up the curving east The earthy chill of dusk and slow Upon those under lands the vast And ever climbing shadow growAnd strange at Ecbatan the trees Take leaf by leaf the evening strange The flooding dark about their knees The mountains over Persia change
13 And now at Kermanshah the gate Dark empty and the withered grass And through the twilight now the late Few travelers in the westward passAnd Baghdad darken and the bridge Across the silent river goneAnd through Arabia the edgeOf evening widen and steal onAnd deepen on Palmyra’s streetThe wheel rut in the ruined stone And Lebanon fade out and CreteHigh through the clouds and overblown
14 And over Sicily the airStill flashing with the landward gulls And loom and slowly disappear The sails above the shadowy hullsAnd Spain go under and the shore Of Africa the gilded sandAnd evening vanish and no more The low pale light across that landNor now the long light on the sea:And here face downward in the sun To feel how swift how secretlyThe shadow of the night comes on ...