Presentation on theme: "Chapters 17 and 18. a. Describe the policies of the Tokugawa and Qing rulers; include how Oda Nobunga laid the ground work for the subsequent Tokugawa."— Presentation transcript:
Chapters 17 and 18
a. Describe the policies of the Tokugawa and Qing rulers; include how Oda Nobunga laid the ground work for the subsequent Tokugawa rulers and how Kangxi came to rule for such a long period in China. b. Analyze the impact of population growth and its impact on the social structure of Japan and China.
Mongols: Conquered China Established the Yuan Dynasty 1368—Mongols are overthrown Ming Dynasty is established founder: Zhu Yuanzhang (Joo Yoo-en-JAHNG) Ming means “Brilliant” Dynasty lasts 300 years PRESS
Society divided into four classes: Scholar-gentryFarmersArtisansMerchants This landed, highly literate class helped staff the royal bureaucracy. They produced food and paid the taxes that supported the empire. They made beautiful and useful objects. At the bottom of the social order, they made their living by selling objects that peasants and artisans had produced.
Confucianism restored as the official philosophy of the government 1. Drove the Mongols out of China a. Centralized government control; faced new invasions from the Mongols b. Rebuilt and repaired the Great Wall to prevent northern invasions. c. Restored Chinese cultural traditions and civil service examinations
2. Ming Decline a. trade disrupted by pirates, 1520s-1560s b. Government corruption c. Famines and peasant rebellions during the 1630s and 1640s d. Manchu (Manchurians) invaders with peasant support led to final Ming collapse, 1644
Ming Dynasty conquered by Manchuria (unified tribes that formed a single people, the Manchu) They were outsiders who conquered China Established their own dynasty Not Chinese, but adopted Chinese culture Ruled with traditional Chinese techniques
Manchu people, a minority, were kept separate from the Chinese Manchu people, had to study Manchu language and cultural traditions Qing emperors could marry only Manchu women Chinese could not move to Manchuria All Chinese men had to wear their hair tied in a queue [kyoo](tail), it symbolized Chinese submission to Manchu rule. Manchu— remained an ethnic elite
Economy increases Growth of cities Growth of popular culture Studied ancient writings Created library for rare books from their past. However, most people lived in the countryside- farmers Society—based on the family---it reflected Confucian belief that each person had a role in life.
Population increases More crops = able to feed more people Peace and stability—caused population increase Eventually—enormous peasant class in China
Kangzi ruled from 1661 to 1722 the longest reign on the throne in China's history, 61 years Many famous works on literature and art were compiled under his order. During Kangxi's reign, the society accumulated huge wealth and most of the time enjoyed peace and prosperity.
Policy of strict control on foreign trade Western merchants restricted to certain areas of China Considered technological change disruptive Believed that China’s abundant labor, labor-saving technologies were unnecessary
1467—Ashikaga family dispute over who would be next shogun (chief military and governmental officer) 100 years of warfare Late 1500s—3 daimyo (powerful local lords in feudal Japan) emerged victorious These powerful daimyo established themselves as overlords over other daimyo and built a centralized feudal system in Japan.
1568—captured the city, Kyoto through conquests and alliances Ended the Ashikaga shogunate in 1573 Started to strengthen his power in Japan Attacked by one of his own vassals in 1582 Wounded, he committed suicide
2 nd —Hideyoshi-succeeded Nobunaga Carried out a “sword hunt” to disarm peasants Peasants could no longer become warriors Only men born into warrior families could become warriors. Ruled until he died in 1598
Succeeded Hideyoshi Established capital at Edo [AY-doh] (now Tokyo) 1603—he became shogun (chief military and governmental officer) He crushed his defeated rivals The Tokugawa family—kept title of shogun for more than 250 years Established a government known as the Tokugawa shogunate PRESS
A cross between feudalism and a central monarchy Within his domain, each daimyo governed as an almost absolute ruler Local peasants paid taxes to support the daimyo NOTE: The Tokugawa family had its own private domain—included ¼ of the nation’s resources.
1630s—adopted a policy of isolation from outside world Foreign trade was under tight restriction at the port of Nagasaki Despite the policy, Japan was never completely isolated Japanese people were prohibited from traveling abroad. ISOLATION!
Shoguns did not promote change Stability more important to the Japanese Adopted—with some changes—the Confucian ideal of social classes. 1. Warrior class Therefore the samurai stood at the top of the Japanese social order. Peasants, artisans, and merchants followed in descending order of importance. A person’s social class –determined at birth Sons—followed occupation of their fathers.
Agriculture production doubled between 1600 and Population rose by a one-third from 1600 to 1700 THUS Internal trade expands (regions specialized in certain crops and handicrafts) Cities grew Artisans and merchants grow wealthier Rise in popular culture: art, literature, and theater
1858—Japan and United States sign a new treaty Samurai angered by agreement 1860s –Japanese Civil War anti-Tokugawa overthrew the shogunate Emperor’s power restored More centralized government in Japan Meiji reign— “Enlightened Rule” 1858—Japan and United States sign a new treaty Samurai angered by agreement 1860s –Japanese Civil War anti-Tokugawa overthrew the shogunate Emperor’s power restored More centralized government in Japan Meiji reign— “Enlightened Rule”
SSWH12 The student will examine the origins and contributions of the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires. a.Describe the geographical extent of the Ottoman Empire during the rule of Suleyman the Magnificent, the Safavid Empire during the reign of Shad Abbas I, and the Mughal Empire during the reigns of Babur and Akbar. b.Explain the ways in which these Muslim empires influenced religion, law, and the arts in their parts of the world.
The Ottoman Empire
Suleyman The greatest Ottoman sultan Ruled Known as “The Magnificent” in Europe “The Lawgiver” by his own people Expanded the empire— conquered Hungary Ruled most of eastern Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa. Suleyman The greatest Ottoman sultan Ruled Known as “The Magnificent” in Europe “The Lawgiver” by his own people Expanded the empire— conquered Hungary Ruled most of eastern Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa.
Ottoman Empire—made up of different groups of people Muslim Turks—lived in the heart of the empire Christians and Jews—lived in the Balkans Muslim Arabs lived in the Fertile Crescent and northern Africa Religious differences = TENSION Sultans allowed the different groups to practice their own religions. They were organized into separate religious communities called millets. Ottoman Empire—made up of different groups of people Muslim Turks—lived in the heart of the empire Christians and Jews—lived in the Balkans Muslim Arabs lived in the Fertile Crescent and northern Africa Religious differences = TENSION Sultans allowed the different groups to practice their own religions. They were organized into separate religious communities called millets.
Suleyman the Magnificent died in 1566 His death marked the start of a slow decline of Ottoman power and influence 1600s—Empire lost control of the silk and spice trade between Europe and Asia New sea routes—they bypassed the Turks Destroyed their trade monopoly Suleyman the Magnificent died in 1566 His death marked the start of a slow decline of Ottoman power and influence 1600s—Empire lost control of the silk and spice trade between Europe and Asia New sea routes—they bypassed the Turks Destroyed their trade monopoly
Late 1700s Ottomans lost the Crimean Peninsula and lands around the Black Sea—to the Russians 1798 The French invaded Egypt—an Ottoman possession Land in the Balkans were also lost 1923—The Ottoman Empire ends Turkey established itself as a republic
The Safavid [sah-FAH-vid] Empire Ottoman Empire on the west Mughal Empire on the east Today: Muslims 1399—shifted from the Sunni to the Shi’ah sect Use the ancient title of shah or “king of kings” Shi’ah—official religion Persian language and history—strong sense of identity
Shah ‘Abbas the Great became shah died in 1626 Reformed their military— used slave soldiers Recovered territory that had been lost Moved capital to Esfahan— a beautiful city political, spiritual, and commercial center Economic development— manufacturing and foreign tradePersian rugs, rich fabrics (brocade, damask, and silk) and beautiful tiles
The empire began to decline and had ended by Eventually Persia split into a number of small states. Ancient Persian rug
The Mughal Empire in India
“Babur the Tiger” 1526—he attacked the Sultanate of Delhi Occupied Deli and the surrounding region. This territory become the core of the Mughal Empire.
Akbar Babur’s grandson “the greatest Mughal emperor” (r ) Tax System—based on average of what a village might produce over a 10-year period He encouraged Hindu and Muslim artists Encouraged literature, architecture (blending Persia, Islamic, and Hindu styles).
Akbar Tolerant of ALL religions Repealed the special tax that non-Muslims had been forced to pay Thought of himself as a divine ruler Established a creed called the Divine Faith Creed blended elements of Islam, Hinduism, Jainism, Christianity, and others. Note: Muslim strongly opposed it! Allahu Akbar “God is great” or “Akbar is God”
Economy improved Wealth and great resources Location—sea route to Asia = European traders Jewels and gold Climate—variety of crops grown Cities—seemed larger than any in Europe Leaders lived in greater luxury than those in Europe
One of the Architectural Wonders of the World Built by the Shah Jahan Tomb for his wife Made of marble inlaid with semiprecious gems