2SSWH 11 Students will investigate political and social changes in Japan and in China from the 17th century to mid-19th centurya. Describe the policies of the Tokugawa and Qing rulers; include how Oda Nobunga laid the ground work for the subsequent Tokugawa rulers and how Kangxi came to rule for such a long period in China.b. Analyze the impact of population growth and its impact on the social structure of Japan and China.
3Ming Dynasty is established Background on CHINAMongols:Conquered ChinaEstablished the Yuan Dynasty1368—Mongols are overthrownMing Dynasty is establishedfounder: Zhu Yuanzhang (Joo Yoo-en-JAHNG)Ming means “Brilliant”Dynasty lasts 300 yearsPRESSEarly period of the Ming dynasty—the Chinese were probably the most skilled sailors in the world.Had large ships over 400 feet long---called “junks” by the EuropeansIt is believed that the Chinese invented the compass—used to navigate their ships.Dominated the area around the Indian Ocean----The Chinese clearly had the ability to become a great seafaring power. However, the Ming emperors had litle interest in sea power or foreign trade. They stopped financing naval expeditions. For a time they outlawed overseas trade.
4Restored Confucianism Society divided into four classes:Scholar-gentryFarmersArtisansMerchantsThis landed, highly literate class helped staff the royal bureaucracy.They produced food and paid the taxes that supported the empire.They made beautiful and useful objects.At the bottom of the social order, they made their living by selling objects that peasants and artisans had produced.After defeating the Mongols, the Ming emperors tried to rid China of all Mongol influences. They wanted China to return to its glory days under the Han, Tang, and Sung dynasties. As part of that effort, the Ming emperors restored Confucianism as the official philosophy of the government. Confucian philosophy divided society into four classes.
5Ming Dynasty 1368-1644 1. Drove the Mongols out of China Confucianism restored as the official philosophy of the government1. Drove the Mongols out of Chinaa. Centralized government control; faced new invasions from the Mongolsb. Rebuilt and repaired the Great Wall to prevent northern invasions.c. Restored Chinese cultural traditions and civil service examinations
6Ming Dynasty 2. Ming Decline a. trade disrupted by pirates, 1520s-1560sb. Government corruptionc. Famines and peasant rebellions during the 1630s and 1640sd. Manchu (Manchurians) invaders with peasant support led to final Ming collapse, 1644
7Qing (ching) DynastyMing Dynasty conquered by Manchuria (unified tribes that formed a single people, the Manchu)They were outsiders who conquered ChinaEstablished their own dynastyNot Chinese, but adopted Chinese cultureRuled with traditional Chinese techniques
8Qing Dynasty Society Manchu—remained an ethnic elite Manchu people, a minority, were kept separate from the ChineseManchu people, had to study Manchu language and cultural traditionsQing emperors could marry only Manchu womenChinese could not move to ManchuriaAll Chinese men had to wear their hair tied in a queue [kyoo](tail), it symbolized Chinese submission to Manchu rule.
9Qing—Econ0my, Culture, and Society Economy increasesGrowth of citiesGrowth of popular cultureStudied ancient writingsCreated library for rare books from their past.However, most people lived in the countryside- farmersSociety—based on the family---it reflected Confucian belief that each person had a role in life.
10Qing Dynasty—Peace and Prosperity Population increasesMore crops = able to feed more peoplePeace and stability—caused population increaseEventually—enormous peasant class in China
11Kangzi ruled from 1661 to 1722the longest reign on the throne in China's history, 61 yearsMany famous works on literature and art were compiled under his order.During Kangxi's reign, the society accumulated huge wealth and most of the time enjoyed peace and prosperity.
12Kangxi Policy of strict control on foreign trade Western merchants restricted to certain areas of ChinaConsidered technological change disruptiveBelieved that China’s abundant labor, labor-saving technologies were unnecessary
14Background on Japan1467—Ashikaga family dispute over who would be next shogun (chief military and governmental officer)100 years of warfareLate 1500s—3 daimyo (powerful local lords in feudal Japan) emerged victoriousThese powerful daimyo established themselves as overlords over other daimyo and built a centralized feudal system in Japan.
15Oda Nobunaga—first of the overlords 1568—captured the city, Kyoto through conquests and alliancesEnded the Ashikaga shogunate in 1573Started to strengthen his power in JapanAttacked by one of his own vassals in 1582Wounded, he committedsuicide
16The other 2 daimyo (overlords) 2nd—Hideyoshi-succeeded NobunagaCarried out a “sword hunt” to disarm peasantsPeasants could no longer become warriorsOnly men born into warrior families could become warriors.Ruled until he died in 1598
17Tokugawa Ieyasu PRESS Succeeded Hideyoshi Established capital at Edo [AY-doh] (now Tokyo)1603—he became shogun (chief military and governmental officer)He crushed his defeated rivalsThe Tokugawa family—kept title of shogun for more than 250 yearsEstablished a government known as the Tokugawa shogunatePRESS
18Tokugawa rule A cross between feudalism and a central monarchy Within his domain, each daimyo governed as an almost absolute rulerLocal peasants paid taxes to support the daimyoNOTE: The Tokugawa family had its own private domain—included ¼ of the nation’s resources.
19ISOLATION! Foreign Relations 1630s—adopted a policy of isolation from outside worldForeign trade was under tight restriction at the port of NagasakiDespite the policy, Japanwas never completely isolatedJapanese people were prohibitedfrom traveling abroad.ISOLATION!
20Life in Tokugawa Japan Shoguns did not promote change Stability more important to the JapaneseAdopted—with some changes—the Confucian ideal of social classes.1. Warrior classTherefore the samurai stood at the top of the Japanese social order. Peasants, artisans, and merchants followed in descending order of importance.A person’s social class –determined at birthSons—followed occupation of their fathers.
21Population growthAgriculture production doubled between and 17006Population rose by a one-third from 1600 to 1700THUSInternal trade expands (regions specialized in certain crops and handicrafts)Cities grewArtisans and merchants grow wealthierRise in popular culture: art, literature, and theater
22The End of Japan’s Isolation 1858—Japan and United States sign a new treatySamurai angered by agreement1860s –Japanese Civil War1867--anti-Tokugawa overthrew the shogunateEmperor’s power restoredMore centralized government in JapanMeiji reign— “Enlightened Rule”
23SSWH12 The student will examine the origins and contributions of the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires.Describe the geographical extent of the Ottoman Empire during the rule of Suleyman the Magnificent, the Safavid Empire during the reign of Shad Abbas I, and the Mughal Empire during the reigns of Babur and Akbar.Explain the ways in which these Muslim empires influenced religion, law, and the arts in their parts of the world.
26SuleymanThe greatest Ottoman sultan Ruled 1520-1566 Known as “The Magnificent” in Europe“The Lawgiver” by his own peopleExpanded the empire—conquered HungaryRuled most of eastern Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa.He nearly captured the city of Vienna.
27The millet system Ottoman Empire—made up of different groups of people Muslim Turks—lived in the heart of the empireChristians and Jews—lived in the BalkansMuslim Arabs lived in the Fertile Crescent and northern AfricaReligious differences = TENSIONSultans allowed the different groups to practice their own religions. They were organized into separate religious communities called millets.
30Suleyman the Magnificent died in 1566His death marked the start of a slow decline of Ottoman power and influence1600s—Empire lost control of the silk and spice trade between Europe and AsiaNew sea routes—they bypassed the TurksDestroyed their trade monopoly
31Late 1700sOttomans lost the Crimean Peninsula and lands around the Black Sea—to the Russians1798The French invaded Egypt—an Ottoman possessionLand in the Balkans were also lost1923—The Ottoman Empire endsTurkey established itself as a republic
33The Safavid [sah-FAH-vid] Empire Ottoman Empire on the westMughal Empire on the eastToday:Muslims1399—shifted from the Sunni to the Shi’ah sectUse the ancient title of shah or “king of kings”Shi’ah—official religionPersian language and history—strong sense of identity
34Shah ‘Abbas the Great 1587---became shah died in 1626 Reformed their military—used slave soldiersRecovered territory that had been lostMoved capital to Esfahan—a beautiful citypolitical, spiritual, and commercial centerEconomic development—manufacturing and foreign tradePersian rugs, rich fabrics (brocade, damask, and silk) and beautiful tiles
39“Babur the Tiger”1526—he attacked the Sultanate of DelhiOccupied Deli and the surrounding region.This territory become the core of the Mughal Empire.
40“the greatest Mughal emperor” Babur’s grandson“the greatest Mughal emperor”(r )Tax System—based on average of what a village might produce over a 10-year periodHe encouraged Hindu and Muslim artistsEncouraged literature, architecture (blending Persia, Islamic, and Hindu styles).Akbar
41Tolerant of ALL religions Repealed the special tax that non-Muslims had been forced to payThought of himself as a divine rulerEstablished a creed called the Divine FaithCreed blended elements of Islam, Hinduism, Jainism, Christianity, and others.Note: Muslim strongly opposed it!AkbarAllahu Akbar“God is great” or“Akbar is God”
42Economy and Trade Economy improved Wealth and great resources Location—sea route to Asia = European tradersJewels and goldClimate—variety of crops grownCities—seemed larger than any in EuropeLeaders lived in greater luxury than those in Europe