I. Geography A.Mountains divided Greece and led to cultural and political divisions. 1.Greece is made up of two peninsula (southern most part of the Balkan Peninsula and the Peloponnese Peninsula) that is 80% mountainous 2.Physical divisions created fiercely independent communities which led to devastating rivalries.
Geography B.Seas linked Greece to the rest of the world. 1.Surrounded by Aegean, Mediterranean, and Ionian Sea 2.Long sea cost with many harbors 3.Greeks became seafarers 4.Established Colonies which spread Greek Civilization throughout Mediterranean World
II. Minoans and Mycenaean A.Minoans: Bronze Age Civilization established on Island of Crete by 2800 B.C. Were Not Greek but influenced the peoples of Greek Mainland B.The Minoan Civilization was a far ranging sea empire based on trade. 1.Knossos was at the center of the Minoan World. 2.Had catastrophic collapse around 1450 B.C. from either a tidal wave or by an invasion by Mycenaean Greeks.
Minoans and Mycenaean C.Mycenae was the first Greek State 1.Flourished from 1600 B.C. to 1100 B.C. 2.Indo-Europeans 3.Formed powerful Monarchies 4.A warrior people, prided themselves on their heroic deeds in battle 5.Poet Homer wrote about military adventures. 6.Around 1100 B.C. Mycenaean civilization collapsed
III. Dark Age (1100 B.C to 750 B.C) A.Very few records of time period. B.Aeolian Greeks settled in established parts of Greece (Northern & Central, Island of Lesbos) C.The Dorians established in Southwestern Greece in the Peloponnese and southern Aegean Islands D.In 850 B.C. farming revived. There was also a revival of some trade, iron replaced bronze in weaponry and farming tools. E.In the mid 8 th century B.C. the Greeks adopted the Phoenician Alphabet.
IV. Homer: Poet of Dark Age A.Iliad: epic poem of early Greece that tells the deeds of a great hero. 1.Recounts stories from the Trojan War B.Odyssey: epic poem that recounts journeys of Odysseus back to his wife. C.Homers Poems taught the values of courage and honor.
D. The Trojan War 1. Is the Trojan War Real? a.The story of the Trojan is found in epic poems, like Homers the Iliad and the Odyssey, and Greek Tragedies. b.However, in 1870 a German archaeologist excavated a site he identified as troy.
2. When and Where? a.When: many ancient Greeks believed the war took place in the 13 th or 12 th century B.C. Eratosthenes gives the dates as 1194 -1184 B.C. which corresponds with a catastrophic burning of Troy Vlla. b.Where: in what is modern day Turkey near the Dardanelles.
3. What were the Causes? a.According to Greek mythology, it started as a dispute between goddesses, Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite. b.Helen of Troy, married to a Spartan King, fell in love with Paris of Troy and was taken to Troy. c.Menelaus, the Spartan King, and Agamemnon, Helen’s Brother and the King of the Mycenaes, led an expedition of troops that laid siege to the city for 10 years.
4. Who Won? a.The Trojan Horse? b.They used the ruse of the Trojan Horse to trick the Trojans and slaughtered many of them and burned the city.
V. The Greek City-States (or polis) is the center of Greek life A.Organization of the City State 1.Acropolis: fortified area at the top of a hill that was used for safety and a religious center where temples and public buildings were built 2.Agora: open area that was used for a market and a place where people could assembly 3.Athens was the largest city-state with 300,000 people. Most city states were small with only a few hundred or several thousand people
The Greek City-States (or polis) is the center of Greek life B.Community of the City-state 1.Communities had three groups of people: Citizens with political rights (adult males), citizens with not political rights (women and children) and non citizens (laborers, slaves and resident aliens). 2.Citizens had rights but also responsibilities to their city- state (loyalty) 3.Loyalties of citizens to their city-state had a negative side. City-States distrusted one another (early form of Nationalism) 4.Hoplites were foot soldiers who marched shoulder to shoulder (formation called Phalanx) and created a wall of shields.
VI. Greek Expansion: between 750 and 550 B.C., some Greeks moved to the mainland in search of good farmland and for the growth of trade. A.The Greeks established colonies in Southern Italy, Southern France, Eastern Spain, and Northern Africa. In the North, Greeks set up colonies in Thrace and along the Black Sea. 1.Most Notable city-state set up was Byzantium. 2.Establishing the colonies allowed for the spread of Greek Culture throughout the Mediterranean world. 3.Expanding trade led to a new class of rich merchants.
VI. Greek Expansion: between 750 and 550 B.C., some Greeks moved to the mainland in search of good farmland and for the growth of trade. B.Tyranny in the Greek City states 1.New rich class of merchants wanted political power, but were denied by the ruling aristocrats. 2.Greek Tyrants seized power and were supported by the new rich class (7 th and 6 th century B.C.) and kept power by using hired soldiers. (like a dictatorship) 3.Greek Tyrants were supported by the people because they tried to help the poor and launch several public works programs. 4.Eventually, tyrants were seen as oppressive and against the rule of law and fell out of the favor of the people. 5.The period Tyranny is important because it ended the rule of the aristocrats and led to the development of democracy in some city-states. (Others continued as oligarchies)
C. Two Rival City-States SpartaAthens Government Military v. Education Philosophy Oligarchy (rule by few): had two kings Athenians formed the foundations for Athenian Democracy (rule by many) Professional soldiers: trained from the child up. Had to join at age of 20 and served till 60. Athenians wanted their children to be well rounded individuals; they went to school to study the arts and sciences. At age 18 they went to a military school for two years and then could live their life the way they saw fit. Turned their backs on the outside world. Spread Greek culture throughout the world
Classical Greece Pericles from the Altes Museum in Berlin. A Roman copy of a Greek work sculpted after 429. Photo taken by Gunnar Bach Pedersen.
VII. The Challenge of Persia A.The Persian Empire stretched from India to Egypt in 500 B.C. and looked to expand their empire into Greece. 1.Persia was unified by Cyrus and created a powerful Persian state. He had a reputation for Mercy, and a genuine respect for other civilizations. 2.Darius strengthened the empire by dividing it into provinces led by a Satrap. He improved communications by maintaining the roads and providing way stations for food and shelter. Cyrus the Great, King of Perisa
The Challenge of Persia B.Darius tried to expand the Persian Empire by invading Greece. In 490 B.C. the Persians were defeated decisively by the outnumbered Athenians at the plain of Marathon. It was minor defeat, but proved that the Persians could be beaten. C.Darius’ son Xerxes became the Persian Monarch in 486 B.C. He wanted revenge and invaded Greece. The Greek states formed a defensive league under the Spartans, Athenians followed their own policy, but all the Greeks were united in an effort to defeat the Persians. 1.Athenian forces abandoned their city at the approach of the Persian army. 2.In 479 B.C. the largest Greek army (up to that time) defeated the Persian army at Plataea.
Why Fight? Greeks had been settling on the west coast of Asia Minor (Persia) Persia conquered these colonies In 499 B.C. Greeks in these colonies revolted against Persian rule (they were used to ruling themselves—democracy) Athens sent troops to support the revolt
Crushing the Revolt Emperor Darius of Persia crushed the revolt rather quickly He decided to punish Athens for helping the colonies After training for a few years Darius sent troops to invade Greece Sailed on to the Bay of Marathon Bronze statue of Emperor Darius
The Battle of Marathon Athens asked Sparta to help, but Spartan troops would not arrive for 9 days (they were in the middle of religious festivities) Other jealous city-states decided not to help Athens against the Persian Empire So Athens took on the mighty Persian Empire by themselves
A Serious Mismatch Persian troops—100,000 Athenian troops—20,000 Did Athens really have any hope against these odds?
Victory The Athenian army was well-trained and did not break formation as they charged the Persian lines The organized charge surprised the large but scattered (and poorly organized) Persian army The Persian soldiers turned and ran from the oncoming Athenians
A Slaughter The Athenian army almost drove the Persians back to the sea Final tally – Persians—6, 400 dead – Athens—192 dead – Darius returned to Persia never to return
Connection to the Past The modern marathon has its roots in the Battle of Marathon A Greek soldier, Phidippides, ran from Marathon to Athens (26 miles) to tell the Athenians of the Greek victory and to warn them that the Persians may try to attack Phidippides died from exhaustion after delivering his message Today’s 26 mile marathon races remember his heroic act of martyrdom
Back for Revenge The Persian Emperor Darius never returned, but his son Emperor Xerxes did In 480 B.C. the Persians returned to Greece They brought even more men this time around Emperor Xerxes of the Persian Empire
The Battle of Thermopylae Persians met a force of Greeks at Thermopylae This was a small mountain pass that controlled access to all of Greece For two days 7,000 Greeks held the Persians back, but…
Here come the Persians The Persians poured into Greece They got their revenge by wreaking havoc They even burned Athens to the ground What were the Greeks to do?
The Battle of Salamis As their city-state burned the Athenian people and the army escaped to the island of Salamis The Persians were quick to follow the retreating Greeks to Salamis
Those Clever Athenians The Greeks ships first sailed from shore like they were fleeing the island They then turned quickly around and began ramming the Persian ships Before the Persians knew what had happened half of their fleet was on the ocean floor The Persians once again retreated back to Persia
The Final Battle The Battle of Plataea The Greeks and Persians at equal strength Athens and Sparta fought side by side Greek military superiority won out and Persia retreated for good
VIII. The Athenian Empire A.After the defeat of the Persians, The Athenians became the leaders of the Greek World. 1.Created Delian League: a defensive alliance. Helped liberate all of Greece from the Persians. 2.Pericles: a dominant figure in Athenian politics from 461 and 429 B.C. (known as “Age of Pericles”). During this time, Athens expanded its empire and democracy flourished at home a.During the Age of Pericles, Athens became a direct democracy and Athens became the center of Greek Culture (art, architecture, and philosophy flourished) b.Athenian economy was largely based on farming and trade c.Women could also be citizens, but they were not allowed in political life, and were married off at age 14 or 15. 3.Slavery was common in Ancient world.
IX. The Great Peloponnesian War A.After the defeat of the Persians, the Greek world was divided into two groups: 1.The Athenian Empire 2.Sparta and its supporters
The Great Peloponnesian War B.Each state built a different kind of society and they could not tolerate each other. A series of disputes led to the Peloponnesian War. 1.The war lasted from 431 to 404 B.C. 2.The Athenian strategy was to stay behind their city walls and would rely on their Navy and colonies for supplies. 3.In the 2 nd year of the war, sickness (a plague) killed more than a third of the Athenian population. 4.In 405 B.C. the Athenian navy suffered a crushing defeat at Aegospotami. 5.Athens was defeated in 404 B.C. and the city wall was torn down. 6.The Greek city-states continued to squabble and ignored the growing power of the Macedonians.
The Culture of Classical Greece Greek gods and goddesses
X. Greek Religion A.Religion affected every aspect of Greek life. B.It was believed that 12 Chief gods and goddesses lived on Mount Olympus. Zeus was the chief god. C.Greek Religion had no body of doctrine, and was not based on morality. D.The Greeks performed rituals to the gods and goddesses. And had festivals to honor the gods and goddesses. E.It is the source of most Greek drama and art. Zeus
XI. Classical Greek Arts and Literature (art was concerned with expressing eternal ideas). A.Architecture and Sculpture 1.architecture: Temple (most important) made with Columns (style- appear more open) a.Parthenon most important example 2.Sculpture: focus on creating ideal human form What the Parthenon looked like when it was constructed. It was dedicated to the goddess Athena.
XI. Classical Greek Arts and Literature (art was concerned with expressing eternal ideas). B.Drama 1.Greek Tragedies: Written in trilogy form; dealt with universal themes; good v. Evil, nature of human beings a.Oresteia by Aeschylus only trilogy still around today. (other writers Sophocles and Euripides ) 2.Greek Comedies: more like satire; make fun of politicians
Classical Greek Arts and Literature (art was concerned with expressing eternal ideas). C.Writing of History: Greeks were the first to present history as a systematic analysis of past events. 1.Two Greek Historians: a.Herodotus: History of the Persian War b.Thucydides: wrote a history of the Great Peloponnesian War. Herodotus: the oldest Greek historian
Classical Greek Arts and Literature (art was concerned with expressing eternal ideas). D.Greek Philosophy: an organized system of thought. 1.Most famous Greek Philosophers: a.Sophists: believed philosophy harmful to youth b.Socrates: believed in self- examination, and living by a code of ethics; gave us the Socratic method. c.Plato: a student of Socrates; fascinated with the idea of reality. Wrote the work entitled The Republic. d.Aristotle: a student of Plato, he tried to find the best form of Government in is Politics
Alexander and the Hellenistic Era Alexander the Great
Macedonia invades Greece: by the end of the 5 th century, Macedonia emerged as a powerful kingdom. A.Philip and Alexander 1.Philip II came to power in 359 B.C. and wanted to unite all of Greece under Macedonia. 2.In 338 B.C. the Macedonian army crushed the Greeks. 3.Philip II was assassinated before he could invade Persia in cooperation with the Greeks. His son Alexander the Great came to the throne at age 20 and quickly moved to fulfill his father’s dream. B.Alexander’s Conquests: he conquered the Persian Empire as far as India when he was forced to turn back. He also controlled Egypt and built the city Alexandria which was named after him. He died at the age of 32.
C. Alexander’s Legacy 1.He conquered a fast area that brought large quantities of gold and silver into their economies. 2.His successors tried to imitate him by claiming divine right to rule and creating military monarchies. 3.His conquests allowed the Greeks to spread their culture throughout Southwest and Central Asia and parts of North Africa. And, the Greeks absorbed some aspects of the Eastern culture
Alexander spread Hellenistic culture throughout Asia. Hellenistic is a fancy word for Greek. Alexander spread Greek technology and ideas throughout his empire
XIII. The Hellenistic Era: a period that saw the expansion of the Greek language and ideas to the non- Greek world in Southwest Asia and beyond. A.Hellenistic Kingdoms: after the death of Alexander the Great, the Macedonian Empire split into 4 Hellenistic kingdoms, Macedonia, Syria, Pergamum and Egypt
Hellenistic Arts and Literature B.Hellenistic Arts and Literature 1.Alexandria: had largest library in ancient times. Hub for poets, writers and philosophers 2.Pergamum had second largest library; became home to scholars and artists. 3.Buildings included Baths, Temples and theatres 4.Sculptors focused on emotional and realistic art 5.The Hellenistic age produced a great quantity of literature. a.Apollonius of Rhodes wrote the epic poem Argonautica. b.Theocritus wrote short poems that expressed a love of nature and appreciation of its beauty c.A new type of comedy developed that’s purpose was just entertainment.
Hellenistic Agriculture and Art Hellenistic Theatre The Winged Victory of Samothrace The Ancient Library at Alexandria
Hellenistic Science and Philosophy C.Science and Philosophy: considerable advancements were made during the Hellenistic Age. 1.Science advances included the areas of astronomy and mathematics. a.Astronomy: 1)Aristarchus of Samos: believed the sun is the center of the Universe and the earth rotates around the sun; not widely accepted. 2)Eratosthenes: measured the earth’s circumference within 185 miles of the actual figure. b. Mathematics 1)Euclid: wrote the Elements,a textbook about Geometry 2)Archimedes: established the Mathematical constant pi
Hellenistic Science and Philosophy 1.Philosophy: Athens remained the center of philosophy and two new schools of thought developed a.Epicureanism: developed by Epicurus 1)Believed that people were free and could follow their own self interest. The means to happiness was the pursuit of pleasure (the only true good) b.Stoicism: founded by Zeno who lost everything on the trip to Athens 1)Stoics wanted to find happiness as well, but believed that only true happiness could be found by living in harmony with nature.