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Walnut  Hamzeh Dalbah 11210166 1. Scientific classification Kingdom Plantae Class Angiosperms Subclass Eudicots Order Fagales Family Juglandaceae Genus.

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Presentation on theme: "Walnut  Hamzeh Dalbah 11210166 1. Scientific classification Kingdom Plantae Class Angiosperms Subclass Eudicots Order Fagales Family Juglandaceae Genus."— Presentation transcript:

1 Walnut  Hamzeh Dalbah 11210166 1

2 Scientific classification Kingdom Plantae Class Angiosperms Subclass Eudicots Order Fagales Family Juglandaceae Genus Juglans Species J. Regia Binomial name Juglans regia 2

3 Description  Walnuts are rounded, single-seeded nuts (stone fruits),the walnut tree commonly used after fully ripening. Following full ripening, the removal of the husk reveals the wrinkly walnut shell, which is usually commercially found in two segments.  Perennial woody crop  Deciduous fruit tree  Botanically Dicot plant  According to use nuts (Stone Fruit)  Ozone sensitivity: tolerant 3

4 Leaves and Buds  English walnut leaves are compound and arranged alternately along the stem.  The leaf is composed of 5 to 9 leaflets, each reaching a length of 2 to 5 inches.  The margins of the English Walnut leaflets are entire (teeth absent). 4

5 Flower All Juglans are monoecious, bearing male and female reproductive organs on separate flowers on the same tree. Although J. regia is self-fertile, it is heterogamous, either protandrous or protogynous depending on cultivar. Catkins (male inflorescences) are borne laterally on 1-yr wood, and pistillate flowers are borne terminally or laterally (newer cultivars) on current season’s wood in spikes of typically 2-3 flowers. 5

6 Fruit Nuts are borne singly or in clusters of 2-3 on shoot tips. A green, fleshy shuck surrounds the nut, which splits irregularly at maturity. The shell is rough, wrinkled or furrowed, and thin. Nuts containing two kernels separated by a thin, papery central plate extending from the inner layer of the shell. 6

7 Bark Bark is thick, ridged, very dark brown, with deep diamond-shaped furrows. 7

8 Pollination  Walnuts are similar to pecans in that the time of pollen shedding does not always overlap well with the time of female flower receptivity to pollen.  Most walnuts are self-fertile, they sometimes require another cultivar for pollination since the timing of the functions of male and female flowers is different. 8

9 9  Walnut roots contain juglone which inhibits growth of some plants beneath the tree. Plants such as tomato and evergreens are quite sensitive to juglone.  Root System - Produces a deep, extensive taproot, which makes transplanting difficult.

10 Types the Persian or English Walnut  originated in Persia,  The commercially produced walnut varieties are nearly all hybrids of the English walnut. the Black Walnut.  originated in eastern North America.  The Black walnut is high flavor, but due to its hard shell and poor hulling characteristics it’s not grown commercially for nut production. 10 The two most common major species of walnuts are

11 11 Black walnut English walnut

12 English walnut and Black walnut differ in the number of leaflets, the shape of the leaflets, and the leaflet margin Black  black walnut leaves have a greater number of leaflets (15-23)  black walnut leaves are generally smaller and narrower in shape.  Black Walnut leaflets have toothed margins English  English walnuts (5-9).  English walnut leaflets have more oval shaped leaves  English walnut leaflet margins are entire. 12

13 13 Black walnut English walnut

14 Soils and Climate  The best soils are deep, well-drained silt loams with pH 6 to 8 Persian walnuts are best adapted to Mediterranean climates, with dry, hot summers and mild winters. Cold hardiness is a major limiting factor for Persian walnut.  The Chilling requirement is 400 to 1600 hr. 14

15 Propagation  Common methods are 1)whip grafting, 2)ring or patch budding. This is commonly done in spring on 1 year seedling rootstocks in nurseries, but some growers prefer to plant ungrafted stocks and graft in the orchard, after the rootstock becomes established. 15

16 Plant facts  Height: 60 to 70 feet  Spread: 50 to 70 feet  Crown shape: round  Crown density: moderate  Growth rate: medium  Walnut trees usually are planted about 30 feet apart 16

17 Rootstocks  Persian walnut seedlings (J. regia) are the most popular rootstock worldwide, and in areas where blackline disease is a problem. 1.‘Manregian’ is the selection most tolerant of blackline disease. Trees usually lack vigor and yield efficiency like in California when propagated on this rootstock, so Northern California black walnut (J. hindsii) is the most common stock for Persian walnut in California. 2.‘Paradox’ (J. hindsii x J. regia) is a hybrid of Persian and Northern California black walnut, and generally superior to its parents in several traits 17

18 18  Maturity walnuts are harvested at the beginning of shuck split, when the seed coat is a light color.  Harvest Method o trunk or limb shakers are used depending on tree size. o A windrow machine places the nuts into narrow rows to be picked up by a sweeper. o Nuts are collected in large boxes and taken to the processing plant.

19 19 H arvesting machine

20 Postharvest Handling  Freshly harvested walnuts are removed from hulls and dried in forced-air dryers at 100-110°F until 8% moisture content is achieved. In-shell nuts are bleached and sold fresh. 20

21 Storage  Walnuts, like other nuts tree, must be processed and stored properly. Poor storage makes walnuts susceptible to insect and fungal mold.  The temperature for longest storage of walnuts about -3 to 0 o C and low humidity — for industrial and home storage.  Temperatures above 30 o C, and humidities above 70% can lead to rapid and high spoilage losses.  Dried nuts can be stored for about 4 months at room temperature before becoming spoilage, & for 1-2 years when stored in the freezer. 21

22 22 Water (%) 3-5 Calories 651 Protein (%) 14.8 Fat (%) 64 Carbohydrates (%) 16 Crude Fiber (%) 2.1 Vitamin A 0.6 Thiamin, B1 24 Riboflavin, B2 8.1 Niacin 5 Vitamin C 4.4 Calcium 12 Phosphorus 48 Iron 31 Sodium — Potassium 9.6 Dietary value, per 100 gram edible portion

23 23 The Life-cycle

24 The End 24

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