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Ancient Middle East Chap. 2 (Sec. 1,3,& 4) I. Fertile Crescent land bt. Tigris & Euphrates Rivers “Twin Rivers” Armenian Plateau A. Cross-Roads of the.

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Presentation on theme: "Ancient Middle East Chap. 2 (Sec. 1,3,& 4) I. Fertile Crescent land bt. Tigris & Euphrates Rivers “Twin Rivers” Armenian Plateau A. Cross-Roads of the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ancient Middle East Chap. 2 (Sec. 1,3,& 4) I. Fertile Crescent land bt. Tigris & Euphrates Rivers “Twin Rivers” Armenian Plateau A. Cross-Roads of the World ** 3 continents meet Asia Africa Europe


3 B. Mesopotamia *land bt. the rivers (Greek) Birth of Civilization 5000 BC C. Middle East Battleground

4 II. Sumerians 5000 BC *1 st civ. In history modern Iraq




8 A. City-State *town & surrounding country side form gov. mutual defense irrigation 12 Sumerian city-states

9 Ur “Moon City” *key city-state Royal Tombs of Ur Sir Leonard Wooley 1927 wealth & human sacrifice population ranged 20,000 - 250,000 own gods *constant war over land & water

10 Sir Leonard Wooley 1927





15 Sumerian Social Classes 1. Nobles royalty & priests 2. Commoners merchants, fishers, farmers 90% of people, craftspeople 3. Slaves

16 B. Religion Theocracy *gov. run by priests Kings gods rep.s on earth

17 Ziggurat temple of city god 6 - 7 stories high gods use Ziggurats ladders to heaven



20 *Gods control forces of nature Anu Lord of Heaven Nanna Moon God Ea God of Waters Enki God of the Earth Enlil God of Air & Storms Dumuzi King of City Inanna Goddess of Fertility Wicked Udugs Demon Gods

21 C. Cuneiform use of wedge shaped objects write on clay tablets Sumerians invented writing 3100 BC Scribes *public writers Stylus *stick used to write

22 Eddubas schools to learn cuneiform 600 signs

23 Gilgamesh Sumerian epic poem 1800 BC oldest story in world?? exploits of king Gilgamesh Great flood

24 Take and read out from the lapis lazuli tablet how Gilgamesh went through every hardship. Supreme over other kings, lordly in appearance, he is the hero, born of Uruk, the goring wild bull. He walks our in front, the leader, and walks at the rear, trusted by his companions. Mighty net, protector of his people, raging flood-wave who destroys even walls of stone! From the Epic of Gilgamesh, Book I


26 D. Sargon of Akkad 2340 - 2284 BC King of Battles “34-0” founded 1st empire in history Persian Gulf to Med. Sea Lord of 4 Quarters of World Akkad northern city state


28 E. Sumerian Inventions: schools wheel plow arches bricks number system based on 60 seconds, 60 minute hour, 360 circle

29 III. Babylonia 2000 BC ancient lower Tigris- Euphrates Valley A. Babylon “Gate of God” largest city-state in ancient world 200,000 people


31 Babylon Today



34 B. Hammurabi 1792 BC Code of Hammurabi *1st code of laws 282 laws Law of Retaliation “ Eye for an eye, & tooth for a tooth.” Shamash *God of Justice Stele stone monument

35 Code of Hammuabi If one is committing a robbery and is caught, then he shall be put to death. If any one bring accusation against a man, and the accused go to river and leap Into the river, If he sink in the river his accuser shall take possession of his house. But if the river prove that the accused is not guilty, he who had brought Accusation shall be put to death. If a free man has destroyed the eye of a member of the aristocracy, they shall destroy his eye. A wife who was a gadabout, neglecting her house humiliating her husand, could be drowned. If a son has struck his father, he shall cut off his hand.

36 C. Nebuchadnezzar “Mad Ox” 605 BC leader of Chaldeans defeated Assyrians rebuilds Babylon


38 Hanging Gardens of Babylon 7 Wonders of Ancient World Amytis *Neb. Wife



41 Hanging Gardens Today

42 Babylonian Captivity 586 BC – 538 BC *captured Jerusalem & enslaved Jews

43 Ishtar Gate *entrance to Babylon

44 D. Tower of Babel?

45 E. Astrology stars & planet positions determine fate divination foretell future smoke patterns - internal organs

46 IV. Hittites 1550 BC Warriors from Asia Minor (modern Turkey) conquered Babylon

47 A. 1st to use iron weapons *Battle Ax war chariots B. Start of Iron Age 1500 BC – 600 BC weapons & tools


49 V. Assyrians “Romans of Asia” *worlds 1 st military power 1200 BC A.Assur *city - state & chief god

50 Assur

51 B. Assyrian Empire “A land bathed in blood.” Fertile Crescent & Egypt destroyed Babylon 700 BC

52 Assyrian Torture

53 C. Disciplined Army *Cavalry *Battering Rams - catapults Mercenaries *professional soldiers Roads & postal service

54 D. Nineveh *Assyrian capital city


56 E. King Assurbanipal Library of Nineveh *worlds 1st library 22,000 clay tablets


58 VI. Persians 550 BC *modern Iran A. Cyrus the Great King of Persia *set up Persian Empire

59 Persian Empire

60 Persepolis *Persian capital city

61 Ruins of Persepolis, capital of the ancient Persian empire (today within the country of Iran)

62 B. Darius 550 - 486 BC divided empire into 20 Satapries (provinces) Satrap *governors Royal Inspectors “Eyes & Ears of the King”

63 Immortals *elite Persian soldiers 10,000 Immortals



66 C. Great Royal Road *Asia Minor to Susa 1677 miles long 111 relay stations 15 miles apart


68 D. Zoroaster *Persian Religion world battleground Good v. Evil Ahura Mazda god of goodness, wisdom, & truth House of Song paradise

69 Ahriman - evil spirit House of Worst Thought hell?

70 Zend Avesta *sacred books

71 Magi *Persian Priests Magicians

72 VII. Phoenicians “Sea Peoples” A. Carriers of Civilization *greatest traders ancient world modern Lebanon, Syria, & Israel

73 Phoenician traders bartering

74 B. Carthage 814 BC *N. African city *dominated trade in Med. Sea

75 C. Purple *color of royalty Murex - shellfish

76 D. Alphabet model for western alphabet 22 symbols

77 VIII. Lydians A. King Croesus 560 BC 1 st to use coins face appeared on coins “As rich as Croesus.” B. Money Economy

78 IX. Hebrews **Religious beliefs affect Western Civ. A. Valley of Palestine 2000 BC Abraham - founder of Hebrews

79 B. Yahweh God Old Testament - sacred text

80 C. Moses & Exodus 1200 BC *flight from Egypt 10 Commandments

81 D. Kingdom of Israel 1025 BC Solomon set up kingdom *Jerusalem capital King Solomon’s Temple *symbolic center of Hebrews *housed Ark of the Covenant

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