Presentation on theme: "Aim: Would I rather be Athenian or Spartan? Do Now: Imagine that you are the ruler of a great civilization. If you could only choose one, would you rather."— Presentation transcript:
Aim: Would I rather be Athenian or Spartan? Do Now: Imagine that you are the ruler of a great civilization. If you could only choose one, would you rather that your civilization focus on war or on making great achievements in the arts and sciences? NY State Standards 2, 3 Common Core Standards RS 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, WS 1, LSS 1, 2, 3
I Rise of the Greek City-States A) After the fall of the Mycenaean civilization, the Dorians invaded Greece from the north and settled in the Peloponnesus (they would later become the Spartans). Greek civilization fell into a dark age. Literacy almost disappeared. A) People sought protection by an acropolis (large hill). B) By the 8 th century BCE, Greek city-states (poli) began to emerge. They remained mostly isolated due to Greece’s rugged mountains. C) Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet.
Phoenician Alphabet Greek Alphabet
II Athens A) Athens, a Greek polis (city-state) was located in Attica, north of the Peloponnesus B) On the highest hilltop was the acropolis with marble temples for Gods. C) On flatter ground was the walled city with the agora (marketplace), theatre, public buildings and homes. The Athenian Acropolis
The Athenian Agora As it Would Have Been…
Athens Continued… D) The Birth of Athenian Democracy: 1. Athens began as an oligarchy (ruled by a few powerful and wealthy aristocrats). 2. In 594 BCE Solon (a powerful government official) gave every Athenian the right to appeal to a jury. 3. Cleisthenes (another powerful government official) formed a general assembly of all Athenian free men, with each man having one vote - a type of government we now call direct democracy. "Our constitution does not copy the laws of neighboring states... Its administration favors the many instead of the few; this is why it is called a democracy…” – Pericles Funeral Oration, 5 th century BCE
3 Pillars of Athenian Government The Assembly Made up of all citizens Voted on laws made by the Council of 500 Direct democracy: one man, one vote Council of 500 A lottery chose 500 citizens to serve each year Created laws The Courts - Handled lawsuits and trials by a jury of citizens. 4. Only free males (no slaves) who owned property were citizens. Women were not citizens. 5. In 490 BCE, the Athenians began the practice of ostracism. Citizens voted once a year to determine if anyone was becoming too powerful. The man with the most votes was exiled (banished) for ten years.
Athens Continued… E) Athenian boys were given a well rounded education; they studied reading, writing, rhetoric (the art of public speaking- they would have to recite long epic poems like Homer from memory), science, the arts, and philosophy. From 18 to 20, young men had to take military training for the army or the navy. F) Athenian women were mostly kept indoors, and had a similar status to slaves. Most were not educated, and needed permission from a male guardian to do almost anything.
II Sparta A)By the 8 th century BCE, the Spartans (descended from the Dorians) had conquered the Peloponnesus. They turned the conquered people into helots (state owned slaves). They often outnumbered the Spartan soldiers 7 to 1! The helots did all of the farming and manual work. B) Spartan Government was led by 2 kings. Additionally, there was a council of elders and a general assembly. However, the real power was held by an oligarchy, and most political decisions were done in secret. How was the government of Sparta similar to Athens? How was it different?
Sparta Continued… C) At birth if a child was deemed “unfit”, the child was left outside to die. At 7 years old all boys moved to barracks to train to become soldiers. D) At the age of 20 they could marry, but they were not allowed to see their wives during the day until they were 30 years old!
Primary Source: Xenophon “On the Spartans” 428 – 354 BCE) “Instead of softening their feet with shoe or sandal, [the military trainer’s] rule was to make [the boys]…hardy through going barefoot…his rule was to habituate them to a single garment the whole year through, thinking that so they would be better prepared to withstand the variations of heat and cold. Again, as regards food… the …head of the flock, must see that his messmates gather to the club meal with such moderate food as to … not remain unacquainted with the pains of starvation… On the other hand, to guard against a too great pinch of starvation, he did give them permission to steal this thing or that in the effort to alleviate their hunger.” What does this primary source tell us about the life of a Spartan boy in military training? Do the rules make sense? How is this different from the life of an Athenian boy?
Sparta Continued… E) Unlike in Athens, Spartan women were educated in reading, writing and athletics. Women were allowed to own property, and allowed many freedoms, so they could protect the family’s home while the men were away at war.
Sparta Continued… “Spartans are willing to die for their city because they have no reason to live.” Rare example of Spartan art
III The Greek Military A)All Athenian citizens had to serve in the army for 2 years. B)Both the Athenians and the Spartans used the phalanx: massive form of heavily armed foot soldiers. A phalanx was like a human tank. Each individual soldier was called a hoplite.
The Greek Military Continued… C) Athens had a strong navy, due to being close to the Mediterranean Sea. The Athenians used triremes; fast boats that needed many men to row. As Sparta was more inland in the Peloponnesus, they did not have a navy. Athenian Trireme
CAUSESCONSEQUENCES PERSIAN WARS 492 BCE – 449 BCE A) Due to poor farmland in mainland Greece, many Greeks moved to Asia Minor (Ionia). B) Persia under King Darius conquered Ionia. Not wanting to join the Persian army or pay taxes to Persia, the Ionian Greeks rebelled. C) With the help of Sparta, Athens defeated Persia (who was then led by King Xerxes). D) Because Persia was still a huge empire, it was still a threat to Greece. Therefore, the Greek city- states (poli) formed the Delian League, headed by Athens. PELOPONNESIAN WAR 431 BCE – 404 BCE E) Pericles, a powerful Athenian government official, moved the treasury of the Delian League to Athens. He used some of the wealth to build the Parthenon and other beautiful buildings. F) Sparta and the other poli felt Athens was becoming corrupt and formed their own alliance; the Peloponnesian League. G) Sparta formed an alliance with Persia against Athens (Persia had a navy). H) Pericles had the Athenians hide behind Athen’s defensive walls. A plague broke out and killed 25% of Athens, including Pericles. I) Sparta and Persia won. J) Greece was now politically unstable. IV The Persian and Peloponnesian Wars
Help! The Persians conquered us! Following the Persian invasion, Athens sent a runner, Phidippedes, to Sparta to ask for help. Phidippedes ran 140 miles to Sparta, who told him they could not help yet due to a religious festival. (They did come to help after the festival) Phidippedes ran 140 miles back to the Athenians. When the Persians were retreating to their ships, Phidippedes then ran 26.2 miles to Athens, to warn the Athenians of a possible Persian attack by sea. According to legend, he dropped dead immediately after delivering his message! Also, while the film “300” was not entirely historically accurate, 300 Spartans did die at Thermopylae (near Athens), while holding off the Persians at a narrow pass.
The Persian Empire was BIG!
The Persian King Darius and his Son Xerxes were VERY ANGRY On the top left is the Persian King Darius. His son Xerxes in on the bottom left. The film “300” version of Xerxes is on the top right. Was the film very accurate?
The Delian League vs. the Peloponnesian League (at the start of the Peloponnesian War)
Summary Questions 1.In a Venn diagram, compare and contrast Athens and Sparta. 2.Where would you rather live; Athens or Sparta? Explain why. 3.Make a flow chart showing the major events that led to the Persian Wars and its consequences, as well as the events leading to the Peloponnesian War and its consequences.
Key Vocabulary Acropolis Agora Athenian Assembly Athens Attica Cleisthenes Council of 500 Dark Age Democracy Delian League Direct Democracy Helots Peloponnesian League Peloponnesian War Peloponnesus Persian Wars Phoenician alphabet Polis/Poli Solon Sparta Trireme