Presentation on theme: "Greek Civilization. Greeks settle into city- states separated by mountainous land & narrow river valleys Because of their long sea coast & many harbors,"— Presentation transcript:
Greeks settle into city- states separated by mountainous land & narrow river valleys Because of their long sea coast & many harbors, the Greeks became great traders and lived on a healthy diet of fish.
Minoan: Located on the Island of Crete. Merchants (trading culture) Early ( BC) Middle ( BC) Late Minoan period ( BC)
The Minoan Civilization was destroyed three times. Once around 1700 BC because of an earthquake or outside invaders. Once around 1600 BC because of an eruption of a local island volcano. Last time by the invading Mycenaean of Greek main land.
1600 – 1100 BCE First city-state, grew out of Central Greece, eventually controlling Greek mainland Main economic activity was piracy Frequent War between city-states & earthquakes led to fall of Mycenae in 1100’s BC
An epic poem is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation. According to later Hellenic legend they defeated Troy, presented in epic as a city-state that rivaled Mycenae in power. Homer’s Iliad and the Odyssey. Achilles drags Hectors body around Troy
Arête: is the excellence that a hero strives for in battle or contest. Generations of later Greeks would look to Homer’s epic poems for inspiration and a way of life.
Called the “Dark Age” because there are few written records. Food supply and population declines Many Greeks left the mainland and settled elsewhere
Greece history is broken down in to four basic time periods: Archaic Greece Classical Greece Hellenistic Greece Roman Greece During this time the focus would be on the main city state. A city state is an independent political unit made up of a city and its surrounding areas. Polis: A Greek City State.
By the 6th century BC several cities had emerged as dominant in Greek affairs: Athens, Sparta, Corinth, and Thebes.
Ancient Greece had no kings or family dynasties. The polis was governed by assemblies of men who were capable of military service The early Greek military was made of noblemen on horseback. These were the only men wealthy enough to arm and equip themselves.
Every Polis generally had two features: Agora – Open area used as a market and social gathering place. Homes were usually close to the agora. Acropolis- a fortified hilltop area Provided safe refuge during attack. Contained public buildings and religious temples dedicated to favorite gods.
Acropolis Agora Farm Land Living Temple
The spread of Greek settlements during the Dark Age led to the development of trade Mainland Greeks exported: pottery, wine olive oil.
The Greeks adapted the Phoenician alphabet to write their own language. The spread of literacy enhanced commercial exchanges and cultural life.
Cities like Byzantium & Troy became crucial trade points A wealthy class of traders began to challenge the ruling aristocrats in Greece.
Eventually the wealthy traders took over political control from the noblemen These traders were called tyrants. Tyrant: simply refers to a leader who seized power by force Periander, a very popular tyrant in Corinth, Greece
Tyrants seized and kept power by using hired soldiers. They built new walls and temples, which glorified their cities and made them popular. By the end of the sixth century B.C., however, tyrants had fallen out of favor.
The end of tyranny allowed new classes to participate in government. Some city-states became democracies, ruled by the many. Athens would be the world leader for the first direct democratic city. Demos” is Greek for people, “Kratos” means power
Others became oligarchies, ruled by a privileged few. Sparta would be the most powerful City-State with an Oligarchy.
Athens: only 30,000 out of a total population of approx. 200,000 were “free citizens” WHO WAS EXCLUDED FROM CITIZENSHIP? Women Slaves Residents not born in Athens Lower classes who could not afford military service
All Life Devoted to the Military Babies inspected for defects Boys taken from mothers at age 7 for 14 years military training Spend entire adult life in army Created Peloponnesian League
Soldiers were called hoplite, because of their round shield called a Hoplon. They fought in a phalanx formation, which made it very tough to defeat them. Phalanx: a tight rectangular formation of soldiers.
ATHENSSPARTA Glorification of individual Movement toward democracy; limited citizenship; rise of tyrants Wealth & power of aristocracy Participation in government by male citizens Slaves Military training & education for boys Trade with other city-states Limited rights for women Government made up of 2 kings, council of elders, citizens assembly, 5 ephors Citizenship for native-born Spartan men over 30 years State-owned slaves Strict control over people Prohibition against trade, travel, or mixing with other city-states Scornful of wealth Women can own property but expected to obey men
The Greco-Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia and city- states of the Hellenic world that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC. Greek Hoplite and Persian Warrior in battle. C. 445 B.C.E.
The beginning of the Ionian Revolt, which would last from 499 BC until 493 BC Military support from Athens and Eretria in 498 BC helped to capture and burn the Persian regional capital of Sardis. Darius I of Persia
Darius embarked on a scheme to conquer Greece and to punish Athens and Eretria for the burning of Sardis. The first Persian invasion of Greece began in 492 BC, with the Persian general Mardonius conquering Thrace and Macedon before several mishaps forced an early end to the campaign.
In 490 BC a second force was sent to Greece, this time across the Aegean Sea, under the command of Datis and Artaphernes. The Persian force was decisively defeated by the Athenians at the Battle of Marathon, Pheidippides… running to warn Athens of Persian invasion
In 480 BC, Xerxes personally led the second Persian invasion of Greece with one of the largest ancient armies ever assembled. Victory over the Allied Greek states at the famous Battle of Thermopylae (300) allowed the Persians to torch an evacuated Athens and overrun most of Greece. Xerxes I of Persia
However, while seeking to destroy the combined Greek fleet, the Persians suffered a severe defeat at the Battle of Salamis. The following year, the confederated Greeks went on the offensive, defeating the Persian army at the Battle of Plataea, and ending the invasion of Greece. The Real Artemisia and Xerex.
Athens formed a defense alliance called the Delian League among the Greek city states. (former military alliance transformed into an empire) The Delian League continued to campaign against Persia for the next three decades, beginning with the expulsion of the remaining Persian garrisons from Europe.
Pericles (leader) Drew on resources of empire to transform Athens into the most beautiful city of the ancient world Turned Athens into a direct democracy A system of ostracism developed to protect themselves from overly ambitious politicians. (6,000 votes and someone could be banned form the city…ex. Socrates)
Between Athens and Sparta Lasted 25 years ( BC) Caused massive destruction and loss of life throughout Greek world. Sparta technically won but it was an empty victory—both Athens and Sparta exhausted
Philip II, “King and Warrior Lord” of Macedonia, invades Greece in 338 BC and conquers entire peninsula Murdered two years later In the middle of planning “war of revenge” against the Persian Empire
Succeeded by his 21-year old son, Alexander III (the Great) Not only continued his father’s plan but also went beyond Philip’s wildest dreams to create the largest empire the world had ever seen Encompassed all the land between Greece and the middle of India
Born in Pella in 356 BC, He became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves, and military academies throughout the world still teach his tactics Alexander leading troops in to battle at the Battle of Issus c 333 BCE
He subsequently overthrew the Persian King Darius III and conquered the entirety of the Persian Empire. He invaded India in 326 BC, but was eventually forced to turn back at the demand of his troops.
Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC, In the years following his death, a series of civil wars tore his empire apart
Alexander's legacy includes the cultural diffusion his conquests engendered. He founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most notably Alexandria in Egypt. Alexander's settlement of Greek colonists and the resulting spread of Greek culture in the east resulted in a new Hellenistic civilization,
The Greeks were the first to write and perform plays Greek Philosophy (love of wisdom) organized rational thought. Wrote Epic poems such as the Iliad and Odyssey. Influenced architecture through out the world. Created innovations in science and mathematics. Spread Greek culture in the Hellenistic period under Alexander the great.
SAPPHO (female poet from Lesbos) Only fragments of her poetry survive Great descriptive beauty and insight into human relationships PINDAR: Developed the eulogy—long poems praising the lives and exploits of famous individuals Sappho Pindar
Invented tragedy and comedy Wore masks and used chorus Plots derived from mythology Sophocles---Wrote Oedipus the King Euripides— The Trojan Women
Philosopher: “lover of wisdom” Interested in fundamental questions about the human condition– what is justice; what is good; what is beauty Used rigorous logic and demanding question-and- answer form of inquiry(Socratic method) Attempted to find absolute answers (universally valid answers that apply to all people, at all times, and in all places
PYTHAGORAS Mathematician Formula for the square of a right angle triangle HIPPOCRATES Father of modern medicine Rejected supernatural explanations for illness Theory of “bodily humours” (blood, water, black bile, yellow bile) Hippocratic Oath
Ancient Greeks were excellent architects and builders. They were master column builders. They developed the column. They used the column in most of their important structures. There are three main parts to a column. Base Shaft Capital The column has come to define Greek architecture and it was by far the most important factor in Greek architecture.
Realistic Sculpture Advances in science Center of intellectual/cultural achievement moved to cities of successor kingdoms (Alexandria) Fusion of Greek and Middle Eastern civilization = Hellenism Venus De Milo c.187 BCE Laocoon and his sons c. 149 BCE