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Ancient Greece Mrs. Gosnell World Civilizations. Geography Southeast Europe Peninsula Land surrounded on three sides by water Sea cuts into land Hills.

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Presentation on theme: "Ancient Greece Mrs. Gosnell World Civilizations. Geography Southeast Europe Peninsula Land surrounded on three sides by water Sea cuts into land Hills."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ancient Greece Mrs. Gosnell World Civilizations

2 Geography Southeast Europe Peninsula Land surrounded on three sides by water Sea cuts into land Hills and mountains Land unavailable for farming No major rivers flowing through Dependent on sea

3 Survival Rely on the sea for survival Fisherman, sailors, traders, and merchants Could only grow two crops Grapes and Olives Traded these with Egypt for wheat and barley

4 Ancient Greece Mycenaean and Minoans Set up civilizations on the island of Crete Migrated northward into Greece Dark Ages 1200-800 B.C. Don’t really know what happened No written records Famine and food shortages led to conflict

5 Ancient Greece Trojan Wars Homer First poet of the ancient world Blind Depicts events in epic poems Story with a hero who serves as a role model for Greek youth The Iliad Three day period of Trojan War Hero was Achilles The Odyssey Adventure returning from Trojan Wars Hero was Odysseus

6 Forms of Government Oligarchy Few people in control Assembly of voting citizens Based on wealth Tyranny One person in control Tyrant Cruel and Merciless

7 Forms of Government Democracy Rule by the people Only free, adult males could vote or participate in government

8 Two outstanding City-States Athens Sparta Each City-state was independent of the other They kept their own government and laws

9 Two outstanding City-States AthensSparta  Limited Democracy  Monarchy with two kings  Cultural society (arts, literature, etc.)  Military society  Laws made by assembly  No trade to travel on colonization  Only males in the assembly  Military training for all males (7-30)  Trade and travel with other city-states  Women trained as soldier mothers  Education for boys  Women educated  Women inferior  Women seen as property

10 Shared Characteristics Common Language Shared Heroes Olympic games Same gods and Religious beliefs

11 Democracy in Athens Trial by jury 101-501 Jurors Difficult to bribe Ostracism Impeachment of a bad public official Official was then exiled for ten years

12 Fact about Greece Greece is a prime target for attack by the Persians, located directly across the Asia Minor (Turkey). Persian King Xerxes wanted Greece. This resulted in the Persian Wars (490-479 B.C.)

13 Battle of Marathon 25 miles from Athens Athenians asked for military assistance from Sparta They refused Athens was badly outnumbered Used their strong navy to defend themselves Surprisingly Athens defeats Persia Runner sent t Athens to tell of the victory Ran over 25 miles Nike! Nike! (Victory) Then dropped dead

14 Battle of Thermopylae Persia vs. Sparta Land battle Spartans lost over 300 men Sparta loses to Persia

15 Battle of the Bay of Salamis Athenian navy vs. Persian Navy A smaller, faster Athenian ships outmatched larger Persian ships Persians lose about half the fleet Persia defeated

16 Battle of Plataea Persian army retreats and returns home Persia accepts defeat  Greeks had defeated the Persians, but felt that they we merely lucky in that go around, Athens and Sparta began to talk of unification and for the Delian League. Athenian, Pericles would be the leader of the league. All Greek city-states were included in the alliance. This ushers in the Age of Pericles (460- 430 B.C.)

17 Delian League All city-states pay taxes to the league’s treasury Paid men to attend assembly meetings Paid jurors in trials Built forts along the coastline to protect Athens Brought scholars from all over the Mediterranean world Classical Age in Greece

18 Delian League Uniform system in currency Spending money out of the Delian League treasury to improve Athens begins to upset the Spartans. Due to this Sparta begins to fight with Athens politically and militarily. The Peloponnesian War broke out between them. That war lasts 27 years with Sparta eventually winning.

19 Reasons for defeat Persian Navy lends support to Sparta Plague hits Athens Wiped out 1/3 of the population Pericles died in the plague After 202 B.C., Athens would never again be an international power

20 Contributions of the Greeks Architecture Parthenon Best example of Classical Greek architecture Sit on the Acropolis is Athens Simplicity and beauty

21 Contributions of the Greeks Religion Polytheism Zeus King of the gods Athena Goddess of wisdom and industry Aphrodite Goddess of love and beauty Apollo God of art and music

22 Contributions of the Greeks Theatre: Tragedy War stories Human suffering Sophocles and Euripides Comedies Poked fun at public officials Aristophanes Amphitheatre Outdoor theatre Sound projection Wore masks All Greek actors were male

23 Contributions of the Greeks Poets: Homer Sappho Love poems Female

24 Contributions of the Greeks Historians: Herodotus Father of History Persian Wars Thucydides Peloponnesian Wars

25 Contributions of the Greeks Science: Scientific method Aristarchus Sun was the center of the universe Earth rotated on an axis He could not prove it, no one believed him

26 Contributions of the Greeks Medicine: Hippocrates Father of Medicine Set up a medical school Natural reason for why something was wrong Hippocratic Oath Could not perform abortions

27 Contributions of the Greeks Math: Euclid Father of Geometry Value of Pi 3.14 Pythagoras Pythagorean theory Archimedes Practical Mathematics Used to invent and build

28 Contributions of the Greeks Philosophy: Love wisdom Socrates Socratic Method To gain knowledge you must ask questions Charged with corruption of the youth Young people were asking to many questions Forced to drink poison

29 Contributions of the Greeks Plato Socrates student Set up schools of philosophy The Republic Criticized democracy Mob rule Poor, corrupt leaders Advocates philosopher kings

30 Contributions of the Greeks Aristotle Attended Plato’s schools Scientific minded philosopher Reach truth through study of the natural world Male by nature was superior and the female inferior Hired by King Philip of Macedonia to tutor his young son Prince Alexander

31 Contributions of the Greeks Alexander the Great Spread Greek culture all over the Mediterranean World Touched 3 continents Asia, Africa, Europe Overly ambitious King Philip was assassinated By Alexander? Died suddenly at age 33 Left no successor Empire divided amongst his Generals Empire collapses as Generals fight amongst themselves Rome begins to conquer the area

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