Presentation on theme: " Greeks spent great deal of time fighting one and other Near the beginning of the 500s B.C.E. Persia was growing in power City-states united for."— Presentation transcript:
Greeks spent great deal of time fighting one and other Near the beginning of the 500s B.C.E. Persia was growing in power City-states united for defense in Peloponnesian League By 520 B.C.E. Persian Empire encircled Greek city-states & included former Greek colonies
Athenians sent ambassador to Persian King Cyrus the Great to create an alliance Ambassador made alliance Athenian assembly rejected the deal Persia still thought they had a deal Why would the Athenian process confuse the Persians?
499-493 BCE: Greek cities throughout Asia Minor rise up against Persian rule. 498 BCE: After pleading for an alliance with the Persians, the Athenians back the Ionian Revolt Help Ionians to sack Persian city of Sardis Result: Persians are ANGRY!!! Me so angry
Persians went on to conquer Ionian Greek city- states 499 B.C.E. Ionians Revolt Athenians fear that they are next so they help their fellow Greeks 493 B.C.E. Ionian revolt is put down Darius (Persian leader) still viewed Athens’ actions as a betrayal
Darius sought revenge by sending 20,000 troops who gathered on plains of Marathon (approx. 25 miles north of Athens) Athenians had a shabby army of less than 9,000 hoplites; no cavalry But they marched out to meet the Persians in Marathon rather than letting their city be destroyed According to legend: Pheidippides, an Athenian herald, was sent to Sparta to request help He ran the 150 miles in two days but did not succeed in getting Sparta’s help
While Pheidippides was seeking help… Athenians charged unexpectedly At dead run to avoid Persian archers Greek line was spread thin and broke in middle Instead of retreating, folded up Persians Greeks showed surprising skill in hand-to-hand combat Won the battle despite more than 2 to 1 odd against them Pheidippides returned and was sent announce their victory in Athens He ran the approximately 26 miles from Marathon to Athens Announced “Nike!” (“Victory!”) and dropped dead
So, when Persia was dust, all cried, “To Acropolis! Run, Pheidippides, one race more! the meed is they due! Athens is saved, thank Pan, go shout!’ He flung down his shield Ran like fire once more; and the space ‘twixt the fennel-field And Athens was stubble again, a field which a fire runs through, Till in he broke: ‘Rejoice, we conquer!’ Like wine through clay, Joy in his blood bursting his heart,--the bliss!”
At the same time, Persians sent some infantry and cavalry by ship to Athens. Immediately after the victory at Marathon, Athenians raced back to Athens. Made it back to Athens about one hour before the Persians arrived. Persians realized they were outnumbered. Persians lost about 6,000 men while Athenians only 192 men
The silver found in the mines at Laureion in Attica Middle class benefitted Athenians spend their money on a fleet Themistocles(elected official) main contributor of needing a navy Constructed a fleet of nearly 200 ships new style, "triremes" with 200 men rowing 150 oars arranged in three tiers
Darius was enraged! Started organizing another invasion but died first Xerxes (Darius’s son) took command Organized between 150,000-300,000 warriors and 600 ships Greeks combined forces to prepare: Sparta providing vicious army Athens provided navy to cut- off supplies of Persians
Greeks chose spot where to meet the Persians Small pass in Southern Greece near the mountains and the sea Famous natural hot spring – Thermopylae “ hot gates” Good choice for the Greece Persians would either have to go through narrow pass or mammoth diversion Give the Greeks time to organize troops further south Athenians sent ships Artemision to try to stop Persian fleet from joining their army
King Leonidas ( Spartan King) led about 7.000 Greek troops into the battle Only 300 of the troops were Spartan Spartans at the forefront of the fight Persians attacks were rebuffed until… Xerxes paid a goat herder for information of another route Sent 10,000 troops through this narrower pass Behind Greeks King Leonidas dismissed almost all of the Greek troops, leaving the 300 Spartans and a few others
King Leonidas and the 300 Spartans held the Persians for several days Persians inundated the Spartans Advanced further south
Persians lost many ships at Artemision weather was bad Greeks captured many ships
Athenians abandoned their city by orders of Themistocles. Persians march south from their victory at Thermopylae and destroyed the city of Athens. Athenians watched from the nearby island of Salamis as their city burned.
Athenians positioned themselves and their fleets near the island and did several things to defeat the Persians: Sent false message to Xerxes Had ships in the narrow channel between Salamis and the mainland Other ships hid in the small bay to the south of the narrow channel Persians thought the Greeks in the narrow channel were fleeing and followed them into the narrow pass o Athenians turned back to face Persians o Rammed the Persians ships Small fleet hidden in the south caught the Persians as they were fleeing.
The Greek sense of uniqueness was increased Athens emerged as most powerful city- state in Greece Athens organized the Delian League, an alliance with other Greek city-states
Ironically, Athens did not support democracy in other city-states Forces other city-states to pay tribute for protection Moved the Delian League treasury from Delos to Athens and begin to abuse the access to the Leagues’ money
Many Greeks resented Athenian domination Greek world split into rival camps. Result: Sparta forges an alliance with the other city states and forms the Peloponnesian League Declares war on Athens, which eventually leads to the down fall of Athens
A 27 year war broke out in 431 B.C. engulfing all of Greece
Athens at a disadvantage: Geography Navy = no good against Spartans located inland After Spartan invasion, Pericles allows people from countryside to move inside city Result: Overcrowding leads to a plague ; killed 1/3 of the people Including Pericles Internal struggles undermined Democratic government
Sparta allied with Persia, their old enemy, against the Delian League. 404 B.C., with the help of the Persian navy, the Spartans captured Athens and stripped it of its fleet and empire
The Peloponnesian war ended Athenian greatness In Athens Democratic government suffered: corruption and selfish interests replaced order Fighting continued to disrupt the Greek world Sparta itself suffered defeat at the hands of Thebes, another Greek city-state Greece was left vulnerable to invasion (hello Alexander the Great…we’ll meet you soon!) Cultural development was halted