Presentation on theme: "KEY CONCEPT 2.2: 6 WHAP PERIOD: 6 Benin G. Lester Jonathan Ortega Natajia Stampley."— Presentation transcript:
KEY CONCEPT 2.2: 6 WHAP PERIOD: 6 Benin G. Lester Jonathan Ortega Natajia Stampley
PERSIAN EMPIRE: SOUTHWEST ASIA Around 1200 BCE a group of people who spoke Indo European languages began arriving into Iran, the people were from the Caucasus region. Around the 900s BCE there were two groups who controlled most of Iran. The Medes who lived in northern Iran and the Persians who lived in southern Iran. When Cyrus the great was ruler of Persia he wanted to go out and gain power, with this in mind he made an alliance with the Babylonians to go against and take over the Medes. The Medes were defeated and Persia took control of northern Iran and this started the beginning of the first Persian Empire. Cyrus then started to conquer more territory for his empire he attacked Lydia, all Greek city-states, then he turned on his allies the Babylonians and took control of them, this gave Cyrus and the Persian Empire control of all land west to Iran and Egypt.
EAST ASIA: QIN (221-206 BCE) AND HAN EMPIRE(206- 220 BCE) Before the Qin and the Han Empire there were the Shang Period, and the Zhou Period. The first Period was the Shang which originated in the part of the Yellow River Valley that lies in the present day Henan. Then they extended their control north to Mongolia and Yangzi River Valley. The Shang society was a society who engaged frequently in war and hunting. The Shang dominated Central and Northern China for more than six centuries but then in the eleventh century the Shang king was defeated by Wu who was the ruler of the Zhou. Then came the period of Spring and Autumn. This was when China had seven serious contenders and few minor city states who wanted control. They were the Yan, Zongshan, Zhao Wu, Qin, Chu, Qi, Lu, Zhou, Song,Shu and the Han. The one who won was the Qin of course. And this started the very first Chinese Empire, but the Qin empire relied so much on its founder that once he died power was passed to a new dynasty, the Han Dynasty.
MESOAMERICA Mesoamerica is the given name of the culture areas including most of Mexico and Central America. Mesoamerica held many different cultures in the borders of present day northern Mexico and western Costa Rica. The most first cultures that have lived here were the Olmec, Toltec, Mayans, and Aztecs. Most accept the Olmec culture as the "mother culture of Mesoamerican civilization," because their artifacts are the first evidence of many Mesoamerican religions, political structures, and ceremonies. The Toltec were settled in their capital of Tula when the Aztecs came and surpassed themselves as rulers of the Valley of Mexico-though much of their learning is reported of coming from the Toltec. Teotihuacan was the center of religious, economic, and political power of all the civilizations, though there is no record of whom or when it was built. Teotihuacán is located in present-day Mexico City and is translated by the Aztecs to mean “House of the Gods.” Teotihuacán was also considered a sacred burial ground; many tombs have been found and many more are thought to be still hidden within its ruins. The fall of Teotihuacan in the 600s for unknown reasons affected the Mayan civilization by disrupting trade routes and leaving a large political void that declined the civilization. Mesoamerica was ended by the conquest of all the civilizations by the Spanish.
ANDEAN SOUTH AMERICA: MOCHE Many civilizations lived in the Andean Mountains though many were separated by the various mountains. The most known and influenced are the Chavin and Moche empires. The Chavin were first settled in northern Peru around 900 B.C.E. The Chavin people were primarily a religious group but did have a complex society with a social class, specialized jobs, and an elite group of rulers. They also had remarkable innovations in religion, arts, engineering, architecture, and trade. The Chavin culture spread their advancements through much of the Andes Mountains and is credited now with being responsible for uniting a large part of the region for the first time. The Moche are believed to of been an aggressive warlike group first starting in the Moche-Chicama Valley but spread to the North Coast of Peru by conquering previous tribes around 200 B.C.E when the Chavin collapsed. Much of their culture and way of life is known through their artwork. Pictures depict the Moche having a very organized hierarchy with nobles presiding over ceremonies and ordinary people eating and fishing. Specialized roles such as healers and shamans were also shown. The Moche had domestic and ritual agriculture as well as irrigation canals and roads. Several crises such as climatic fluctuation and internal social stress resulting in a reduced economic productivity are allegedly believed to of led to the demise of this civilization between 600 and 750 C.E.
THE KINGDOM OF MAGADHA Both the Maurya and Gupta Empires originated in the Kingdom of Magadha, which was founded around 500 BCE. The kingdom lied along the Middle Ganges, and was located in what is now Bihar, India. The people of Magadha were Buddhists. The first famous king was Bimbusara (r. 543- 491BCE), whose capital was Rajagriha (modern- day Rajgir). He added the territory of Angas (now Bengal) and facilitated economically successful trade along the Ganges. The last king of Magadha ended his term in 414 BCE due to an uprising led by Shishunaga. After that, there were mainly just short-lived dynasties until the establishment of the Mauryan Empire.
MAURYAN EMPIRE (324-184 BCE) Chandragupta Maurya (r. 324- 301BCE) gained control of the kingdom of Magadha and expanded, creating the Mauryan Empire. C. Maurya’s grandson Ashoka (r. 269 -232) expanded the empire’s territory greatly and advocated; non-violence, morality, moderation, and religious tolerance. The Mauryan Empire collapsed from the pressure of attacks in the Northwest in 184 BCE.
GUPTA EMPIRE Chandra Gupta (r. 320-335 CE) founded the Gupta Empire. The Gupta Empore acquired prestige and power by developing attractive cultural forms and staging elaborate public ceremonies (as well as redistributing valuable resources) to attract and bind subjects to the center. In the 5 th century CE, the Gupta Empire was constantly being invaded by the Huns and the empire collapsed in 550. Harsha Vardhana (r. 606-647) revived the empire, but it eventually regressed into political fragmentation.
PHOENICIA & COLONIES Little is known about Greece before the Phoenicians because they were in a “Dark Age” (1150-800 BCE) where they were completely isolated from the rest of the world. This ended when the Phoenicians began to visit and reestablished contact between Aegean and the Middle East. Phoenicia was a coastal region located in what is now; Lebanon, Southern Syria, and Northern Israel. The Phoenicians created the alphabet (consonants) Carthage is perhaps Phoenicia’s most well-known colonies. It went to become a commercial empire whose power rested on its navy. Outside Carthage itself, they ruled over their empire indirectly and granted other Phoenician communities their independence. Sardinia & Southern Spain were put under the direct control of Carthage. It is thought that this was to protect their agricultural, metal, and manpower resources.
GREEK CITY-STATES As Greece became more urbanized, they developed the polis (city-state). Different polises served different purposes; the hilltop aeropolis was where people sought refuge and the agora was a gathering place, which became a marketplace. Authority in Greek communities were either democracies or oligarchies once tyranny was put to an end. The Greeks were dependent on other civilizations for commodities such as metals, timber, and food.
HELLENISTIC & ROMAN EMPIRES Roman culture was heavily merged/influence with that of Greece, which is why Rome is said to be Hellenistic. Rome had a Republican government. Agustus’ intelligence and long-lasting power allowed him to reshape the political structure to where it was no longer a Republic. All men who owned a specified amount of land were subject to military service, which gave Rome a seemingly endless supply of soldiers. Rome came to an end in 476 CE.
SASSANID DYNASTY The last Iranian empire before the Muslims invaded Iran. The location of this empire was in the fertile lowlands of Mesopotamia ( Present day south Iraq) and on Iranian plateau. At its best time the Sassanid Dynasty streched from Oxus River in Central Asia, south to Indus river in India and west through present day Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq and bordered itself with the Roman Empire! The first Sassanid monarch was Ardashir. Their religion was Zoroastrain. This was the worlds first monotheistic religon. This religon is abut the struggle between the good and the bad. The shahenshah (kind of kings) was seen as a early incarnation of their supreme god. The high class people were pretty much the governers, most high class people were military governers, accountants and queens and kings. The last Emperor of the Sassanid Dynasty was Yazdegerd III, who did not have the resources to challenge Muslim arimies in the seventh century which led to the fall or loss of the Sassanid Dynasty.
PARTHIAN EMPIRE The Parthian Empire extended from today’s Eastern Turkey to Afghanistan. The empire was established by nomads. Early on in the empire, they struggled for power with the Seleucids. This problem was resolved when both parties signed a peace treaty. Although it was a monarchy, the king didn’t assert much power over his people. The empire collapsed in 224 upon the death of the king, Artabanus V.