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The Historical Background of Hellenism and why we celebrate Hannukah for 8 days.

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1 The Historical Background of Hellenism and why we celebrate Hannukah for 8 days

2 Babylonians 605 – 539 BCE Persians 539 – 332 BCE Hasmonean Rule 142 – 63 BCE Romans 63 BCE –395 CE Hellenistic Rule Alexander 332 BCE Ptolemies 301 – 200 BCE Seleucids 200 – 142 BCE

3 Important Dates ► 586 BCE Destruction of Bet haMikdash I ► 539 BCE Cyrus destroys Babylonia, decrees that Jews can return ► BCE Rebuilding of Bet haMikdash II ► חגי ב : יח – שִׂימוּ נָא לְבַבְכֶם, מִן הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה וָמָעְלָה מִיּוֹם עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה לַתְּשִׁיעִי, לְמִן - הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר - יֻסַּד הֵיכַל יְ - הוָה שִׂימוּ לְבַבְכֶם. ► 5 th century – Ezra and Nehemiah ► 332 BCE Alexander the Great conquers Judea and Persian Empire

4 Alexander the Great

5 Alexander the Macedonian

6 Josephus, Antiquities, ► And when he understood that he was not far from the city, he went out in procession, with the priests and the multitude of the citizens. The procession was venerable, and the manner of it different from that of other nations. It reached to a place called Sapha, which name, translated into Greek, signifies a prospect, for you have thence a prospect both of Jerusalem and of the temple. And when the Phoenicians and the Chaldeans that followed him thought they should have liberty to plunder the city, and torment the high priest to death, which the king's displeasure fairly promised them, the very reverse of it happened; for Alexander, when he saw the multitude at a distance, in white garments, while the priests stood clothed with fine linen, and the high priest in purple and scarlet clothing, with his mitre on his head, having the golden plate whereon the name of God was engraved, he approached by himself, and adored that name, and first saluted the high priest. ► The Jews also did all together, with one voice, salute Alexander, and encompass him about; whereupon the kings of Syria and the rest were surprised at what Alexander had done, and supposed him disordered in his mind. However, Parmenio alone went up to him, and asked him how it came to pass that, when all others adored him, he should adore the high priest of the Jews? To whom he replied, "I did not adore him, but that God who hath honored him with his high priesthood; for I saw this very person in a dream, in this very habit, when I was at Dios in Macedonia, who, when I was considering with myself how I might obtain the dominion of Asia, exhorted me to make no delay, but boldly to pass over the sea thither, for that he would conduct my army, and would give me the dominion over the Persians; whence it is that, having seen no other in that habit, and now seeing this person in it, and remembering that vision, and the exhortation which I had in my dream, I believe that I bring this army under the Divine conduct, and shall therewith conquer Darius, and destroy the power of the Persians, and that all things will succeed according to what is in my own mind."

7 Josephus, cont… ► And when he had said this to Parmenio, and had given the high priest his right hand, the priests ran along by him, and he came into the city. And when he went up into the temple, he offered sacrifice to God, according to the high priest's direction, and magnificently treated both the high priest and the priests. And when the Book of Daniel was showed him wherein Daniel declared that one of the Greeks should destroy the empire of the Persians, he supposed that himself was the person intended. And as he was then glad, he dismissed the multitude for the present; but the next day he called them to him, and bid them ask what favors they pleased of him; whereupon the high priest desired that they might enjoy the laws of their forefathers, and might pay no tribute on the seventh year. He granted all they desired. And when they entreared him that he would permit the Jews in Babylon and Media to enjoy their own laws also, he willingly promised to do hereafter what they desired. And when he said to the multitude, that if any of them would enlist themselves in his army, on this condition, that they should continue under the laws of their forefathers, and live according to them, he was willing to take them with him, many were ready to accompany him in his wars.

8 בבלי יומא פט ע " א ( מינכין 6) תא שמע בגדי כהנה היוצא בהן למדינה אסור ובמקדש בין בשעת עבודה בין שלא בשעת עבודה מותר מפני שבגדי כהנה ניתנו ליהנות בהן שמע מינה והיוצא בהן למדינה אסור והתניא בעשרין וחד ביה יום הר גרזים די לא למספד יום שבקשו כותיים את בית אלהינו מאלכסנדרוס מקדון ונתנו להן באו והודיעו את שמעון הצדיק מה עשה לבש בגדי כהנה ונתעטף בבגדי כהנה ויקרי ירושלם עמו ואבוקות של אור דולקות לפניהן והלילה כלו הללו מהלכין מצד זה והללו מהלכין מצד זה אמ ' להן מי הם אלו אמרו לו יהודים שמרדו בך כיון שהגיעו לאנטיפטרס זרחה חמה ופגעו זה בזה כיון שראה את שמעון הצדיק ירד מעל מרכבתו והשתחוה לו אמרו לו מלך גדול שכמותך ישתחוה ליהודי זה אמ ' להן דמות דיוקנו של זה מנצחת לפני בבית מלחמתי אמ ' להן למה באתם אמרו לו מקום שאנו מתפללים בו עליך ועל מלכותך שלא תחרב יתעוך גוים הללו ותתנו להן אמ ' להן ומי הם אלו אמרו לו כותיים שעומדין לפניך אמ ' להן הרי הן מסורין בידכם מיד נקבום בעיקביהן ותלאום בזנבי סוסיהן והיו גוררין אותן על הקוצין ועל הברקנין עד שהגיעו להר גריזים כיון שהגיעו להר גרזים חרשוהו וזרעוהו כרשנין כדרך שבקשו לעשות את בית אלהינו ואותו היום עשאוהו יום טוב איבעית אימא בגדים הראוין לכהנה איבעית אימא עת לעשות לייי הפרו תורתך

9 Bavli Yoma 69a Come and hear: As to priestly garments, it is forbidden to go out in them in the province, but in the Sanctuary whether during or outside the time of the service, it is permitted to wear them, because priestly garments are permitted for private use. This is conclusive. But in the province [it is] not [permitted]? Surely it was taught: The twenty-fifth of Tebeth is the day of Mount Gerizim, on which no mourning is permitted. It is the day on which the Cutheans demanded the House of our God from Alexander the Macedonian so as to destroy it, and he had given them the permission, whereupon some people came and informed Simeon the Just. What did the latter do? He put on his priestly garments, robed himself in priestly garments, some of the noblemen of Israel went with him carrying fiery torches in their hands, they walked all the night, some walking on one side and others on the other side, until the dawn rose. When the dawn rose he [Alexander] said to them: Who are these [the Samaritans]? They answered: The Jews who rebelled against you. As he reached Antipatris, the sun having shone forth, they met. When he saw Simeon the Just, he descended from his carriage and bowed down before him. They said to him: A great king like yourself should bow down before this Jew? He answered: His image it is which wins for me in all my battles. He said to them: What have you come for? They said: Is it possible that star-worshippers should mislead you to destroy the House wherein prayers are said for you and your kingdom that it be never destroyed! He said to them: Who are these? They said to him: These are Cutheans who stand before you. He said: They are delivered into your hand. At once they perforated their heels, tied them to the tails of their horses and dragged them over thorns and thistles, until they came to Mount Gerizim, which they ploughed and planted with vetch, even as they had planned to do with the House of God. And that day they made a festive day. If you like say: They were fit to be priestly garments, or, if you like, say: It is time to work for the Lord: they have made void Thy law.

10 Unifying the Empire Alexander encouraged intermarriages, setting an example by marrying a Persian princess himself. He placed soldiers from all the provinces in his army. He introduced a uniform currency system throughout the empire and promoted trade and commerce. He encouraged the spread of Greek ideas, customs, and laws into Asia. When he heard that some of his provincial officials ruled unjustly, he replaced them. To receive recognition as the supreme ruler, he required the provinces to worship him as a god.

11 Arrian of NicomediaArrian of Nicomedia on Weddings at Susa Arrian of Nicomedia ► Then he also celebrated weddings at Susa, both his own and those of his Companions. He himself married Barsine, the eldest of Darius' daughters, and, according to Aristobulus, another girl as well, Parysatis, the youngest of the daughters of Ochus. He had already married previously Roxane, the daughter of Oxyartes of Bactria. SusaBarsineAristobulusRoxaneBactriaSusaBarsineAristobulusRoxaneBactria ► He gave Drypetis to Hephaestion, she too a daughter of Darius and a sister of his own wife; his intention was that the children of Hephaestion should be cousins to his own children. To Craterus he gave Amastris daughter of Oxyathres, brother of Darius, and to Perdiccas the daughter of Atropates, satrap of Media. To Ptolemy the bodyguard and to Eumenes the royal secretary he gave the daughters of Artabazus, Artacama to one and Artonis to the other. To Nearchus he gave the daughter of Barsine and Mentor, and to Seleucus the daughter of Spitamenes of Bactria. Similarly he gave to the other Companions the noblest daughters of the Persians and Medes, some eighty in all. HephaestionCraterusOxyathresPerdiccasAtropatesMediaPtolemybodyguardEumenes ArtabazusNearchusBarsineMentorSeleucusSpitamenesHephaestionCraterusOxyathresPerdiccasAtropatesMediaPtolemybodyguardEumenes ArtabazusNearchusBarsineMentorSeleucusSpitamenes ► The marriages were celebrated according to Persian custom. Chairs were placed for the bridegrooms in order, and after the drinks the brides came in and sat down, each by the side of her groom. They took them by the hand and kissed them; the king began the ceremony, for all the weddings took place together. More than any action of Alexander this seemed to show a popular and comradely spirit. The bridegrooms after receiving their brides led them away, each to his own home, and to all Alexander gave a dowry. And as for all the Macedonians who had already married Asian women, Alexander ordered a list of their names to be drawn up; they numbered over 10,000, and Alexander offered them all gifts their wedding. ► The marriages were celebrated according to Persian custom. Chairs were placed for the bridegrooms in order, and after the drinks the brides came in and sat down, each by the side of her groom. They took them by the hand and kissed them; the king began the ceremony, for all the weddings took place together. More than any action of Alexander this seemed to show a popular and comradely spirit. The bridegrooms after receiving their brides led them away, each to his own home, and to all Alexander gave a dowry. And as for all the Macedonians who had already married Asian women, Alexander ordered a list of their names to be drawn up; they numbered over 10,000, and Alexander offered them all gifts their wedding. Macedonians

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13 From Hellenism to the Hasmoneans

14 Rafael - Rafael - The Expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple

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16 Heliodorus Stele Dorymenes to Diophanes greetings: The copy of the letter given us by Heliodorus who is in charge of the affairs is enclosed. You will do well therefore if you take care that everything is carried out according to the instructions. Year 134, 22 of the month of Gorpiaius (August 178 BCE) Year 134, 22 of the month of Gorpiaius (August 178 BCE) Heliodorus to Dorymenes his brother greetings: Heliodorus to Dorymenes his brother greetings: The copy of the order given us by the king concerning Olympiodorus is placed below. You will do well therefore if you follow the instructions. The copy of the order given us by the king concerning Olympiodorus is placed below. You will do well therefore if you follow the instructions. Year 134, 20(?) of the month of Gorpiaius (August 178 BCE) King Seleucus to Heliodorus his brother greetings: King Seleucus to Heliodorus his brother greetings: Taking the utmost consideration for the safety of our subjects, and thinking it to be of the greatest good for the affairs in our realm when those living in our kingdom manage their lives without fear, and at the same time realizing that nothing can enjoy a fitting prosperity without the good will of the gods, we have given orders from the outset that the sanctuaries founded in the other satrapies receive the traditional honors with the care befitting them. But since the affairs in Koile-Syria and Phoinike stand in need of the appointment of someone to take care of these (i.e. sanctuaries) … Olympiodorus...

17 Hermes wearing a Petasos

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19 The New York Times 12/11/09 – David Brooks ► Tonight Jewish kids will light the menorah, spin their dreidels and get their presents, but Hanukkah is the most adult of holidays. It commemorates an event in which the good guys did horrible things, the bad guys did good things and in which everybody is flummoxed by insoluble conflicts that remain with us today.

20 High Priests Shimon ha-Sadiq Onias III Jason (Yehoshua) ( ) Meneleus ( ) Sadok Jonathan the Hasmonean

21 Hellenistic Period ► 332BCE Alexander the Great conquers Palestine ► 323BCE Alexander dies  Diadochi, Ptolemy in Egypt, Seleucus in Syria ► BCE Ptolemaic Rule  Allowed to continue as semiautonomous ► 201BCE Seleucid conquest of Palestine ► BCE Jason High Priest  bribes Antiochus IV for high priesthood  builds gymnasium in Jerusalem which becomes a polis – “Antioch” ► BCE Menelaus High Priest  Converts temple into pagan shrine, YHVH=Zeus=Baal Shamin ► 168BCE – Bet haMikdash is looted, Jews are massacred ► Antiochus IV decrees persecution ► 164 Judah conquers Jerusalem and rededicates the Temple

22 Victor Tcherikover Hellenistic Civilization and the Jews The principles introduced by Joseph the Tobiad into Judaea are now clear. They were the principles of the Hellenistic epoch as a whole, dominated by the striving of the strong personality to make its way in life. Joseph’s character manifests those basic traits so typical of a number of Greeks of the period: immense willpower, rapidity of action, self-confidence and, resulting from them, undisguised contempt for ancestral tradition. Through quiet unchanging Jerusalem, new winds were suddenly blowing, as if a window had been suddenly thrown open to reveal all the wealth and splendor of the wide world, a world where power and money reigned supreme, annulling religious, national and moral tradition.

23 Why did Antiochus Persecute the Jews? 1. He was crazy, nervous, eccentric. May have hastened the persecution but not caused it. 2. He was a Great Hellenizer and unifier But only for political ends by making poleis, not cultural. 3. The Jewish Hellenizers asked for the decrees. 4. Decrees result from a civil war.

24 1 Maccabees ch. 2 ► 23 There came a certain Jew in the sight of all to sacrifice to the idols upon the altar in the city of Modin, according to the king's commandment. 24 And Mathathias saw and was grieved, and his reins trembled, and his wrath was kindled according to the judgment of the law, and running upon him he slew him upon the altar. 25 Moreover the man whom king Antiochus had sent, who compelled them to sacrifice, he slew at the same time, and pulled down the altar. 26 And showed zeal for the law, as Phinees did by Zamri the son of Salomi.

25 I Maccabees 1:11 ► ► In those days there appeared in Israel men who were breakers of the law, and ► ► they seduced many people, saying: "Let us go and make an alliance with the Gentiles all around us; since we separated from them, many evils have come upon us.“ ► ► Cf. Jer 44:18

26 ► What is Hellenism? ► Why did Antiochus persecute the Jews? ► Why do we celebrate for 8 days? ► Why do we celebrate on Kislev 25 th ? ► What can Hanukka mean for us today?

27 Why is Hanukah on Kislev 25?

28 Megilat Ta’anit ► בעשרים ושלושה במרחשון נסתר הסורג מן העזרה. מפני שבנו שם גוים מקום, והעמידו עליו את הזונות. וכשתקפה יד בית חשמונאי נטלוהו מהן, וסתרוהו, ומצאו שם אבנים טובות, ונמנו עליהן וגנזו אותן. והן מונחות עד היום הזה, עד שיבוא אליהו ויעיד עליהן אם טמאות הן אם טהורות. יום שסתרוהו עשאוהו יום טוב. ► בשלושה בכסליו ניטלו הפסלים מן החצר מפני שבנו שם גוים סימואתא, וכשגברה יד בית חשמונאי בטלום והוציאום משם. יום שבטלום עשאוהו יום טוב.

29 Haggai 2:18 ► שִׂימוּ - נָא לְבַבְכֶם, מִן - הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה וָמָעְלָה ; מִיּוֹם עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה לַתְּשִׁיעִי, לְמִן - הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר - יֻסַּד הֵיכַל יְ - הוָה שִׂימוּ לְבַבְכֶם. ► Consider, I pray you, from this day and forward, from the four and twentieth day of the ninth month, even from the day that the foundation of Hashem’s temple was laid, consider it.

30 I Maccabees 1 ► 54 Now on the fifteenth day of Chislev, in the one hundred forty-fifth year, they erected a desolating sacrilege on the altar of burnt offering. They also built altars in the surrounding towns of Judah, 55and offered incense at the doors of the houses and in the streets. 56The books of the law that they found they tore to pieces and burned with fire. 57Anyone found possessing the book of the covenant, or anyone who adhered to the law, was condemned to death by decree of the king. 58They kept using violence against Israel, against those who were found month after month in the towns. 59On the twenty-fifth day of the month they offered sacrifice on the altar that was on top of the altar of burnt offering.

31 Winter Solstice Holiday תלמוד בבלי מסכת עבודה זרה דף ח עמוד א ► גמ '. אמר רב חנן בר רבא : קלנדא - ח ' ימים אחר תקופה, סטרנורא - ח ' ימים לפני תקופה, וסימנך : ( תהלים קלט ) אחור וקדם צרתני וגו '. ► ת " ר : לפי שראה אדם הראשון יום שמתמעט והולך, אמר : אוי לי, שמא בשביל שסרחתי עולם חשוך בעדי וחוזר לתוהו ובוהו, וזו היא מיתה שנקנסה עלי מן השמים, עמד וישב ח ' ימים בתענית [ ובתפלה ], כיון שראה תקופת טבת וראה יום שמאריך והולך, אמר : מנהגו של עולם הוא, הלך ועשה שמונה ימים טובים, לשנה האחרת עשאן לאלו ולאלו ימים טובים, הוא קבעם לשם שמים, והם קבעום לשם עבודת כוכבים. בשלמא למ " ד : בתשרי נברא העולם, יומי זוטי חזא, יומי אריכי אכתי לא חזא ; אלא למ " ד : בניסן נברא העולם, הא חזא ליה יומי זוטי ויומי אריכי ! [ דהוי ] זוטי כולי האי לא חזא. ► ת " ר : יום שנברא בו אדם הראשון, כיון ששקעה עליו חמה, אמר : אוי לי, שבשביל שסרחתי עולם חשוך בעדי ויחזור עולם לתוהו ובוהו, וזו היא מיתה שנקנסה עלי מן השמים, היה יושב [ בתענית ] ובוכה כל הלילה וחוה בוכה כנגדו, כיון שעלה עמוד השחר, אמר : מנהגו של עולם הוא.

32 Winter Solstice ► Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zara 8a ► Our Rabbis taught: When Adam saw the day getting gradually shorter, he said, ‘Woe is me, perhaps because I have sinned, the world around me is being darkened and returning to its state of chaos and confusion; this then is the kind of death to which I have been sentenced from Heaven!’ So he began keeping an eight days’ fast. But as he observed the winter solstice and noted the day getting increasingly longer, he said, ‘This is the world's course’, and he set forth to keep an eight days’ festivity. In the following year he appointed both as festivals. Now, he fixed them for the sake of Heaven, but the [heathens] appointed them for the sake of idolatry.

33 Why is Hanukah 8 Days?

34 Josephus is in the “Dark” Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 12:7 ► Now Judas celebrated the festival of the restoration of the sacrifices of the temple for eight days, and omitted no sort of pleasures thereon; but he feasted them upon very rich and splendid sacrifices; and he honored God, and delighted them by hymns and psalms. Nay, they were so very glad at the revival of their customs, when, after a long time of intermission, they unexpectedly had regained the freedom of their worship, that they made it a law for their posterity, that they should keep a festival, on account of the restoration of their temple worship, for eight days. And from that time to this we celebrate this festival, and call it Lights. I suppose the reason was, because this liberty beyond our hopes appeared to us; and that thence was the name given to that festival. Judas also rebuilt the walls round about the city, and reared towers of great height against the incursions of enemies, and set guards therein. He also fortified the city Bethsura, that it might serve as a citadel against any distresses that might come from our enemies.

35 Lit for Eight Days ► תלמוד בבלי מסכת שבת דף כא עמוד ב ► מאי חנוכה ? דתנו רבנן : בכ " ה בכסליו יומי דחנוכה תמניא אינון, דלא למספד בהון ודלא להתענות בהון. שכשנכנסו יוונים להיכל טמאו כל השמנים שבהיכל, וכשגברה מלכות בית חשמונאי ונצחום, בדקו ולא מצאו אלא פך אחד של שמן שהיה מונח בחותמו של כהן גדול, ולא היה בו אלא להדליק יום אחד, נעשה בו נס והדליקו ממנו שמונה ימים. לשנה אחרת קבעום ועשאום ימים טובים בהלל והודאה.

36 ► What is [the reason of] Hanukkah? For our Rabbis taught: On the twenty-fifth of Kislev [commence] the days of Hanukkah, which are eight on which a lamentation for the dead and fasting are forbidden. For when the Greeks entered the Temple, they defiled all the oils therein, and when the Hasmonean dynasty prevailed against and defeated them, they made search and found only one cruse of oil which lay with the seal of the High Priest, but which contained sufficient for one day's lighting only; yet a miracle was wrought therein and they lit [the lamp] therewith for eight days. The following year these [days] were appointed a Festival with [the recital of] Hallel and thanksgiving.

37 Eight Metal Spits ► פסיקתא רבתי ( איש שלום ) פרשה ב ד " ה ילמדנו רבינו נר ► ולמה מדליק נרות בחנוכה אלא בשעה שנצחו בניו של חשמונאי הכהן הגדול למלכות יון שנאמר ועוררת בניך ציון על בניך יון ( זכריה ט ' י " ג ) נכנסו לבית המקדש מצאו שם שמונה שפודין של ברזל וקבעו אותם והדליקו בתוכם נרות,

38 ► II Maccabees 2:12 - Solomon also celebrated the feast in the same way for eight days.

39 Like Sukkoth II Maccabees 10 Now Maccabeus and his followers, the Lord leading them on, recovered the temple and the city; 2. they tore down the altars that had been built in the public square by the foreigners, and also destroyed the sacred precincts. 3. They purified the sanctuary, and made another altar of sacrifice; then, striking fire out of flint, they offered sacrifices, after a lapse of two years, and they offered incense and lighted lamps and set out the bread of the Presence. Now Maccabeus and his followers, the Lord leading them on, recovered the temple and the city; 2. they tore down the altars that had been built in the public square by the foreigners, and also destroyed the sacred precincts. 3. They purified the sanctuary, and made another altar of sacrifice; then, striking fire out of flint, they offered sacrifices, after a lapse of two years, and they offered incense and lighted lamps and set out the bread of the Presence. 4. When they had done this, they fell prostrate and implored the Lord that they might never again fall into such misfortunes, but that, if they should ever sin, they might be disciplined by him with forbearance and not be handed over to blasphemous and barbarous nations. 5. It happened that on the same day on which the sanctuary had been profaned by the foreigners, the purification of the sanctuary took place, that is, on the twenty-fifth day of the same month, which was Chislev. 4. When they had done this, they fell prostrate and implored the Lord that they might never again fall into such misfortunes, but that, if they should ever sin, they might be disciplined by him with forbearance and not be handed over to blasphemous and barbarous nations. 5. It happened that on the same day on which the sanctuary had been profaned by the foreigners, the purification of the sanctuary took place, that is, on the twenty-fifth day of the same month, which was Chislev. 6. They celebrated it for eight days with rejoicing, in the manner of the festival of booths, remembering how not long before, during the festival of booths, they had been wandering in the mountains and caves like wild animals. 7. Therefore, carrying ivy-wreathed wands and beautiful branches and also fronds of palm, they offered hymns of thanksgiving to him who had given success to the purifying of his own holy place. 8. They decreed by public edict, ratified by vote, that the whole nation of the Jews should observe these days every year. 9. Such then was the end of Antiochus, who was called Epiphanes.

40 בבלי שבת כא ע " ב ► Our Rabbis taught: The precept of Hanukkah [demands] one light for a man and his household; the zealous [kindle] a light for each member [of the household]; and the extremely zealous, — Beth Shammai maintain: On the first day eight lights are lit and thereafter they are gradually reduced, but Beth Hillel say: On the first day one is lit and thereafter they are progressively increased. ‘Ulla said: In the West [Palestine] two amoraim, R. Jose b. Abin and R. Jose b. Zebida, differ therein: one maintains, The reason of Beth Shammai is that it shall correspond to the days still to come, and that of Beth Hillel is that it shall correspond to the days that are gone; but another maintains: Beth Shammai's reason is that it shall correspond to the bullocks of the Festival; whilst Beth Hillel's reason is that we promote in [matters of] sanctity but do not reduce.

41 2 Maccabees 6:7 ► On the monthly celebration of the king’s birthday, the Jews were taken, under bitter constraint, to partake of the sacrifices; and when a festival of Dionysus was celebrated, they were compelled to wear wreaths of ivy and to walk in the procession in honor Dionysus.

42 Teetotum

43 ► The original medieval dice used in Germany by gamblers was inscribed with the four letters: N, G, H, and S, which are the initials:  Nichts (“nothing”),  Ganz (“all”),  Halb (“half”), and  Stellein (“put in”). – Encyclopedia Judaica “Folklore”

44 Kedushefy ► Winter Solstice becomes religious day of hope and trust in Hashem. ► Celebration of lights becomes symbol of Hashem’s providence even in times of darkness. ► Ivy bands for Dionysis become part of rededication celebration. ► European gambling game becomes symbol of perseverance.

45 Antiochus IV Epiphanes

46 From the Hasmoneans to Roman Revolt

47 1. Mattathias ben Johanan [ ? BCE] Mattathias ben JohananMattathias ben Johanan Hasmonean Dynasty Hasmonean Dynasty _____ _____________ __ _ __________|_____ ___ ________________________ | | | | | Johanan Gaddi 4. Simon Thassi [ruled BCE] Simon ThassiSimon Thassi 2. Judah Maccabee [ ? BCE] Judah MaccabeeJudah Maccabee Eleazar Avaron 3. Jonathan Apphus [ruled BCE] Jonathan ApphusJonathan Apphus _____ ________|____ __ ___________ | | | Mattathias [ ?-134 BCE] Judah [ ?- 134 BCE] 5. Johanan Hyrcanus [ruled BCE] Johanan HyrcanusJohanan Hyrcanus _________ __________|_____ ___ _________ | | | 6. Aristobulus I (Judah) [ruled BCE] Aristobulus IAristobulus I Antigonus (Matthew) [ ? BCE] 7. Alexander Jannai (Jonathan) [ruled BCE] Alexander JannaiAlexander Jannai= 8. Salome Alexandra [ruled BCE] Salome AlexandraSalome Alexandra ___________________| | | 10. Hyrcanus II (Jonathan) [ruled (d. 30) BCE] Hyrcanus II Hyrcanus II 9. Aristobulus II (Judah) [ruled (d. 49) BCE] Aristobulus IIAristobulus II ||_______| ___ _ | Alexandra [ ? - 28 BCE] = Alexander [ ? - 49 BCE] 11. Antigonus (Matthe) [ruled BCE] Antigonus __________| Aristobulus III [ ? - 35 BCE] | | | | Mariamne Mariamne [ ? - 29 BCE] Mariamne= 12. Herod (the Great) [ruled 38-4 BCE] Herod (the Great) Herod (the Great) ________|_____ | | Aristobulus IV Aristobulus IV [ ca BCE] Aristobulus IV Alexander [ ca BCE] Elephant fell on him

48 Judah the Maccabee ► BCE ► Led the revolt against the Seleucids ► Purified the Temple in 164 BCE

49 Jonathan ► Ruler BCE ► Brother of Judah ► first Hasmonean to be High Priest in 153 BCE

50 Simon ► Ethnarch and High Priest ► BCE ► Is granted tax exemption from Demetrius II ► Removes Seleucid garrison in Jerusalem ► Gains total political independence ► Murdered by his son-in-law together with two older sons

51 John Hyrcanus ► Ethnarch and High Priest ► Son of Simon ► BCE ► Forced the Idumeans to convert (including Antipater’s father, grandfather of Herod) ► Destroys Samaritan Temple in 128BCE

52 ► Coin of John Hyrcanus ( BCE) ► יהונתן הכהן הגדול וחבר היהודים

53 כתב עברי Paleo-Hebrew

54 Double Perutah coin of John Hyrcanus. Pair of cornucopiae and a crested helmet. Reads: “Yehochanan the High Priest and Leader of the Community of the Jews.”

55 Bar Kokhba Coin Front: the Aron in the middle and star above. “שמעון” Back: Lulav. “לחרות ירושלם“ in Ketav Ivri (Ancient Hebrew script)

56 Bar Kokhba Coin ► Front: Trumpets. " לחרות ירושלים " ► Back: Lyre. " ש [ נה ] ב לחר [ ות ] ישראל "

57 Judah Aristobulus I ► King and High Priest ► BCE ► Son of John Hyrcanus ► First to call himself king ► Imprisons mother and three brothers. Kills another brother. ► Married to Salome Alexandra

58 ► Coin of Judah Aristobulus ► יהודה הכהן הגדול וחבר היהודים

59 Alexander Yannai ► King and High Priest ► BCE ► Son of John Hyrcanus ► Married Salome Alexandra, his brother’s widow ► Practiced Sadduecean law and was pelted by Etrogim. Kills 6,000 Jews in retaliations. ► Killed 50,000 in civil war. ► Crucified 800 Pharisees ► Advises his wife before dying to yield to the Pharisees!

60 Alexander Yannai " יהונתן הכהן הגדול וחבר היהודים "

61 ► Sun wheel, “ יהונתן המלך “ ► Anchor, “King Alexander” in Greek

62 ► Flower and Anchor with “King Yannai” ► Restamped with “Yonatan the High Priest and the Community of the Jews” ► Went back to original type

63 Salome Alexandra & Sons ► Salome is queen of Judea BCE ► Her two sons Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II fight over the crown. Both appeal for help from the Romans. ► Pompey imprisons Aristobulus II and makes Hyrcanus II high priest in 63BCE. ► Hyrcanus serves 63-40BCE ► Antignos serves 40-37BCE ► Herod marries Mariamne, granddaughter of Hyrcanus and Aristobulus.

64 Hasmonean Conquests

65 1. Mattathias ben Johanan [ ? BCE] Mattathias ben JohananMattathias ben Johanan Hasmonean Dynasy Hasmonean Dynasy _____ ______________ _ _ __________|______ __ ________________________ | | | | | Johanan Gaddi 4. Simon Thassi [ruled BCE] Simon ThassiSimon Thassi 2. Judah Maccabee [ ? BCE] Judah MaccabeeJudah Maccabee Eleazar Avaron 3. Jonathan Apphus [ruled BCE] Jonathan ApphusJonathan Apphus _____ ________|_____ _ ___________ | | | Mattathias [ ?-134 BCE] Judah [ ?- 134 BCE] 5. Johanan Hyrcanus [ruled BCE] Johanan HyrcanusJohanan Hyrcanus _________ __________|______ __ _________ | | | 6. Aristobulus I (Judah) [ruled BCE] Aristobulus IAristobulus I Antigonus (Matthew) [ ? BCE] 7. Alexander Jannai (Jonathan) [ruled BCE] Alexander JannaiAlexander Jannai= 8. Salome Alexandra [ruled BCE] Salome AlexandraSalome Alexandra ___________________| | | 10. Hyrcanus II (Jonathan) [ruled (d. 30) BCE] Hyrcanus II Hyrcanus II 9. Aristobulus II (Judah) [ruled (d. 49) BCE] Aristobulus IIAristobulus II ||_______|____ | Alexandra [ ? - 28 BCE] = Alexander [ ? - 49 BCE] 11. Antigonus (Matityahu ) [ruled BCE] Antigonus __________| Aristobulus III [ ? - 35 BCE] | | | | Mariamne Mariamne [ ? - 29 BCE] Mariamne= 12. Herod (the Great) [ruled 38-4 BCE] Herod (the Great) Herod (the Great) ________|_____ | | Aristobulus IV Aristobulus IV [ ca BCE] Aristobulus IV Alexander [ ca BCE]

66 ► Coin of Mattathias Antigonus (40-37BCE) with Menorah and Shulhan

67 Influences of Greco- Roman Thought on the Rabbis תלמוד בבלי מסכת מגילה דף ט עמוד ב אמר רבי חייא בר אבא : היינו טעמא דכתיב יפת אלהים ליפת – יפיותו של יפת יהא באהלי שם.

68 Ben Zoma, Pirke Avot 4:1 ► משנה מסכת אבות פרק ד משנה א ► בן זומא אומר איזהו חכם הלומד מכל אדם שנאמר ( תהלים קי " ט ) מכל מלמדי השכלתי ► איזהו גבור הכובש את יצרו שנאמר ( משלי טו / טז /) טוב ארך אפים מגבור ומושל ברוחו מלוכד עיר ► איזהו עשיר השמח בחלקו שנאמר ( תהלים קכ " ח ) יגיע כפיך כי תאכל אשריך וטוב לך אשריך בעולם הזה וטוב לך לעולם הבא ► איזהו מכובד המכבד את הבריות שנאמר ( שמואל א ' ב ') כי מכבדי אכבד ובוזי יקלו :

69 Quotes from Roman Writers ► Who then is sane? He who’s no fool. (Horace [56-8BCE], Satires, II.iii.158) ► Who then is free? The Sage who masters himself. (Horace, Satires II.vii.83) ► To be content with one’s things are riches. (Cicero, Paradoxa Stiocorum, 51) ► A noble thing is joyful poverty. (Seneca, Epistle II.5) ► Honoring the Sage is a great bonus to the honorers. (Gnomologium Vaticanum, 32) ► Only the Sage is sane. Only the Sage is free. Only the Sage is rich. (Cicero, pro Murena 60-66)

70 Kohelet Rabbah 5:14 AS HE CAME FORTH OF HIS MOTHER’ S WOMB [naked shall he go back as he came, and shall take nothing for his labor] (5:14). Genibah said: It is like a fox who found a vineyard which was fenced in on all sides. There was one hole through which he wanted to enter, but he was unable to do so. What did he do? He fasted for three days until he became lean and frail, and so got through the hole. Then he ate [of the grapes] and became fat again, so that when he wished to go out he could not pass through at all. He again fasted another three days until he became lean and frail, returning to his former condition, and went out. When he was outside, he turned his face and gazing at the vineyard, said, ' O vineyard, O vineyard, how good are you and the fruits inside! All that is inside is beautiful and commendable, but what enjoyment has one from you? As one enters you so he comes out.’ Such is this world.

71 Aesop’s Fables A hungry fox spied some bread and meat left in a hollow tree by some shepherds. He crawled in and ate it, but his belly swelled so that he could not get out again. As he moaned and groaned, another fox passing by came up and asked what was the matter. When he heard what had happened, he said to the first fox: “I guess you’ll just have to wait until you get back to the size you were when you went in, and then you won’t have any trouble getting out.” The story shows that time overcomes difficulties.

72 More Fables ► (Baba Kama 60b) When R. Ammi and R. Assi were sitting before R. Isaac the Smith, one of them said to him: ‘Will the Master please tell us some legal points?’ while the other said: ‘Will the Master please give us some homiletical instruction?’ When he commenced a homiletical discourse he was prevented by the one, and when he commenced a legal discourse he was prevented by the other. He therefore said to them: I will tell you a parable: To what is this like? To a man who has had two wives, one young and one old. The young one used to pluck out his white hair, whereas the old one used to pluck out his black hair. He thus finally remained bald on both sides. He further said to them: I will accordingly tell you something which will be equally interesting to both of you… ► (Aesop’s Fables) In the old days, when men were allowed to have many wives, a middle-aged man had one wife that was old and one that was young; each loved him very much, and desired to see him like herself. Now the Man's hair was turning grey, which the young Wife did not like, as it made him look too old for her husband. So every night she used to comb his hair and pick out the white ones. But the elder Wife saw her husband growing grey with great pleasure, for she did not like to be mistaken for his mother. So every morning she used to arrange his hair and pick out as many of the black ones as she could. The consequence was the man soon found himself entirely bald. Yield to all and you will soon have nothing to yield.

73 Studying Greek Rabban Gamaliel was given permission to teach the students Greek due to the relationship with the Romans. (Tosefta Sot 15:8) R. Gamaliel's son, Rabbi Simeon even said, "There were a 1000 pupils in my father's house; 500 studied the Torah and 500 studied Greek wisdom." (Bavli Sota 49b)

74 May a Jew study Greek? תלמוד ירושלמי מסכת פיאה פרק א דף טו טור ג / ה " א ► שאלו את רבי יהושע מהו שילמד אדם את בנו יוונית אמר להם ילמדנו בשעה שאינה לא יום ולא לילה דכתיב והגית בו יומם ולילה ► מעתה אסור לאדם ללמד את בנו אומנות בגין דכתיב והגית בו יומם ולילה ► והתני ר ' ישמעאל ובחר ' בחיים זו אומנות ► רבי בא בריה דרבי חייא בר ווא רבי חייא בשם רבי יוחנן מפני המסורות ► רבי אבהו בשם רבי יוחנן מותר לאדם ללמד את בתו יוונית מפני שהוא תכשיט לה ► שמע שמעון בר ווה אמר בגין דו בעה מלפה בנתיה הוא תלי ליה בר ' יוחנן יבא עלי אם שמעתיה מר ' יוחנן ► They asked R. Yehoshua, May one teach his son Greek? He replied, he may teach it at a time which is neither day nor night for it is written, You shall study it day and night. ► If so, then one may not teach his son a trade since it is written, You shall study it day and night. ► But didn’t R. Ishmael say, Choose life – this is a trade. ► R. Abba…because of the slanderers. ► R Abhu said in the name of R. Yohanan, One may teach his daughter Greek for it serves her as an ornament. ► Shimon bar Abba heard this. He said, because he wanted to teach his daughters he ascribed it to R. Yohanan. May [a curse] come upon me if I heard this from R. Yohanan.

75 Pandora’s Jar Beresheet Rabbah, ► “And he said, I heard Your voice, and I was afraid for I am naked and I hid. And he said, who told you that you are naked?” (Gen 3:9-10) ► Rabbi Levi said, This should be compared to a woman who comes to borrow vinegar, who enters into the house of the wife of a colleague. ► She [the borrower] asks her [the wife], “How does your husband treat you?” ► She [wife] said to her [visitor], “Everything he does with me is good, except that there is this jar, which is full of snakes and scorpions, which he does not let me touch.” ► She [visitor] said, “All of his jewels are in there. And he plans to marry another woman and give them to her.” ► What did she [wife] do? She stretched out her hand into the jar. They began to bite her. ► When her husband came, he heard her voice crying out, and said, “Perhaps you touched that jar?” ► Similarly [God said to Adam]: “Did you eat from the tree which I commanded you?” (Gen 3:11)

76 Pompey

77 Josephus on Pompey ► No small enormities were committed about the temple itself, which, in former ages, had been inaccessible, and seen by none; for Pompey went into it, and not a few of those that were with him also, and saw all that which it was unlawful for any other men to see but only for the high priests. ► There were in that temple the golden table, the holy candlestick, and the pouring vessels, and a great quantity of spices; and besides these there were among the treasures two thousand talents of sacred money: yet did Pompey touch nothing of all this, on account of his regard to religion; and in this point also he acted in a manner that was worthy of his virtue. ► The next day he gave order to those that had the charge of the temple to cleanse it, and to bring what offerings the law required to God; and restored the high priesthood to Hyrcanus, both because he had been useful to him in other respects, and because he hindered the Jews in the country from giving Aristobulus any assistance in his war against him Antiquities 14.4

78 Pompey Enters the Holy of Holies ► The first Roman to subdue the Jews and set foot into their Temple by right of conquest was Gnaeus Pompey: thereafter it was a matter of common knowledge that there were no representations of the gods within, but that the place was empty and the secret shrine contained nothing. Tacitus Histories

79 Rambam and His Detractors ► רמב " ם הלכות עבודת כוכבים פרק יא הלכה יא מי שנשכו עקרב או נחש מותר ללחוש על מקום הנשיכה ואפילו ו בשבת כדי ליישב דעתו ולחזק לבו, אף על פי שאין הדבר מועיל כלום הואיל ומסוכן הוא התירו לו כדי שלא תטרף דעתו עליו. ► ביאור הגר " א יורה דעה קעט ס " ק יג אבל כל הבאים אחריו חלקו עליו שהרי הרבה לחשים נאמרו בגמרא והוא נמשך אחר הפילוסופיא ולכן כתב שכשפים ושמות ולחשים ושדים וקמיעות הכל הוא שקר אבל כבר הכו אותן על קדקדו שהרי מצינו הרבה מעשיות בגמרא על פי שמות וכשפים

80 Adapted from Rabbi Berel Wein ► “What happened to the Hellenists? Their influence all but collapsed in the wake of the defeat. They would never return again as Hellenists, because the war brought out their true colors as traitors and they lost whatever appeal they could have had to the Jewish people. ► Most of them retreated to the city of Caesarea, which remained a Greek city (and later would become a Roman city). They were just not part of the Jewish people any longer.”

81 Elias Bickerman From Ezra to the Last of the Maccabees ► “Judaism was able to enrich itself with new and foreign ideas and to be saved from the mummification that overtook the religion of the Egyptians, for example, which shut itself off from Hellenism completely. ► The Maccabees preserved the Judaism of the Greek period from both dissolution and ossification. It is through their deeds that the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob could and did remain our God.”


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