Presentation on theme: "The Persian Gulf and Interior."— Presentation transcript:
1The Persian Gulf and Interior. Chapter 19The Persian Gulf and Interior.
2Section 1 Objectives: Natural Resources ●Identify the landforms and rivers of the Persian Gulf area and interior Southwest Asia.●Explain the effect the region’s geography has on its climates and biomes.●Identify the region’s natural resources.
4What area, “famous as the cradle of civilization”, is located here? Mesopotamia Greek for “between the rivers”Tigris and Euphrates, flow into one channel known as the Shatt al Arab.
5Where is the extension of the Himalayans located? What is it called? Location : Northeastern AfghanistanName: Hindu KushThis is where bin Laden was hiding.Picture of Hindu Kush
6Where are the more humid areas of this region located? Why? Elburz Mountains & Caspian SeaZagros MountainsDue to the orographic effect areas on the windward sides of mountains get more moisture allowing more plants to grow.LocationWhy
7In the summer what happens with the temperature in the desert? In the day it can climb as high as 114F & the night time temperature can be as low as 30F. This is due to a lack of moisture in the air
8What is plant life like in this region? GrassesShrubsTrees in dry river bendsUsually are small and thinPlants have had to adapt to limited amounts of water, by storing water.
9What are some animals that once roamed this area? GazellesWild goatsWild CamelsWild DonkeysHyenasLeopardsLionsTigersName 3 more reptiles.Lions having lunch!
10What are animals that are there now? Domesticated CamelsDomesticated DonkeysLizardsPoisonous Snakes
11What are the 2 most important resources in this area? Oil and Water.Why are these so important to the region?
12How does this region get freshwater? Rivers (Tigris & Euphrates)CanalsRainOasisWells( ground & fossil water)Saltwater (Desalinization)This is expensive
13Section 2 Objectives●Describe how peoples, empires, and Islam have affected the history of the Persian Gulf area and interior Southwest Asia.●Identify the major features of the region’s cultures.
14Who controlled this region before the Persians & Greeks? Persian Empire550BC Marked the beginning of their occupationConquered Mesopotamia & Asia Minor with the use of troops and advanced weaponsLocated the center of their empire in Persia or what is now present day Iran.
15Give vital facts about Islam Founded by MuhammadAt the age of 40, while in Mecca, the Angel Gabriel to him to preach the word of Allah (God)Wrote down the message in a book known as the Koran (Qur’an)He was forced from Mecca & would later settle in MedinaAfter his death, Islam would spread to Spain in less that 100 years
17Trace the road to independence. 1200’s Mongols control Central Asia, Afghanistan, Iraq, & Iran1500’s Safavids control Iran & Afghanistan, this was know as the golden age of Persian Culture and lasted until the 1700’s. Ottoman Turks controlled Mesopotamia & the East and West coasts of the Arabian Peninsula until the early 1900’s1800’s British & Russian empires tried to control Iran & Afghanistan
18Trace the road to independence. 1900’s Iran & Afghanistan become independentBritain takes over the area formerly controlled by the Ottoman Turks.1932 Iraq and Saudi Arabia emerge as independent countries Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirate, & Yemen become independent
19Group Location Language Arabs Persian Gulf and Interior SW Asia Arabic KurdsIran, Iraq, Syria, TurkeyKurdishPersianIranFarsiBaloch, Bakhtiari, & HazaraLanguage similar to FarsiTurkmenNortheastern IranTurkic
20Group Location Language Azeri Northwestern Iran Turkic Qashqai Southern Zagro MntsPashtunScattered across the regionPashtuTajiksNorthern Afghanistan & Eastern Iran
21Section 3 Objectives●Identify the activities on which the region’s economies depend.●Describe the region’s cities.●Explain some important issues in the region today.
22What economic activities are prominent in this region? PetroleumAgricultureNomadic HerdingManufacturingMain source of income for the area.Saudi Arabia produces 8.25 million barrels a day.Some subsistence farming, but mainly specialized farms (flowers shipped to Europe)“Bedouins”Trade animal products and hand crafts. Many are leaving to take jobs on farms and in the cityBuilding materials, food products, & household supplies
23Contrast the new & old parts of the cities in this region. Life is much like centuries ago1 & 2 story buildingsNarrow twisting streets, not for carsBazaars for shoppingCrafts sold in marketsNeighborhoods centered around churches or mosquesModern buildingsAir Conditioning in buildingsShopping mallsWide streets and highwaysTraffic jamsPeople live in high rise apartmentsFast food and gas stations on most streetsOldNew
24What is OPEC and what does it stand for? Organization of Petroleum Exporting CountriesInfluences oil prices by controlling supplyIncrease or decrease can affect economies around the world by causing the price and value of oil to rise and fall based on supply.
25What type of government does Saudi Arabia have? Conservative Monarchy defends Arab traditions and economic success have kept them in power.
26How has Iran’s government changed? Rebellion against monarchy to a theocracy (ruled by religion)Now controlled by the ayatollahs religious leaders of high authority
27What type of government did Iraq have? Dictatorship controlled by Saddam Hussein. After his capture and death was changed to a democracy, with a freely elected president
28What military encounters has Iraq been in recently? 1980 Invaded Iran to take over is rich oil fields. 10 years later no one had won.1990 Iraq invades Kuwait to control oil fields1991 group of countries led by the US drove Iraq back out or Kuwait2000’s US over took and helped the new government with training a new military and improving the infrastructure.
30Give a summary of the brief history of Afghanistan Ethnic rivalries & competing political factions have fought each other since the 1970’s1990 Taliban came to power till now.
31What has the Taliban done in Afghanistan? Destroyed Buddhist statues because their were seen as an affront to Islam, most Muslims disagreeUse their interpretation of Islam to limit the role of women in societyLimit access to education for women & banned them from the workplace
32What things are changing in the region? Education for everyoneInfluence of foreign culturesOil becoming an increasingly valuable resourceCommunication technology expanding making information more widely available