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The Persian Gulf and Interior.

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1 The Persian Gulf and Interior.
Chapter 19 The Persian Gulf and Interior.

2 Section 1 Objectives: Natural Resources
●Identify the landforms and rivers of the Persian Gulf area and interior Southwest Asia. ●Explain the effect the region’s geography has on its climates and biomes. ●Identify the region’s natural resources.

3 List all the counties discussed in this chapter.

4 What area, “famous as the cradle of civilization”, is located here?
Mesopotamia  Greek for “between the rivers” Tigris and Euphrates, flow into one channel known as the Shatt al Arab.

5 Where is the extension of the Himalayans located? What is it called?
Location : Northeastern Afghanistan Name: Hindu Kush This is where bin Laden was hiding. Picture of Hindu Kush

6 Where are the more humid areas of this region located? Why?
Elburz Mountains & Caspian Sea Zagros Mountains Due to the orographic effect areas on the windward sides of mountains get more moisture allowing more plants to grow. Location Why

7 In the summer what happens with the temperature in the desert?
In the day it can climb as high as 114F & the night time temperature can be as low as 30F. This is due to a lack of moisture in the air

8 What is plant life like in this region?
Grasses Shrubs Trees in dry river bends Usually are small and thin Plants have had to adapt to limited amounts of water, by storing water.

9 What are some animals that once roamed this area?
Gazelles Wild goats Wild Camels Wild Donkeys Hyenas Leopards Lions Tigers Name 3 more reptiles. Lions having lunch!

10 What are animals that are there now?
Domesticated Camels Domesticated Donkeys Lizards Poisonous Snakes

11 What are the 2 most important resources in this area?
Oil and Water. Why are these so important to the region?

12 How does this region get freshwater?
Rivers (Tigris & Euphrates) Canals Rain Oasis Wells( ground & fossil water) Saltwater (Desalinization) This is expensive

13 Section 2 Objectives ●Describe how peoples, empires, and Islam have affected the history of the Persian Gulf area and interior Southwest Asia. ●Identify the major features of the region’s cultures.

14 Who controlled this region before the Persians & Greeks?
Persian Empire 550BC  Marked the beginning of their occupation Conquered Mesopotamia & Asia Minor with the use of troops and advanced weapons Located the center of their empire in Persia or what is now present day Iran.

15 Give vital facts about Islam
Founded by Muhammad At the age of 40, while in Mecca, the Angel Gabriel to him to preach the word of Allah (God) Wrote down the message in a book known as the Koran (Qur’an) He was forced from Mecca & would later settle in Medina After his death, Islam would spread to Spain in less that 100 years

16 Islam history and teachings

17 Trace the road to independence.
1200’s  Mongols control Central Asia, Afghanistan, Iraq, & Iran 1500’s  Safavids control Iran & Afghanistan, this was know as the golden age of Persian Culture and lasted until the 1700’s. Ottoman Turks controlled Mesopotamia & the East and West coasts of the Arabian Peninsula until the early 1900’s 1800’s  British & Russian empires tried to control Iran & Afghanistan

18 Trace the road to independence.
1900’s  Iran & Afghanistan become independent Britain takes over the area formerly controlled by the Ottoman Turks. 1932  Iraq and Saudi Arabia emerge as independent countries  Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirate, & Yemen become independent

19 Group Location Language Arabs Persian Gulf and Interior SW Asia Arabic
Kurds Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey Kurdish Persian Iran Farsi Baloch, Bakhtiari, & Hazara Language similar to Farsi Turkmen Northeastern Iran Turkic

20 Group Location Language Azeri Northwestern Iran Turkic Qashqai
Southern Zagro Mnts Pashtun Scattered across the region Pashtu Tajiks Northern Afghanistan & Eastern Iran

21 Section 3 Objectives ●Identify the activities on which the region’s economies depend. ●Describe the region’s cities. ●Explain some important issues in the region today.

22 What economic activities are prominent in this region?
Petroleum Agriculture Nomadic Herding Manufacturing Main source of income for the area. Saudi Arabia produces 8.25 million barrels a day. Some subsistence farming, but mainly specialized farms (flowers shipped to Europe) “Bedouins” Trade animal products and hand crafts. Many are leaving to take jobs on farms and in the city Building materials, food products, & household supplies

23 Contrast the new & old parts of the cities in this region.
Life is much like centuries ago 1 & 2 story buildings Narrow twisting streets, not for cars Bazaars for shopping Crafts sold in markets Neighborhoods centered around churches or mosques Modern buildings Air Conditioning in buildings Shopping malls Wide streets and highways Traffic jams People live in high rise apartments Fast food and gas stations on most streets Old New

24 What is OPEC and what does it stand for?
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Influences oil prices by controlling supply Increase or decrease can affect economies around the world by causing the price and value of oil to rise and fall based on supply.

25 What type of government does Saudi Arabia have?
Conservative Monarchy  defends Arab traditions and economic success have kept them in power.

26 How has Iran’s government changed?
Rebellion against monarchy to a theocracy (ruled by religion) Now controlled by the ayatollahs  religious leaders of high authority

27 What type of government did Iraq have?
Dictatorship controlled by Saddam Hussein. After his capture and death was changed to a democracy, with a freely elected president

28 What military encounters has Iraq been in recently?
1980  Invaded Iran to take over is rich oil fields. 10 years later no one had won. 1990  Iraq invades Kuwait to control oil fields 1991  group of countries led by the US drove Iraq back out or Kuwait 2000’s  US over took and helped the new government with training a new military and improving the infrastructure.

29 Desert Shield

30 Give a summary of the brief history of Afghanistan
Ethnic rivalries & competing political factions have fought each other since the 1970’s 1990  Taliban came to power till now.

31 What has the Taliban done in Afghanistan?
Destroyed Buddhist statues because their were seen as an affront to Islam, most Muslims disagree Use their interpretation of Islam to limit the role of women in society Limit access to education for women & banned them from the workplace

32 What things are changing in the region?
Education for everyone Influence of foreign cultures Oil becoming an increasingly valuable resource Communication technology expanding making information more widely available

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