5NOMADIC SOCIETY AND ECONOMY Nomadic peoplesPastoral nomadsOrganized into clans with related languagesCentral Asia's steppesGood for grazing, little rain, few riversNomads and their animals; few settlementsNomads drove their herds in migratory cyclesLived mostly on animal productsAlso produced millet, pottery, leather goods, ironNomads and settled peoplesA love, hate relationship of war and tradeSought trade, exchangeNomads maintained caravan routesFluidity of classes in nomadic societyTwo social classes: nobles and commonersAutonomous clans and tribesReligions:Originally: mostly shamanisticLater: Buddhism, Nestorian ChristianityBy tenth century, Turks became MuslimMilitary organizationKhan organized confederation of individual tribes for expansionOutstanding cavalry forces, formidable military power
6Turkish empires in Persia, Anatolia, and India Turks in Central AsiaLong history of interaction with ChineseKhitans, Oighurs and others were TurksMuch intermixing with MongolsOguz migrated from Mongolia to Central AsiaTurks created a state, society long before Islam arrivedCo-existed with Muslims, later convertedSome tribes Migrated into S. W. AsiaSaljuq (or Seljuk) Turks and the Abbasid empireLived in Central Asia, borders of Abbasid, 8-10th centuryConverted to Islam in 10th century CEInvaded S.W. Asia, defeat Byzantines, AbbasidsServed in Abbasid armies as mameluksOvershadowed Abbasid caliphs by the mid-11th centuryExtended Turkish rule to Syria, Palestine, other partsSaljuq Turks and the Byzantine empireMigrated to Anatolia, early 11th centuryDefeated Byzantine army at Manzikert in 1071Transformed Anatolia into an Islamic societyCrusades launched to stop Seljuk advanceGhaznavid TurksDominated northern IndiaCreated Turkish Sultanate of Delhi
8Chinggis Khan and the Mongol Empire Chinggis Khan ("universal ruler")Unified Mongol tribes by alliance, conquestsMerged into empireMongol political organizationOrganized new military unitsBroke up tribal affiliationsChose officials based on talent, loyaltyCapital at KarakorumMongol conquest of northern ChinaOverran Xi-XiaJurchen (Qin, Khaitan) in north China in 1211Controlled North China to Yangzte by 1220South China was still ruled by the Song dynastyTowns which resisted were used as examplesLater towns simply surrenderedMongol conquest of PersiaWanted trade and diplomatic relations with PersiaKhwarazim ruler murdered envoysMongol force invaded Khwarazim empireMongol forces destroyed Persian cities and qanatChinggis died in 1227, laid foundation for a mighty empireMongol rule was generally tolerant.Capital of his empire at KarakorumSummoned intellectuals from his conquered kingdomsOffered religious toleration to Confucians, Buddhists, Daoists, and MuslimsAdministrators drawn from examples in Islamic and Chinese worldsFormulated a legal code intended to end tribal and clan divisionsTrade and cultural exchange flourished.Mongol heirs divide into four regional empiresSent to another tribe when he was 9 in order to be married when he turned 12 (worked almost like a slave during this time). He left when he heard his father had been killed. He and his family were abandoned by their tribe because they did not want the 9 year old in charge. Would later consolidate his power and take his tribe over.
9Mongol War Machine Mongol warriors Mongol armies Excellent horsemenAccomplished archersRaised in the saddle and able to hunt as childrenMongol armiesEntirely cavalryDepended on speed and mobility in assaultsChinggis Khan reorganized the tribal armiesUnits called tumens containing 10,000 menEach unit command by separate leaders-not tribalSun-units called ordas; word “horde” in EnglishCommunication by flag, drumAble to cover vast distances in one dayBased on the hunting formations of the MongolsEach army dividedInto heavy cavalry, light cavalryLightly armored scouts preceding the main forcesSevere disciplineSpies and informers produced information, mapsLater Mongol forces used gunpowder, artillery
11Mongol Empires after Chinggis Khan Khubilai Khan rules Yuan Dynasty in ChinaChinggis Khan's grandson, consolidated Mongol rule in ChinaConquest of southern ChinaSong Dynasty fell in 1276, Yuan Dynasty founded in 1279Unsuccessful conquests of Vietnam, Burma, Java, and JapanMongol rule in ChinaNew hierarchy: Mongol and allies; northern Chinese; Southern ChineseCentral administration reserved for Mongols, alliesBrought foreign administrators into China and put them in chargeDismissed Confucian scholars; dismantled civil service examinationFavored merchants, cities, peasants over Chinese elitesMongol Social PoliciesWould not allow Mongols to settle in China nor Chinese in MongoliaOutlawed intermarriage between Mongols and ChinesePromoted Buddhism, supported Daoists, Muslims, and ChristiansForbade Chinese from learning the Mongol languageMongol ruling elite adopted Lamaist Buddhism of TibetMongol women refused to adopt Chinese customs, retained influential statusMongols in S.W. and Central AsiaDestroyed many cities, captured Baghdad in 1258Destroyed agricultural lands, irrigations systems of Iraq, IranLands fell to the Ilkhanate of Persia; Khanate Of ChaghadaiPersians served as ministers, governors, local officialsMongols only cared about taxes and orderIlkhan converted to Islam, 1295; massacres of Christians and JewsBaiburs, the Mameluk Sultan of Egypt defeated Mongol invasion of AfricaThe Mongol Impact on Europe and the Islamic WorldEuropeans altered military organizationAdopt use of gunpowderMongol conquests facilitated trade across the steppesMongol armies may also have transmitted the plague infection
12Mongols and Europe Russia in Bondage Russia fell under rule of the Khanate of the Golden HordeMongol conquest of Russia reduced the Russian princes to tribute-payers.Payments fell heavily on the peasantsPeasants reduced to serfdom.Some Russian cities (Moscow), recovered fortunes by increased tradeRise of MoscowMoscow profited as tribute collector for Mongol overlords.Head of the Orthodox Church in Russia selected Moscow as his capital.In 1380, the princes of Moscow turned against the MongolsLed an alliance that defeated the Mongols at the battle of Kulikova.Victory broke the hold of the Mongols on RussiaNomads continued to make raids into the 15th century.Mongol conquest of Russia ensured changesCentral position of Moscow and the Orthodox ChurchChanges in Russian military organizationRevised the political concepts of Russian rulersMongol dominance cut Russia off from western Europe both politically and culturally.Mongol Incursions and the Retreat from EuropeFirst Christian reaction to Mongol invasions was positive.They were convinced Mongols were potential allies against the MuslimsAssault on Russia proved that optimism was a miscalculationSuccessful conquest of Hungary alerted Europe to danger of MongolsMongol hordes withdrew to Asia to resolve the succession crisisLithuanians defeated Mongol returnEarly attempts were not good for Christians. When Pope Innocent IV tried to get them on his side. They replied submit or die. Nothing more came of it. Other attempts were made but when Ghazan of Persia became Islamic rest of Mongals began to change.
14The Mongols and Eurasia Results of Mongols ConquestsConquest destroyed all existing political structures in conquered regionEmpire created the largest zone of continuous rule in historyEmpire created a period of peace, prosperity in controlled regionsDisrupted those states it did not conquerFacilitated rise of new states in vacuumForced innovation amongst existing peoples to resist MongolsMongols were a tribute empire: trade was often a biproductThe Mongols and tradeWorked to secure trade routes, ensure safety of merchantsOrganized protected trade caravansFormed merchant/trade associations with insuranceElaborate courier network with relay stations (postal stations)Universal passes, protection given to merchantsOrdas acted as police, protection for travelersMaintained order for merchants, ambassadors, missionariesUnited Eastern Europe, SW Asia, S. Asia, E. Asian tradeDiplomatic missionsMongol empires maintained diplomatic communicationsUsed foreigners especially Christians, Muslims as diplomatsThreats were backed with forceEstablished relations with Korea, Vietnam, India, EuropeResettlementMongols needed skilled artisans, educated individualsResettled them in different locations to provide servicesUighur Turks served as clerks, secretaries, administratorsArab, Persian Muslims served Mongols far from homelandsChinese served as military specialistsKoreans served as naval specialistsChristian Nestorians served as emissaries, merchantsSkilled artisans often sent to Karakorum
15Exchanges During the Mongol Era FromEuropeSouthwest AsiaSouth AsiaEast AsiaHoneyHorsesGlasswareSlavesTextilesRugsIncenseFinished iron productsFinished gold productsSpicesGemsPerfumesGunpowderFirearmsRocketsMagnetic compassPorcelainSilkMaritime TechnologyPaper MakingPrintingTeaChristian missionariesItalian merchantsEuropean diplomatsMuslim merchantsNestorian merchantsMuslim diplomatsIndian merchantsIndian diplomatsBuddhist religious objectsChinese bureaucratsChinese artists, artisansEast Asian diplomatsSugarcaneBlack DeathIntellectual Exchanges of Ideas, Art, Architecture, Knowledge was constant
16Decline of the Mongols in Persia and China Major Reason for DeclineMongols too few in number, settled populations massiveAny interaction resulted in acculturationAny intermarriage resulted in loss of identityMongol rule resentedSettled populations began to use firearmsCollapse of the Persian IkhanateExcessive spending, overexploitation reduced revenuesDestruction of qanats reduced agriculture productivityFailure of the Ilkhan's paper moneyIntermarriage of Mongols with local populationsFactional struggle plagued the Mongol leadershipLast ruler died without an heir; the Ilkhanate collapsedDecline of the Yuan dynastyPaper money issued by the Mongol rulers lost valuePower struggles, assassinations, civil war after 1320sBubonic plague in southwest China in 1330sSpread through Asia and EuropeDepopulation, labor shortage undermined MongolsBy 1368, Chinese drove the Mongols back to the steppesSurviving Mongol khanatesThe khanate of Chaghatai continued in central AsiaGolden Horde survived until the mid-sixteenth centuryEstimated 25 million Chinese died
17Tamerlane the Whirlwind (1336-1404) Timur the Lame conquerorSelf-made; rose from poverty, to power in 1360Established capital in SamarkandTamerlane's conquestsUnited tribes in Central AsiaConquered Persia, AfghanistanNext attacked the Golden HordeEnd of 14th c., invaded northern IndiaKilled 100,000 people at Battle of DelhiDestroyed vast regionsLaid waste much agricultural landRaids into S.W. Asia, Ottomans, RussiaGovernance of EmpireRuled through tribal leadersRelied on existing bureaucrats to collect taxesUsed terror as weapon (forced his soldiers to bring him the heads of 200 infidels each)Not interested in rule, would rather plunderCollapse of Nomads following his deathHeirs struggled, divided empireLater descendants invaded IndiaGrandson established Mughal EmpireChina was last civilization threatedChinese converted Mongols to Buddhism as preventionManchus overthrew Ming in 17th century for last nomadic invasionRussia conquers Steppe and Central AsiaEmployed steppe nomads (cossacks) to conquer steppeIn 19th century, Russia conquered Central AsiaBaghdad- After the capture of the city, 20,000 of its citizens - even Muslims - were massacred. Timur ordered that every soldier should return with at least two severed human heads to show him (many warriors were so scared they killed prisoners captured earlier in the campaign just to ensure they had heads to present to Timur). Timur's uncharacteristic (for the time) concern for his troops inspired fierce loyalty, he did not pay them. Their only incentives were from looting captured territory — a bounty that included horses, women, precious metals and stones; in other words whatever they, or their newly captured slaves, could carry away
19SAMARKAND INSCRIPTION 'The grave of the Sultan of the World, Emir Timur Guragan. May Allah accept his loyalty and allow him entry to Paradise. By order of the Sultan...'
20The foundation of the Ottoman empire TurksNomadic Turks migrated to Persia and AnatoliaOttoman Turks settled on Byzantine borderEstablished warrior society raiding ByzantinesOsmanCharismatic leader of clanCarved out a state in northwest AnatoliaClaimed independence from Seljuks, 1299Ottomans Conquer the Balkans in 1350sRaided into Europe at Gallipoli (Dardanelles)Conquered Bulgaria, SerbiaPushed into Greece, Defeats Hungarian crusadeTemporarily stopped by Timur’s invasionMehmed IISacked Constantinople in 1453Made Constantinople capital as IstanbulAbsorbed remainder of Byzantine empireDuring 16th centuryExtended empire to southwest AsiaIn southeast EuropeInto north Africa